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Full text of "Chamonix and the range of Mont Blanc [microform]; a guide"

MASTER 

NEGA TI VE 

NO. 92-80449-10 



MICROFILMED 1993 
COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY LIBRARIES/NEW YORK 



1^ 



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AUTHOR: 



WHYMPER, EDWARD 



TITLE: 



CHAMONIX AND THE 
RANGE OF MONT BLANC 



PLACE: 



LONDON 

DA TE : 

1896 



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AND THE RANGE OF 



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MONT B T 



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A GUIDE BY 



EDWARD WHYMPER 



WITH ILLUSTRATIONS & MAPS 



LONDON 
JOHN MUEEAY, ALBEMARLE STREET 

1896 



AU rights ore reserved 



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Printed by R. & R. Clakk, Limited, Edinburgh. 



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>v3. 



INTRODUCTIOX. 



In this little book I emleavour to give in a small compass informa- 
"tion which some may desire to have at home, and that others will 
wish for on the spot. It deals l)oth with past and present. The 
historical portion is followed l)y the topographical ; and, at the end, 
ill the Apijendix, there are lists of Guides, the 'Tarifs' of Excur- 
sions, and Tables of the Peaks and Passes (arranged alphabetically), 
etc. Whilst aiming at conciseness, I have tried to avoid the ex- 
treme condensation which, in some Guide-books, produces a feeling 
of bewihlerment.^ 

The Illustrations, for the most i)art, are sul>jects which have not 
been engraved before, and the authorities for them have all been 
obtained expressly for this work. I am indebted to the Paris, Lyons, 
and Me<literranean Railway Company for the l)asis of the Plan of 
riiamonix ; to MM. the Chief Guides of Chamonix and Courmayeur 
for assistance in the preparation of the Lists of Guides ; to the late 
Mr. C. D. Cunningham and Mr. J. Eccles for useful information ; 
and to Messrs. W. E. Davidson, F. C. Grove, Horace Walker and 
J. W. Wicks for tracing their respective routes up the Aiguille du 
Dm, the Aiguille de Bionnassay, :Mont Blanc by the Brenva Glacier, 
and the Pic Sans Nom. 

The following hints may be of some service to those who visit 
Chamonix and Mont Blanc for the lirst time. 

Expenses. — The cost of living is moderate throughout the Mont 
Blanc <listrict in general, and in not a few of the Uoteh pens ionna ires 
are taken on very favourable terms. More will l>e got for money 
by settling down at a few i)laces for a length of time than by con- 
stantly moving from one hotel to another ; and there are several 
spots which are excellent centres, besides Chamonix. At Champex 
and in the Salvan district prices are unusually low. 

Money. — Take some Xaiwleons (20-franc pieces), a small quantity 
of French silver for wayside expenses, ancl the rest in sovereigns 
and £5 Bank of Englan<l notes. The notes can be changed at 
(ieneva, Chamonix, Courmayeur and Martigny. Sovereigns go every- 

1 This, for example, is a line from a well-known Guide-book, ' made in Germany ' 

"Hotel de Zurich (PI. h ; E, 5), R., L., 6z A. 3^, D. :ih fr. ; Cioogxe (PI. i ; F, 4)," ' 









n: /-• 




55 



IV 



CHAMOXIX AND MONT BLANC. 



where, except at the very smallest places. En-hsh silver is not 
understood, and will not pass. Beware of small Italian silver coins, 
which are suppose<l to he withdrawn from circnlation. 

Clothing.— AVoollen ooods and Hannels are most snitahle. It 
answers l»etter to have several chan-es of thin <;arments than to he 
laovided with a few thick ones. Mountain-boots should be taken 
out. and got into use before starting. The unilii^g is best done on 
the spot. The nails usually supplied by English bootmakers are not 
adapted for mountain-walking. 

Rope If excursions are contemplated on which it will be desir- 
able to "use rope, it will be best to take rope out. There is none 
in the market equal to the ]Manilla rope which is specially manu- 
factured 1)y ]]uckingham, which mifjht to be identified (amongst 
other ways) by a red thread woven among the strands. It is to be 
regretted that there are spurious imitations abroad, in which this 
red thread is fraudulently copied. Beware of them. 

Ice-axes of good quality and at moderate prices can be obtained 
at the village of les Bossons, near Chamonix, from Simond Bros., 
the makers. 

Soap.— There is a great opening for soap in Alpine regions, and 
at the present time it pays to carry a cake. 

Baggage.— The minimum of baggage sometimes means the maxi- 
mum of comfort. Anyone who has no more than he himself can 
transport conveniently, can travel more quickly, pleasantly, and 
economically than those who exceed that limit. On the other hand, 
innkeepers 'look with suspicion upon travellers with little or no 
baoo-a-e, and are apt to thrust them into the very worst rooms. 

LiK^^oaoe can l)e conveniently and securely sent in advance to 
Chamomx by the South - Eastern Railway or by the London, Chatham 
and Dover Railway. It will probably not he opened, or tampered 
with en route. In returning from Chamonix, I do not recommend 
travellers to send luggage, apart from themselves, by the Diligence 
Company (Societe anonyme de la correspondance des Chemins de ter 
Paris-Lyon-Mediterranekn, and Jura-Simplon). 

Passports should be carried. Though a prolonged tour may l^e 
made in France, Switzerland, and Italy without finding any use for 
them, occasions sometimes arise when they are desirable or necessary, 
and it is best to be on the safe side. 

Language.— French is the language for Chamonix and the Range 
of Mont Blanc. It is recognized at Chamonix that there is such a 
lan<aia<'e as English, and not a few Chamoniards speak English, but 
theTr n'atural modesty sometimes restrains them from exercising their 
accomplishments. Almost as much French as Italian is spoken at 
Courmayeur. 

Custom-houses.— In going to Chamonix via Anneinasse one avoids 
the examination which would occur if one went ria Geneva. In 
returning' to Paris direct from Chamonix vio Annemasse, l)aggage in 



i 



INTRODUCTION. v 

the traveller's i)ossession is examined at Bellegarde, and registered 
luggage is examined at Paris. When jn'oceeding from Chamonix into 
Switzerlan<l by the Tete Noire or via Sal van, a douanier is encountered 
at Chatelard. Travellers by the Col de Balme, by the Col du Bon- 
homme and de la Seigne, or by the high snow passes, escape visita- 
tion. (Jf late years, there has ))een an increasing fussiness at Sn'iss 
Custom-houses, and duty is now often levied or claimed at them upon 
articles which formerly passed free and without question. 

Maps. — Tlie folding Map of the Chain of Mont Blanc, at the end 
of the volume, in conjunction with the plans in the text, will be 
found sufficient for most purposes. Those w^ho desire greater detail 
must turn to the Government Maps of France, Switzerlaml and Italy. 

1. The map by Capt. Mieulet, scale -^-i^-^jj. This gives the central portion of 
the Range, and, as far as it goes, includes the Italian as well as the French 
side, hut it does not include the two ends of the Range. It is clearly executed, 
ujK)!! the whole accurate, and is perhaps the most generally useful of the maps 
that are mentioned, i 

2. Map of the Etat- Major franyais, scale ^^y^^nr, sheets 160 bis, and 160 
ter. These sheets embrace the route from Annemasse to Chamonix, and give 
the French side of the southern end of the Range of Mont Blanc, which is 
not included in Mieulet's map. They do not, however, give any part of the 
Swiss or Itiilian side. The sheets are not well executed, and the coi^ies in 
circulation are badly printed. 

3. The Swiss end of the Range is given in Sheet XXII of the Carte Dufour, 
scale ytj^jVittj' This sheet is >)eautifully executed, but it is now almost super- 
seded by 

4. The Topographische Atlas der Schweiz, scale s^^^^j^^, published under the 
superintendence of Col. Siegfried. A map (made up from several of the sheets 
of this atlas) has heen issued entitled Martigny — CM. St. Bernard — Combin, 
which eml)races all the Swiss end of the Range. Price five francs. This is, 
after Mieulet's, the most useful map to possess. 

5. For the Italian side of the Range of Mont Blanc, consult Sheets 27, 28 
of the Carta Italia, scale --^^^^. This map is badly executed, and many of 
the names and heights can scarcely be made out. 

All of the above Maps can be obtained through Mr. Stanford, 26, 
27 Cocksjjur St., Charing Cross, London, or of Messrs. Georg, 10 
Corraterie, Geneva, but they are not always kept in stock. The 
Map of the Chain of Mont Blanc by Mr. A. Adams-Reilly, from an 
actual survey in 1863-4, ichich embraces the whole of the range ^ u}>on 
a scale of ^^i^xnr> ^^^^ ^^^o since been out of print, and is difficult to 
procure. 

Upon engaging Guides. — Though no recommendations are given in 
this Ixjok, 1 cannot refrain from referring to two of my oldest friends 
at Chamonix, the brothers P>ederic and Michel Payot. M. Frederic 
Payot earned my gratitude in 1865, by volunteering his assistance at 
a time when I was jilaced in a great difficulty. Since then he has 
risen to be Gui«le Chef thrice, and has ascended Mont Blanc more 
than a hundred times. His brother Michel shewed his capacity at 

1 The full title of this map is Massif du Mont Blanc, extrait des niintttes de la carte 
de France', leve par Mr. Mieulet Capne. d'Etat Major, publie par ordre de S. E. le 
Mai. liandon, Ministre de la Guerre. Paris. 1S65. 



1 



vi CHAMOXIX AND MO XT BLANC. 

an early a^e, and has, I believe, made more ' first ascents ' in the 
Kano-e oi Mont Blanc than any other jinide on the Kegister (see 

page 53). 

There is goo<l material amongst tjie Guides of Ghamonix, hut it 
goes without saying that in a body numbering more than 300, which 
includes the greater part of the aide-bodied males between the ages 
of 23 and 60, there are men of various capacities and different charac- 
ters. The recommendations that I should make in regard to the 
choice of guides at Chamonix and Courmayeur are just those which 
I would make in regard to guides at any other places. 1. liefore 
engaging a Gui<le, make enquirj- of his antecedents from those who 
know. 2. Avoid men notorious for accidents. 3. For difficult or 
long excursions give preference to men of middle age rather than to 
the youngest or oldest. 

I * do not attempt to decide whether a traveller should employ 
guides. Some persons are competent to carry out by themselves 
all the excursions that are mentioned. A larger number, however, 
are not equal to this. Inasmuch as I am unacquainted with the 
various capacities of my readers, I am unable to say whether they 
need not, or should employ guides. Everyone must decide that for 
himself.^ 

The Societe Suisse des Hdteliers has recently jmblislied a sniall 
book containing the following remarks, which shew the views of 
SAviss Hotelkeepers upon several matters of general interest. - 

Ordering Rooms in advance. — It is said that "A rather remarkable 
confusion of ideas prevails among the travelling i)ublic as to this 
frequently occurring questicm, which, in the height of the season 
especially, causes numerous unpleasant discussions." 

'•In a great measure this is owing to the advice contained in travellers' 
guide-books, advice, which, we are willing to admit, is given in good faith, and 
with the intention of guarding the interest both of traveller and of landlord. 
This advice is to the effect, 'that rooms should be ordered in advance 
especially when one is due to arrive at a late hour.' But owing to the fact 
that in the respective notices in guide-books, neither the question of riijlit nor 
the eoiniiterriiil aspect of such ordering of apartments has been in the least 
discussed, there has arisen among a great many travellers the one-sided opinion, 
that ordering beforehand will, to a certain extent, ensure to the guest a claim, 
a power of disposal, without Innding him to any reciprocal obligation." 

Let us now examine the following considerations : 

1. Which traveller has the greater claim to accommodation, 

(a) the one who arrives early at the hotel, or (b) the one who by 
letter, by telegram, or only by telephone makes known his intention 

1 It is presupposed that m\ readers are acquainted with the various technical terms 
which are eniploved. If they should not be, I refer them to Scrambles amongxt the 
Alps. 

2 The book is published iu English, French and German editions, and is entitled 
The Hotels of Switzerlamt, Basle, IbJKJ. It ^ives a considerable amount of information, 
and discusses a varietv of topics,— from the reasonableness of wantiiiix hot dishes at 
ni^dit to bringing Monkeys into Hotels. It is said that " Kooms are often consideral)l\ 
soiled and damaged by such uncouth inhabitants." 



IXTRODUCTIOX. 



Vll 



\ 



to put up there, and either arrives late at night or does not even 
arrive at all ; whereas the former by his timely presence appears to 
be the better customer. 
2. An agreement, a contract in which claims and counter-claims are stipulated, 
must be concluded by at least tvo parties. 

A one-sided order from the traveller does not give him the slightest 
leyid claim to consideration, for in such a case there is lacking : 
(a) a declaration on the part of the second party (the landlord) that 
he mi( and vill accept the order ; (b) the tracellers ijuorontee that 
he will fulfil the obligation entered into by giving the order. 

With the increase in the number of travellers there is also an 
increase in the number of those who believe they may bind the hotel- 
keeper by ordering apartments in advance, without being themselves in 
any way bound by such an order. 

Hence the efficiency of such orders is diminishing daily, and the 
lamllord is all the less to be blamed if he first attends to the guests 
that have actually arrived, and refuses to comply with any orders from 
persons unknown to him, unless recommended l)y trustworthy parties. 

A prepaid re^dy seems, in a certain measure, to increase the 
probability of having an order for rooms attended to ; it may, accord- 
ing to the more or less definite answer of the landlord, bring about, 
if not a legal, yet a moral obligation on his part. Still even then it 
cannot be said to be binding, as an effectual guarantee is wanting on 
the 2)art of the traveller for the fulfilment of the obligation entered 
into, which alone can give the order the character of an agreement. *i 

Ordering rooms for arrivals early in the Morning. 

"If the room has been reserved for a guest overnight in consequence of his 
order, he should onlv be charged for it once ; prodded he occupies it only 
during the day, and places it, by early notice, at the disposal of the landlord 
for the same evening. 

"Shotdd the latter be prevented from disposing of it for the ensuing night, 
the traveller must, especially during the season or when there is a great rush 
of visitors, be willing to pay for the room for t>ro nights, even though he may 
not have occupied the room for fully 24 hours." 

Landlord's responsibility. Depositing Objects of Value. 

"The traveller will do well, in order to avoid losses and disagreeable law- 
suits, to follow the advice of guide-books and the request of landlords, to hand 
over idl rohiabtes to the landlord personally.''' 

Payment by Coupons, and preparation of Hotel-bills. 

"If payment is to be by coupons, notice to this effect nivsl be given on 
arrival. The guest should not be surprised if such payments, especially at the 
last minute, and in the bustle of leaving, are rejected as insufficient. In this 
case also the traveller shotdd mind the advice to ask for. and examine, his bill 
in proper time, and to provide the means for paying it in time also. 

" Landlords, on the other hand, should always make out their accounts in 
good time, and not. as tmfortunately happens too often, allow travellers to ask 
for them repeatedly and in vain. This makes them ill-tempered and dis- 
trustfid." 

Some hotels at Chamonix are open throughout the year, and attempts 

1 To tliis ma\ be added that in the height of the season, in Sintzerland, the telegraph 
is nuich use<l, and one not unfrequently arrives before the telegram. 



Vlll 



CHAM ox IX AXD MO XT BLAXC. 



are bein«i- inatle to e:>tal)lish 'a winter season.' Snow there is seldom 
so much as a metre in depth in winter, tliough it is not unfrequently 
3 to 4 metres deep at Argentiere and le Tonr. So little snow fell in 
1893-4 that wlieeled vehicles were used all through the winter instead 
of sledges. But the Season at Chamonix may be said to begin with 
June and to end in Sejjtember, though the leather is sometimes tit 
for the majority of the excursions that can be made as early as the 
middle of May and for a little while into October. In 1895, there 
were a number of visitors by the middle of May, the Tete Noire was 
o[»en for carriages, and several of the lesser ascents were made. But, 
usually, tourists thin off at the l)eginning of October, and by the 
middle of the month only habitues and stragglers are left. Chefs, 
Portiers and Garcons are seen in unaccustomed places, and even 
invade the sacred benclies ' reserved for travellers ' — it is the ' end of 
the Season.' 

EDWAKD WHYMPER. 
Jh/>/, 1896. 




y 




CONii^NTS. 



CHAPTER I. 

ON THE EARLY HISTORY OF CHAMONIX AND MONT BLANC. 

FOUND VTION OF LE PrIEURE-CHAMONIARDS BOUGHT AND SOLD -HERESY, 
t?ORCERY VND CAPITAL PUNISHMENTS-SHARING THE PrOCEEDS-PERONETTE 
CH VRGED WITH EATING CHILDREN AT THE SyNAGOGUE-THE PRIORY CHANGES 
H VNDS ^ND THE NATIVES BEHAVE VIOLENTLY-CHAMONIX BECOMES ENFRAN- 

chised' vnd the Commune takes Possession-Early Visitors to Chamonix 
-Poco'cKE AND Windham-The Journey OF Peter Martel-The first 
Introduction of Mont Blanc to the World .... Pa^es 1-11 

CHAPTER 11. 

THE EARLIEST ATTEMPTS TO ASCEND MONT BLANC. 

The GLiCiERES become Famous-Horace Benedict de Saussure-Wonder- 
Fui Effect of Faith-De Saussure's Reward-First Attempts to ascend 
Mont Blvnc-The Natives complain of too much Heat-Marc Bourrit 
tries the St. Gervais Side-Some of his People get to the Foot of the 
Bosses du Dromadaire-Joint Expedition of Bourrit and De Saussure 
—A Race for the Summit decided in Favour of Chamonix . l--i/ 

CHAPTER III. 

THE FIRST ASCENT OF THE GREAT WHITE MOUNTAIN. 
J VCQUES BaLMAT discovers the AxaiEy PASSAGE AND NEARLY REACHES THE 

" Summit-Dr. Paccard and Balmat make the First Ascent-De :^aussure 
GIVES Instructions to level the Way-Recriminations-W ho is^^this 
Dr. Paccard ? 

CHAPTER IV. 

ASCENT OF MONT BLANC BY HORACE BENEDICT DE SAUSSURE. 
DE Saussure starts, led by Jacques Balmat-They camp on the Top of 

■ THE MONTVGNE DE LA CoTE-ARE AFFECTED BY 'RAREFACTION OF THE AlR 

-Stop v Second Night at the Edge of the Grand Plateau-Reach 
THE SUMMIT on Aug. 3. 1787-Pass a third Night out-Renco^tre 
with Bourrit 



X 



CHAMOXIX AXD MO XT BLAXC. 



COXTEXTS. 



XI 



CHAPTER V. 

CONTINUATION OF HISTORY OF CHAMONIX AND MONT BLANC. 

De Saussure's Followers — His Residence on the Col du Gi^:ant — His 
BarriMe J. v«rL.4AT£— Deviations from the Original Route up Mont 
Blanc— The 'Corridor' Route— Alexandre Dumas and Jacques Balmat 
— Auguste Balmat— Albert Smith and his Show— First Ascent ok Mont 
Blanc from St. Gervais— The Route by the ' Bosses '-Napoleon III 

VISITS CHAMONIX — M(^NT Bl-ANC INVADED— TaBLE OF ASCENTS PiXges 86-48 

CHAPTER VI. 

A CHAPTER OF ACCIDENTS. 

The Affaire //.43/£L — Accident on the Italian Side of the Col du 
Geant— Ambroise Couttet walks into a Crevasse — The Death of Mh. 
Young— Capt. Arkwright killed by an Avalanche — Mrs. Marke and 
Olivier Gay— Eleven Persons perish near the Summit— Death of Prof. 
Fedchenko— Mr. Marshall and Johann Fischer killed in a Crevasse 
—Prof. Balfour and Petrus perish on the Aig. Blanche de Peuteret 
— M. Guttinger killed by Falling Rocks— The Fate of the Abbk 
Chifflet — Brunod's End — Loss of Count Villanova and J. -J. 
Maquignaz — Herr Rothe killed on the Petit Plateau — Death of 
Mr. Nettleship— Poggi slain by a Falling Stone — Cum ani disappears 

—Dr. SCHNi-RDREHER'S END— THE DEATH OF EMILE REY . . . 49-G4 

CHAPTER VII. 

THE OBSERVATORIES UPON MONT BLANC. 

Camping on the Summit— Unhappy Experiences of Dr. Tyndall— A Cup 
OF Tea produces a Disastrous Effect — Hard Terms imposed on Mons. 
Vallot— Erection of the Vallot Observatory— Dr. Janssen's Project 
—Eiffel, of Tower Fame, consulted — Driving a Tunnel under the 
Summit — Strike of the Workmen — Discovery of a Prune-stone I — 

' TOURMENTES' IMPEDE THE WORK — ROTHE AND HIS GUIDE KILLED BY 

AN Avalanche— Sudden Death of Dr. Jacottet— No Rock is found, 
AND Dr. Janssen determines to build on Snow— The ' A'c/cuLfc''— Con- 
struction of the Observatory- Winter Temperatures— The Height of 
Mont Blanc ^'^"'"^ 

CHAPTER VIII. 

HOW TO GET TO CHAMONLX. 

Route to take — How to pronounce Chamonix— Times, Distances, and 
Fares— Paris to Cluses— Geneva— Road from Geneva to Chamonix— 
Annemasse— Bonneville— The Mole— Cluses— Sallanches—Le Fayet- 
Chatelard— Les Montkes— Chamonix '^-^ 



vi 



X 



/ 



CHAPTER IX. 

UPON CHAMONIX. 

Chvmonix-Its Population -Conseil Municipal-Revenue -Means taken 

TO MVKE IT A POPULAR RESORT-CoMMUNAL FoRESTS-HOTELS-BUREAU 

DEs Diiigences-La SOCIETY: DES Voitures-Shops-Bureau des Guides 
-Mmrie-The Church-Monument to Jacques Balmat-Path to the 
Brfvent- Schools -The Laiterie - The Sham - Monument to De 
Svussure-Path to the Montanvert-The English Church-Sulphur- 
ous Spring-Path to Mont Blanc-Forest Retreats . . Pages 91-i^« 

CHAPTER X. 

EXCURSIONS FROM CHAMONIX. 
Thf Montvnvert and the Mer de Glace-The Chapeau-Ascent of the 

BRFVFNT-THE FLtekRE-AlGUILLE DE LA FLORIAZ-ASCENT OF THE BUET 

-The Col de Bvlme and the T£te Noire-Fishing for Ecrevisses- 
Servoz-The Gorge of the Dioza-St. Gervais-Col de ^ozA- 

PWILLON BELLEVUE-ST. GERVAIS -GLACIER DES BoSSONS-GrOTTO DES 

Bossons-Balmat's House-Cascade du Dard- The Pierre Pointue- 

- PlIn DES AIGUILLES -PIERRE X l'EcHELLE-GRANDS MULETS-MoNTAGNE 

PE i..\ Cote 

CHAPTER XI. 

EXCURSIONS FROM THE MOXTAXVERT. 

T,. THF JVUDIN-BV THE Col. DU GtANT TO COCBMAVEUR-ThE S£B.4« OF 
THF GL.^C■,EU DU G£..NT-ASCENT OF THE A.CUILLE VF-RTE-.^IGUILLE D„ 
nLr THF (iRVN-D \ND PETIT DUU-PlC S.VNS NOM-AlGUIt.LE DC MOINE- 
L::"D!;o:TE;-LKs'coUKTES-AlOriEI,E A.D CV,I. DE THIOLET COE DF 
T,rFFRF-AlfiLII.I.E DE T.\LEFBE-COL DE PlEBBE Jo»EPH - COL DE 
Lc'IuX-a^. DES H,RO.DKI,.ES-COE DE. ^^^^^^^^^^^^^ 
MVLIFT-PIC DU TaCDL-AIGUILLE DU Ge.VNT- Aid II.LE DL MIDI 
AlCuinE DU PL.N--A.OUILLE DE BLAITlfeBE-AlGUII.LES DES CHARMOZ- 
luiuluE DE GRiPON-THE ..ITTI.K CHARMOZ- AlOUII.I.E AXD Co,._ DES 

Grands Montets 

CHAPTER XII. 

EXCURSIONS FROM LOGNAN. 
DU Chardonnet . . 



\ii CHAMONIX AND MONT BLANC. 

CHAPTER XIII. 

THE ASCENT OF MOXT BLANC. 

RocTEs— By the Bosses— By the Corridor— Times 'ascending and descend- 
ing—St. Gervais Route— Cost— Refuges— The Summit Ridge— Crevasses 
NEAR the Summit— View from the Summit— The Shadow of Mont Blanc 
—The Eiffel C4allery Pages 134-139 

CHAPTER XIV. 

THE TOUR OF MONT BLANC. 

The Baths of St. Gervais — The SovRCES—TnY. Catastrophe -Village of 

St. Gervais — Ascent of Mont Joly — Ascent of Aig. de Bionnassay — 

Bionnay— Contamines-Col de Miage-The Greatest Tumble on Record 

— XoTRE Dame de la Gorge — Xant Bourrant— Glacier and Col de 

TrelatI:te— Col du Mont Tondu— Col du Glacier— Chalet A la Balme 

— Col du Bonhomme— Col des Fours— Motets— Chapieux— Col de la 

Seigne — L.^c DE Combal— Ascent of Aig. de Trelat£te — Moraines of 

the Miage— Dome Route up Mont Blanc— Dome Hut— Ascents of Mont 

Blanc by the Glac. du Mont Bl.\nc, and by the Brouillard Gl vcier— 

Mont Blanc de Courmayeur-Brenva Glacier-Courmayeur-Ascent of- 

Mont Saxe-Mont Chetif— The Crammont-Col de Ch£couri-Col du 

Geant— AiGs. Blanche and Xoire de Peuteret— Les Dames Anglaises 

—The Aig. du G^ant— Mont Blanc by the Col du Geant and Aig. du 

Midi— Col de Rochefort— Col des Flambeaux— Col de Toule— Ascent 

OF Mont Blanc by the Brenva Glacier-Ascent of the Grandes Jorvsses 

— COURMAYEUR TO THE COL FeRRET— AscENT OF MONT DOLENT— Ch^LETS DE 
Ferret to ORSliRES-CHAMPEY-MARTIONY-THE FORCLAZ-HOW TO GET 
AWAY FROM ChaMONIX 140-163 



APPENDIX. 

A. The -Tarif' of the "Societe des Voitures de Chamonix" 

B. The Chamonix ' Tarif des Courses ' 

c. The Courmayeur • Tarif des Courses ' . . . . 

D. Mountains and Heights in and around the Range of Mont Blanc 

E. Passes in and around the Range of Mont Blanc 

F. List of Guides of Chamonix 

G. List of Guides and Porters at Courmayeur 
H. Conversion of Mi;TREs into English Feet .... 

I. Conversion of English Feet into Metres 



164 
166 
172 
174 
181 
183 
190 
191 
192 





LIST OF ILLUSTEATIOX.^. 



1. The Englishmen's Stone 

2. Peter Martel's Title-page 

3. On the Mer de Glace 

4. Monument to Jacques Balmat, in front of Chamonix Church 

5. The Rochers Rouges and the "Ancien Passage". 

6. View of Mont Blanc, shewing the Route taken by De Saussure 

7. Monument to Horace -Benedict de Saussure .... 

8. Portrait of Horace -Benedict de Saussure .... 

9. Ice-axe and Baton 

10. H.-B. de Saussure descending from the Col du Gi^iant 

11. De Saussure and his Son on the way to the Col du G^ant 

12. The 'Junction' of the Glacier des Bossons and the Glacier 

de Taconnaz 

13. Portrait of Auguste Balmat .... 

14. Portrait of Albert Smith 

15. The Grave of the Rev. George McCorkindale 

16. The Grave of Mr. Richard Lewis Nettleship 

17. Emile Rey's Boot (1894) .... 

18. Portrait of Dr. J. Janssen 

19. The Vallot Observatory, August 5, 1893 

20. The Refuge Vallot 

21. Plan of the Vallot Observatory . 

22. Dr. J. Janssen ascending Mont Blanc . 

23. The Edicule 

24. Fr£di5ric Payot at the Rochers Rouges 

25. Interior of Dr. Janssen's Observatory, July 

26. Exterior of Dr. Janssen's Observatory 

27. Plan, Paris to Cluses .... 

28. Plan of Geneva, shewing the Position of the Railway 

29. Plan, Geneva to Chamonix 

30. The Tunnel at Ch.^telard . . 



26, 1894 



Station 



s 



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XIV 

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\BOV 



THE 



CHAMOXIX AND MONT BLANC. 

The Village of Chamonix, seen fkom the (Brands Mulets 

Bureau of the Guide Chef 

Chamo>ix Church 

Hotel du Montaxvert 

Portrait of Principal J. D. Forbes 
Portrait of Professor John Tyxdall 

The Aiguille du Dru 

The Aiguille Verte and the Aiguille du Dru, from 

Flegere 

Hotel Suisse du Col de Balme .... 

Tablet ox Balmat's House 

The Graxds Mulets 

The Old Moxtaxvert, in 1895 

The Col de TalI-fre 

The Aiguille Verte, Pic Saxs Xom, axd Aiguille du Dru 

Portrait op Leslie Stephex 

The Summit of the Col Dolext .... 

Christian Almer 

Plan of the Glacier d'Argexti^re, etc. , 

The Pierre Poixtue 

Plax of the Summit of Moxt Blaxc, by X. Imfeld, 1891 

EXTRAXCE TO THE BaTHS OF St. GERVALS . 

Plax of Le Fayet axd St. Gervais 

The Systeme Berthe 

The Baths of St. Gervais before the Catastrophe 
The Gorge of Crepix, xboxte, the Baths of St. Gervai 

The Cab axe du Dome 

The Pavillox du Moxt Frety 

Tablet ix the Cabaxe ox the Col du Geant . 

The Aiguille du Geaxt, shewixg the Routes of Messrs. Sell: 

AXD Mr. Graham 

The Graxdes Jorasses, from the Italiax Val Ferret 
Plan of Summits of the (4randes Jorasses 

Plan of Maktigny, etc 

Plan of Chamonix 

Mont Blanc, from the Brevent .... 
Map of the Chain of Mont Blanc . 



155 
157 
158 
161 
To face jKKjt 91 
104 
. At the ti<d 



PAGE 

92 

95 

96 

99 

101 

102 

103 

106 
109 
113 
114 
116 
117 
121 
125 
128 
129 
130 
135 
138 
141 
142 
143 
144 
145 
150 
152 
153 



i 



CHA.Uu.NIX AXD lluXT BLANC 



! V 




•«^ lA. V 



' 'tV'^ 



. V, '•"'<^ 






af-j^ 




>- - 



■'?- .. -/ '-^ ' -' f^- •'•''-^-•-- s'--.-^^ .."V^v— t% -^ V' - 




-^^ 



THE ENGLISHMEN S a I ONE. 



I 



CHAPTER I. 

ox THE KAULV HISTORY OF CHAMOxVlX AND MONT BLANC. 

FOUNDATION (►F LK PRIEUK^ — ClIAMONIAKDS liOUiaiT AND SOLD — 
IlKHESV, SOKCEKV AND CAPITAL PUNLSHMENTS — .SHARINO THE 
PROCEEDS— PERONETTE CHARGED WITH EATING CHILDREN -W THE 
SYNAGOGUE — THE PRIORY CHANGES HANDS, AND THE NATIVES 
BEHAVE VIOLENTLY— CHAMONIX BECOMES ENFRANCHISED, AS/D THE 
COMMUNE TAKES POSSESSION — EARLY VISITORS TO CH^ONIX— 
POCOCKE AND WINDHAM— THE JOURNEY OF PETEK^^KCRTEL- THE 
FIRST INTRODUCTION OF MONT BLANC TO THE WORLD. 

Thf Histoiv of Mont IJlaiic, tlimigh iiitertwinc<l with that of Chaiiioiiix, 
is not identical with that of the Valley and Village. The name of 
the Mountain has only heen traced back to 1742, and its history 
coniinences somewhat later. The Valley, on the other luind, has a 
historv <latin<'- from the time of the Norman Comiiiest. The earliest 
and a'lmost the only piece of evi<lence that this region was poinilated 
in still more remote times is atiorded hy an inscribed stone, discovered 
in 18.V^ ui»on the St. (Jervais side of the Col de la Forclaz,i at a 
snot called le Larioz ; which sets forth that it was a sort of boundary 
stone placed there in the time of Vespasian.^ Vnnn that period until 
\m\ nothin.' is known alumt the Village or Valley. Then eount 
Vvmon of (i'eneva bestowed on the Benedictine Abbey ot St. Michel 
de Cluse (near Turin) the whole of what is now called the Vcdlaj o/ 
rfmnionir, extending frmn the (/ol de Balme to les Houches, and a 
l*riory was estal)lished.3 

1 SoHietinies called the Col de la Forclaz de Prarion, to distinguish it from the other 
Col de la Forclaz between the Tete Noire and Martigny. ^^ 

•i Fie-ures of this stone are given in Ch. Durier's Mont Blanr Pans, 18m, and in 
Perrinr//?./o/r Paris 1887. A Roman way from Geneva is said to have crossed the 
\r" a littirabov Servoz into the Val Montjoie, by the Col de la t ore az ; and 
probablv led %;• the Col du Bonhomme and Col de la Se.gne into the ^ alley of Ao.ta 

3 \cvor<Hn-'to M. Charles Durier the text of the Charter or Act of Donation was first 
»,v^*M/ It vons i UMU). The original document was discovered by Capt Markham 
SherwUltn 1831. at Chan,onix. It parsed into the possession of M. Honnefo> of Sallanches. 

B 



CHAMOXrX AND MONT BLANC. 



CHAl'. I. 



U i> not (It.'iir wliy tliis gift was bestowed on the Al)bey. Count 
Ayiiion made over the valley, its lands and inhabitants. Whetiier he 
did tlii^ for ihe sake of a consideration, or out of pure benevolence, 
has yet to be discovered. The foundation of a Priory was a certain 
indication that there was a i)0[»ulation, and, for a mountainous re<,non, 
it appears that it was not an inconsiderable one. Until recently, 
throujih want of research, scarcely anytliin-; has been known about 
the life of these people during the middle ages. Writers upon 
Chamonix have commonly treated the period as a blank, and have 
spoken as if the history of Chamonix commenced in the early part 
of the 18th century. The labours, however, of M. Andre IVrrin have 
put the matter in an entirely ditt'erent light. His Jli.sfori/ of thf 
Volley and Frionj,^ based ui>on the documents- collected by jNI. A. 
Bonnefoy of Sallanches, gives many interesting details, from whicii, 
for the tirst time, one is enabled to form some idea of the life of the 
people, — how they were treated, and what they «Ud. 

For four centuries the Priors had things their own N\ay, and 
enjoyed all but absolute jurisdiction; and, under their rule, the 
iniiabitants of the valley cannot have led a very enviable existence, 
though the treatment they received, so far as we know, was not worse 
than that which was experienced by their contemporaries in the most 
civilised parts of the world. There were a certain number of free 
men,' but the greater part were little better than slaves. They were 
sold or transferred w ith the land, like cattle ; they could not marry 
w ithout authorisation ; and they were occasionally burnt at the stake, 
for their future benetit, and to the immediate protit of the Priory.^ 
Mons. Perrin quotes an instance, in 12S,S, when Jacques Houteiller of 
Servoz ffove as alms, for the repose of his soul, Nicholas of Cluimonix 
.and his descendants to Kichard de Villette, then Prior ; and says that 
two years later Leonarde, the widow of Jacques JJouteiller, sohl 

1 Histoire de la Vallee ct du Prieure. de Chauwnix du A'""? au XVIII^ m\'le, par 
Andre I'errin, President de la section de Chaniherx du Chib alpiii franvais ; 8vo, Paris, lSt>7. 

- Names which are still family names at Chamonix are frequently found in these old 
documents. That of Charlet appears so early as 13lKi ; IJalmat in 1458 ; Bossonney in 
14(>8 ; Comte and Carrier in 1483 ; and Cachat in 1520. 

^ " Les chartes relatives aux reconnaissances partielles et a la limitation des franchises 
par les prieurs nous montrent, (pi'avant retahlissenient du i>rieure, les honunes lihres 
habitants le bourir de Chamonix tormaient une connuunante jouissant de nond)reuses et 
importantes liberies. Des syndics nonuues par eux etaient charges de la representer, 
de defendre ses droits en maintenant les bonnes et anciennes coutumes et de prendre 
toutes les mesures connnandees par Tinteret conmnin. lis surent j^arder intactes leurs 
libertes malji're les oi>positions et les entraves des i»rieurs et de leurs divers a;^ents. . . 
Les nom>>reuses transactions par les<iuelles les prieurs recomuirent les usay:es et les 
droits du bourg de Chamonix ne furent (pie des reconnaissances formelles, de libertes 
immemoriales, acconlees h, la suite <les troubles ct ties luttes nes des efforts (pi'avaient faits 
les i>rieurs pour les reduire et les effacer. . . Ces reconnaissances servirent plus tard 
aux s.Midics pour sauvej^^arder les droits de la conununante conune si elles eussent etc de 
\eritables chartes de concession de franchises et non plus de coiifinnation." IVrrin's 
Histoiir, pp. 71-72. 

^ They were liable to fines for all sorts of oflfenres. For example :— For sellin<:f sliee]>, 
X>i<j:s, calves, or suet without otferinj,' for the victuallin;,' of the Priory, GO sous. For sales 
effected before the victualling' was complete<l, 10 livres. For carrying,' a sword more than 
a foot and a half luny, 00 sous and to have tlie weapon taken awa\ . For carrying hatimx 
/rro'^ more than a fool antl a half lonjr, e\ce])t when travelling,'-, 10 livres and to liave 
the weapon taken away. For refusal to obey the olticei"s of the Prior when in char<je 
of their duty, 25 livres. 



CHAP. I. EATING CHILDREN AT THE SYNAGOGUE. 3 

Jean, Aimon, and Melioret, sons of (Juillaume Bezer of the parish of 
Chamonix, to the same Kichard de Mllette for 50 ,sous (/euecois. 

Heresy and sorcery were visited with <leath. The goods of those 
who were cai)itally ]»unished ordinarily went to the Prior, but in the 
<Mse of heresy they were divided between the Bishop of Ceneva, the 
Prior, and tiie Inquisitor. M. Perrin refers to the trial of (Juiga, 
wi<low of ^Hllieret Jialmat, (lit ISronard, of Chamonix, and Itolette, 
widow of Jean Due of V'allorcine, who with two other women were 
accused of heresy in 1458, and gives the procedure which was followed. 
The syndics re([uested the Prior to assist them, and he nominated a 
judge, who was accepted. The accused were then taken into tiie 
church, and interrogated by Pierre (Jinod, incpiisitor, who, finding them 
ai»ostate and impenitent, turned them over to the cliMtdoin. He led 
them outside the barn of the i*riory, before the ju«lges and syndics, 
and tlemanded their condemnation as heretics. flac<[ues Bollet, jugc 
miqiortcui., read out the act of accusation, and then in the name of 
the other judges and syndics con<lemned them to death by tire, dans 
tui feu ffros ct tcrrlhlc, in order that this metho<l of i>unishment might 
deter others who were inclined to imitate them. Pierre tJiiiod, the 
inquisitor, aold his s/xo'c of the proceeds to the Prior, Gaillaanie de la 
Rid'oire, for Jifteen Jlorins, 

In the same year, Jean Corteys, dit Martin, was also accusetl of 
heresy ; and in the following year Henriette, wife of Pierre Oncey, 
was charged with heresy and idolatry, and was burnt. Three years 
afterwards, eight were tried, in one batch. Claude Kup, a specialist 
in heresy for the dioceses of Lausanne, (Jeneva, and Sion, took them 
in hand, declared they were heretics, and delivered them over to the 
secular arm. The ehatelain again led them into the courtyard of the 
Priory, ' where it was customary to deliver jmlgment,' and Jacques 
Bollet gave judgment against them ; and, as they refused to amend 
their ways, he declared that the whole were to be burnt and all their 
goods were to be confiscated. Peronette, widow of Michel des Ouches, 
who, besides heresy, was said to have been guilty of various other 
crimes, including 'eating children at the synagogue,' was selected for 
s|>ecial punishment. She was tied to a post of woo«l, 'haute et visible,' 
sitting on a red-hot, burning iron for the twentieth part of an hour, 
betore the light was ai)plied to the stack, above which she was placed to 
be burnt ; and Jean (Jrelan, who it is sai<l had 'trampled on the body 
of Christ and paid honnnage to the Devil,' etc., was condemned to be led 
to the place where he had committed these crimes, or to the nearest 
place of justice, ami lifter having had his foot cut olV was to be brought 
' back, dea<l ov aiive, tied to a jKJst aiul burnt along with his foot. 

Centuries of oppression accustomed Chamoniards to this sort of 
treatment. They were born under it, they endured it, and they 
accepted the situation, though every now and then there was an out- 
break. Towards the nmX of the thirteenth century, in conseciuence of 
successive encroachments of the Priors, they rose in revolt, and carried 
oil" the cattle of Kichard de \'illette,i and he only made i)eace by 
recognising and contirming their rights in writing. His nine successors 

1 Prior from 1255 to 1296. 



> 



CHAMOXIX AND MONT BLANC. 



CHAP. I. 



CHAP. r. 



COMPAFTSONS ABE ODIOUS. 



lulea on Hii average 25 years apiece, iiiore or less ol)iioxiously, and 
then tliere eaiue a change. 

By a Papal Bull of February 27, loll), the Vnory (»t ( hanionix 
l.asse(l into the han«ls of the Chapter of the Collegiate (Mmrch of ht. 
Jac.iues at Sallanches, and the natives, for a time, seem to have 
anticipated that some henehts Mould accrue to them from the transter. 
The Cliapter pledged itself to appoint a resident Canon, and t<» respect 
the privile-es of the inhahitants ; hut the Chamoniards do not aj.pear 
to have he^^n satislied witli their treatment, and presently resisted the 
collection of taxes. At this period they became somewhat turbulent. 
Two officers who were sent successively to Chamonix were s<» mal- 
treated that tliey considered tliemselves fortunate to escape witli tlieir 
live^ ••! liave' not l»een able to discover,"' says M. Perrin, "that 
any conse.iuences followed."' Orders were, however, given to arrest 
the mutineers, and a certain Chisse de IVmtiller was despatclied with 
a numerous train to carry tliem out. JUit wlien lie arrived before 
the Church he was assailed with showers of stones, and, wounded, beat 
a hasty retreat. Matters continuing like this, the Chamoniards in- 
curred excommunication : but they begged themselves otl t«»r tliree 
months, in order 'to take the sacrament at Easter, an<l then went 
«.n as before. The Bailly of Faucigny came in 1535 to pubhsli a 
proclamation ordering the*^ payment of the obnoxious </hne-s, and the 
syndics and the inhabitants behave<l violently, tore up the jnoclamation, 
and drove the Bailly and his men into the I'riory. For this outrage 
several persons were arrested, and led away to prison at Chambery. 
The dispute still went on, and in 1537 the Seigneur Demaiest «ie 
Menthon came to Chamonix, accompanied by lifty gentlemen, besides 
the officers of justice, to see what //r could do ; and he fared no 
better than the others, for he was hooted at all along the road, and 
was besieged in the I'riory by 400 or 500 armed men, who threw stones 
and shot^with arquebuses through the whidc.ws, and blocked every 
]»ath to prevent the arrival of assistance, crying out that they should 
be kille<l, or burnt, or kept prisoners until they died of hunger. In 
the night one of them was let down through a window, and escaj^ed 
l>y the" mountains to Sallanches to give the alarm. The tocsin was 
sounded, and 500 or 000 men marched to relieve the Seigneur, who 
ultimately was allowed to depart in peace. 

This was the commencement of a struggle in which the Chamoniards 
sought to get free from the exactions and imposts that they had in- 
herked from feudal times, and the struggle continued for more tliaii 
two centuries. In 1737 they began to aim al 'Completely ridding 
themselves of their odious Imrdens by i>ayiiig down a lu-.-n. sum, and 
forty years were sjtent in haggling what the amount should be. in 
17S0, delegates from the Chapter met others at Chamonix iip[>oint(:vl 
by the community to discuss terms. The Cluqjter wante<l 1.>0,(K>(» 
livres, and at last came down to 75,000. Not until 178(> was a 
compromise effected ; and then, by the payment of 58,000 livres the 
yalley was delivered from its oi)pressions, Chamoniards liecanie free 

1 The services had sonietiiues been nei,^lected. In 13(58, the syndics complained bitterly 
to the Abbe of 8t. Michel de la Chisc that the Church at Chamonix wiis not kept up 
asi it ouglit to be, and spoke of the want of monks. 



t 



> 



^f 



i 



V 



men,' and the Commune took jjossession of the lands of the I^riory.-' 
'•'Ou the 30th of October, 1780, the rule of the Priory of Chamonix 
expired at the stroke of midnight and was l)uried the next morning, 
having lasted 690 years. When the iMench Revolution came, the 
Chamoniards said, 'Ah: if we had only ]>een able to look into the 
future, and had waited a few years, we should have been enfranchise<l 
without paying anything."'^ 

The imi)oitant i)eiiod embraced by the years when the negotiations 
for enfranchisement were proceeding coineiiled with the time at which 
a stream of outsiders came to view the sights of Chamonix ; and it 
seems juobable that through contact and converse with those who 
enjoyed greater freedom than themselves the (Miamoniards were Hied 
with this craving for liberty. From 1741 onwards the stream Wowed 
uninterruptedly and has constantly increased. But at a much earlier 
date orcasinuni strangers came to inspect the (Maciers (or GlacUres, 
as they were formerly termed). One of the earliest references to 
them that is in ]»rint will be found in Lrs iwinrllcs ceuvres de 
MoHsicur h' J\n/.s\ a gentleman who wrote as follows, in a letter 
dated 'Chamony en Fossigny, le 1() May, lOGlJ." to a lady with 
whom he seems at one time to have been on good teinis. Cpluaid- 
ing her for her coolness, he says — 

••In my despair at leavin^r you, 1 vowed that I would throw myself over the 
fu-st convenient place. But, until now. thougfh for fifteen days 1 have ascended 
and descended the most dangerous mountains in Savoy, and skirted the ]»rinks of 
a thousand precipices, 1 have not thrown myself over, . . I must not deceive 
you. The pleasure of looking at your portrait in this frightful country has always 
kept me hack when I i»roposed to execute my intention. . . Here. Madame. I see 
five mountjuns which are just like you. . .* Five mountains. Madame, which are 
pure ice from top to bottom.' ^ 

Seventy -f(mr years before the i.ublication oi Monsieur le Pays' 
letter, the name of Channmix (Cham(mis) made its appearance in the 
great Atlas of Mercator, and it was ])ossil>ly somewhere about this 
time (15<)5) that the village began to be taike«l about in the outer 
worhl.'' Anyhow, it is clear that it was by no means an unknown 

1 \'}^ i"".^ sweei), they <,^ot rid of "droits de fief, d'emphyteose, de directe, de lods 
double lods et du tiers des ventes <>eiierales ; les servii^^s. .enses feodales, haut-si^L'-e 
premices des montaifnes," etc. ' 

■-• Tills a]ipears to ha\e ]»een a secoml payment, for Bourrit, in his Description de.^ 
(rlacerex published in 177.5, says that the Chapter of Sallan.-hes fonnerlv ha«l the rioht 
to a third or the property of a man who died childless, but that the communitv had 
bou-rht up tlMt ri-ilit foi- :}(»,(»(►() livres. In his Nourelle Descriptiim dea Glacieres pub- 
bshed in l,,s.., he sa\ s that at lliat time the Cure of the Priorv was called ""uardian 
(ailnniii^trafein-) "because, besides the care of souls, lie looked after the jiropertv of 
the Chai>ter. This double occui>ation. which, in otlier countries, is lia])le to manv con- 
secpicnces, lias none in this valley, where the ec-clesi;vstical rule is trulv paternal 
However, the community is at the i>oint of beiny enfranchised," and he su^},'ests, as a 
result, that "the clerj^y, when limited to their proper functions, will become more 
respected." 

•i The Priory bius now disai>]>eared. M. Perriii says that one of the Chapels belon<Mii<' 
to it IS incorporated in the existing Church, l>ut that the buildiiiirs of the Priorv were 
(•omi)letely destroyed by fire on Dec. :i, IT'iS. He says further that the present Hotel 
d'Anyleterre stands upon the site of two mills which belonged to the Priorv. 

•* Monsieur le Pays api>arently refers to the Glaciers of Taconnaz, Bossons, Arj^entiere 
.•ind Tour, and the Mer de Glace. I quote this passanfe from the interestin*-- pamphlet 
by M. Theophile Dufour, to which reference will a.ifain he made presentlv. * 

5 For the name is not in the Atlas liv Mercator in .3 vols., the first volume of which 
was pul)lished at Duisburic in l.^iSo. 



6 



CHAMONIX AND MONT BLANC. 



CHAP. I. 



l>lfifp at tlip end of the Ifitli (M^ntury : and tliis fact, in conjunction 
with tliP extracts tliat have been <:;iven from M. IVrrins Jfisfoi/r 
(wliich, it shouM l>e said, convey a very inade(|nate idea of the 
sterling; nature of his volume), is sutiicient to sliow that too much 
stress has l)een Laid u]»on the 'discovery' of f'hamonix l>y l\)cocke 
and Windham in 1741, tliou^^h tlieii- visit, undouhtedly, had the 
effect of luin^nin^ it into greater prominence. 

In the year 1740, "there Avas quite a little colony of Knulish " at 
(Jeneva, comj)osed in part of younjr men who ha<l come there to 
linish tlieir education. These y<»un.u- fellows ajipear to have heen on 
j^ood terms witii the authorities. They som(»times invited them to 
private theatricals; and they were themselves invited ujton otluM 
occasions to ai)pear hefore tlie authorities, to a<-count for loo ureal 
spri.uditliness (r.m^v <//m-.v).i Amon^^st tliem was William Windham, 
of Fellhri.ui,' in Norfolk, who was ahout three-and -twenty years of 
age, handsome and tall, known subsequently in London as ' hoxinir 
Windham." " 1 had," said he, 

'•longr had a great Desire to make this Excursion, but the Difficultv of getting 
Company had made me defer it: Luckily in the Month of June last* Dr. PococJif 
arrived at (^e,ifrn from his Voyages into the Lnont and Eihipt, which countries he 
had visited with great Exactness. I mentioned to him this Curiosity, and mv 
Desire to see it. and he who was far from tearing Hardsliijis, exitressing a like 
Inclination, we inmiediately agreed to go there ; when some others of our Friends 
tound a Party was made, they likewise came into it. and I was conunissiimed to 
pro\'ide what was necessary for our setting out." 

W^indham had seen the Dclices de In Sitissc, and the works of 
Scheuchzer, and through reading these books had learnt something 
alxmt the Gluritref!. "It is really Pity that so gieat a Cnriosily 
should be so little known. . . As we were assured on all hands, 
that we should scarcely find any of the Necessaries of Life in tliose 
Parts, we took with us Sumi»ter Horses, loaded with Provisions, and 
a Tent, which was of some use to us, tlKuigh the terrible I3escrii>tion 
People ha<l given us of the Country was much exaggerated." 

They set out on June 19, 174l', a party of eight, "besides five 
Servants, all of us well arm'd, and our Paggage- Horses attending us, 
so that we had very much the Air of a Caravan. The first Day 
we went no farther than Biwyicrilli\" The next night tiiey slej.t a"l 
Servoz on 'clean straw in a Barn,' and on the thiid day ariived at 
Chamonix. 

"Here we encamj.'d, and while our Dimier was preparing, we incpiired t>f 
the People of the Place about the (ihinrre.t. Thev shewed us at Hrst the 
Ends of them which reach into the Vallev, and were to 1k) seen \nnw the 
\ illage ; these appear'd only like white ll<xks, or rather like immense k-ieles 
made by water running down the Mountain. This did not satisfy our Curiositv' 
and we thought we had come too far to be contented with so small a Mattel- • 
we therefore strictly inquired of the Peasants whether we could not bv going 
up the Mountiun discover something more worth our Notice. Thev told us we 
might, but the greatest Part of them represented the Thing as very difficult 
and laborious ; they told us no-lx)dy ever went there but those whose Business* 
It was to search for Crystal, or to sh(»ot lin,ui„et:u)i and ( hamols, and that all 

1 According' to M. Th(^ophile Dufour tfiere are records at Geneva to that effect. 



(> 



1 

I 



I 






CHAP. I. WILLIAM WINDHAM VISITS THE GLAClflRES. 7 

the Travellers, who had been to the Olacieres hitherto, had been satisfied with 
what we had already seen. 

-,. T^®. ^"^^ ^ ^* ^^^ ^^''^<^'6 was a good old Man, who shewed us many 
Civilities, and endeavoured also to dissuade us; there were others who 
represented the Thing as mighty easy ; l»ut we perceived plainlv. that thev 
expected, that after we had bargain'd with them to Ix) our (Guides,' we should 
soon tire, and that they should earn their Money with little Troul>]e. However 
our Curiosity got the better of these Discouragements, and relying on our 
Strength and Resolution, we determined to attempt climbing the Mountiiin. 
We took with us several Peasants, some to be our Guides, and others to carry 
Ume and Provisions. These people were so much persuaded that we should 
never be able to go through with our Task, that they took with them Caudles 
and Instruments to strike Fire, in case we should be overcome with Fatigue 
and be o}>liged to spend the Night on the Mountain. In order to prevent 
those amongst us who were the most in wind, from fatiguing the rest In- 
pushing on too fast, we made the following Rules: That" no one should go 
out of his Rank ; That he who led the way should go a slow and even Pace • 
That who ever found himself fatigued, or out of Breath, might call for a 
Halt; And lastly, that when ever we found a Spring we should drink some 
of our Wine, mixed with Water, and fill up the Bottles, we had emptied, with 
Water, to serve us at other Halts where we should find none. These 
Precautions were so useful to us, that, jterhaps, had we not observed them, 
the Pea.sants would not have been deceived in their Conjectures. 

We set out .about Noon, the 22d of Juvp, and crossed the An-e over a 
wooden bridge. Most Maps place the OladereR on the same side with Chamoiqmf 
but this IS a Mistake. We were quickly at the Foot of the Mountain, and' 
began to ascend by a very steep Path through a Wood of Firs and Larche 
Trees. We made many Halts to refresh ourselves, and take breath, but we 
ke]^t on at a good Rate. After we had passed the Wood, we came to a kind 
of Meadow, full of large Stones, aufl Pieces of Rocks, that were broke off, and 
fallen down from the Mountain : the Ascent was so steep that we were <.bliged 
sometimes to cling to them with our Hands, and make use of Sticks, with 
sharp frons at the End, to supjiort ourselves. Our Road lay slant Ways, and 
we had several Places to cross where the A mfaac/as of Snow were f^illen, and 
had made terrible Havock ; there was nothing to be seen but Trees torn up 
by the Roots, and large Stones, which seemed to lie without any support ; 
every step we set. the Oound gave way. the Snow which was mixed with it 
made us .slip, and had it not been for our Staffs, and our Hands, we must 
many times have gone down the Precipice. We had an uninterrupted View 
quite to the Bottom of the Mountain, and the Steepness of the Descent, join'd 
to the Height where we were, made a View terrible enough to make most 
People's Heads turn. Tn short, after climbing with great Labour for four 
Hours and three Quarters, we got to the Top of the Mountain, from whence 
we had the Pleasure of beholding Objects of an extraordinary Nature. We 
were on the Top of a Mountain, which, as well as we could' judge, was at 
least twice as high as Mount S<i/ere, from thence we had a full View of the 
(Hitdei-eii. T own to you that I am extremely at a Loss how to give a right 
Idea of it ; as I know no c-io thing which I have ever seen that has the least 
Resemblance to it. 

The Description which Travellers give of the Seas of Oreenland seems to 
come the nearest to it. You must imagine your Lake put in Agit<ation by a 
strong Wind, and frozen all at once, perhaps'eveu that would not jn-oduce the 
same Appearance. 
• 
Our t'uriosity did not stop here, we were resoh'ed to go down upon the 
Ice ; we had al)out four hundred Yards to go down, the Descent was ex- 
cessively steep, and all of a dry crumbling Earth, mixt with Gravel, and little 
loose Stones, which afforded us no firm footing ; so that we went down partly 

1 There was no Prior at tliat time. Wiiulham dou])tless supposed that tliere unist be 
a Prior because there was a Prior^■. 



\ 



CH A MUX IX AXD MOXT BLAXC. 



CHAP. I. 



falling, and partly sliding on our Hands and Knees. At length we got upon 
the Ice. where our Dittieulty ceased, for that was extremely rough, and afforded 
us good footing: we found' in it an intinito number of Cracks, some we could 
step over, others were several Feet wide. These Cracks were so deep, that 
we could not even see to the Bottom : those who go in search of Crystal are 
often lost in them, but their Bodies are generally found in them after some 
Days, perfectly well preserved. All our Guides assured us. that these Cracks 
change continually, and that the whole Oforin-e has a kind of JVIotion. In 
going up the Mountain we often heard something like a Claj) of Thunder, 
which, as we were informed by our (luides. was caused by fresh Cracks then 
making : but as there were none made while we were upon the Ice, we could 
not determine whether it was that, or A >o fax rlies of Snows, or perhaps Rocks 
falling ; though since Travellers observe, that in (iiee„loi,(J the Ice cracks with 
a Noise that resembles Thunder, it might very well be what our (Guides told 
us. As in all Countries of Ignorance People are extremely superstitious, they 
told us many strange Stories of Witches, &c. who came to i»lay their pranks 
upon the (Haileres, and dance to the Sound of Instruments. We should have 
been surprised if we had not been entertained in these Parts, with some such 
idle Legends. The />o"7"f^'//.< go in Herds often to the Number of fifteen or 
sixteen upon the Ice, we saw none of them ; there were some C/iontoi.^ which 
we shot at, Init at too great a Distance to do any Execution. 

Having remained about half an H<mr ujutn the ahn'iere. and having drank 
there in Ceremony Admiral Vernon's Health, antl Success to the Uritliili Amis, 
we climb'd to the Summit, from whence we came, with incredibk' Diffit-ulty. 
the ELirth giving way at every step we set. From thence, having rested our- 
selves a few Minutes, we began to descend, and arrived at <Vniiiiitn)i;i just 
about Sun-set. to the great Astonishment of all the People of the Place, and 
even of our (4uides. who owned to us they thought we should not have gone 
through with our Undertaking." 

Windham went away fioni (Jeneva in August, 1742, and on the 
20th of that montli a company of (Jenevese, wliose curiosity liad been 
raised by reading tlie account that lie had written, started for 
diamonix, stimulated by his remarks tliat " liarometers to measure 
the Heiglit of the Mountains, portable Thermometers, and a (^uailrant 
to take Heights with, wouM he useful, if there were a Mathematician 
in Company."' an<l that " <me who understood Drawing might tind 
wherewithal to imploy himself, either on the Ifoad, or in the Place 
itself: in short a Man of (lenius might <h> many things which we 
have not done." They travelled from (Jeneva to Sallanches in one 
day. and on the morrow arrived at Chamonix. The next day was 
occu)»ied in going to the Montanveit, and on tlio following moining 
thev returned to (Jeneva. This i»artv of (Jenevese was under the 

• It 

leading or directicm of a certain Peter Martel. who wrote an acciuinl 
of the journey, which was jtuhlished in London \i\ 1744.' A facsimilo. 
on a reduced scale, of this rare ]>am]>hlet is given ONtvh'af. 

Mr. ]*eter Martel termed himself 'Engineer," ami at il.e cml of 
his j»am]>hlet he stated that he made and sold I*o<-ket and other 
Thermometers, and until a few years ago tliis seemed to 1k^ all that 
was known about him in England. His pami>hlct contains Windhanis 
account of his proceedings (in the form of a letter to a friend), and 
MartePs account of his own journey, in the form of a letter to 
Windham : and it is expressly stated that both letters were frinisbittil 

1 It will Ik- notited that on the title-pa<re it is said 'As laid l)efore tlio Rn\al S<xiet\. 
Itut it do4's not api>ear that the Society printed tlic connnunication. 



CHAT. F. 



,T 



t 



JM 



VKTER MARTF.L'S TITLE-PAGE. 



An ACCOUNT of the 



9 



G L A C 



-w- — ^. 





E S 



O R 



ICE ALPS 



I N 



s 



A V 

In TWO LETTERS, 



One from an 



ILnglijh G 



i-rujiJ, ..! (icneva ; 



The other from 



PETER 21 ARTE!, En^neer, 
to the laid Englijb Gnt! -ii m, 

Illuftratcd with a Map, and two Views of the 

Place, &fr. 

As laid before tlie Royal Society. 

LONDON, 

Printed for Peter Martel, 

And Sold by W. Mcado'ivs in Cornhill -, P. Vaillant in the Strand % 
G. Hiiiikins between the Tivo Temple Gates ; R. Dcdjley in 
Piill Mall; y. Pallaret againft Catherine Street in the Strand i 
and M. Cooper in Pafler Nojler Row, MDCCXLIV. 

(Price One Shilling and Six-pence.) 



10 



CHAMONIX AND MONT BLANC. 



CHAP. I. 



CHAP. I. MONT BLANC TNTBOBUCED TO THE IVOBLD. 



11 



Jrom the French. No French version was, however, known nntil 
Mo">^. Theoi>hile Dnfonr pnhlislie<l one in the Echo des Alpes in 
1879,1 prefaced l>y varions well-anthenticated details relatin<; to the 
I»ers<»ns in qnestion. M. Dnfonr makes it clear that Mr. Windham 
pubhshe<l notiiinji-. He wrote a letter, j^ivin^j an acconnt of his pro- 
ceedings, to Jaques-Antoine Arland, a jMntrait- painter livini; in 
(ieneva, nt the desire of the latter. Arland allowed the letter Us he 
circnlated, and the orioinal, or a copy of it, was seen hy Martel. 
Peter Martel's letter to Windham was also circnlated in niannscript 
at (leneva, and hoth letters were seen hy Mons. Banlacre (who is 
termed l)y I)e Sanssnre 'savant Bi])liothecaire de notre ville'). This 
.iientleman was in the hahit of writing' to the j.apers, and, in May 
and dnne, 1748, he sent two letters to the Jintrmil helretique of 
Nenchatel, the first of which connnenced thns :— 

''Sir— You have heard that one has seen at Geneva, in the last vear or 
two, some mamiscrii>t accounts of different travellers who have had the 
curiosity to go to examine, in Faucigny, the part of the Alps that is called 
the (jlanereR. . . ^ on ask me to copy the two different accounts which have 
appeared m our town. There would be a good deal to coi)v ; I am rather 
lazy and I have no secretary at my disposal. You will be content then if 



you j.lease, with a sort of res>i„te of these two manuscripts, 
melt the whole down, and to send vou the essence." 



I shall trv to 



Snch was the manner in which the pnldic first became informed 
of these two journeys. The melted or hoiled-doMn versicm of the 
lazy Banlacre was the oidy acconnt published h} French until the 
appearance of M. Theophile Dnfonr's pamphlet in 1879. In this he 
gives the entire contents of Windham an<l Martel's two accounts 
printed from one of the MS. coi)ies that were in circulation at 
Geneva in the time of Banlacre, which has been discovere«l at Paris 
in the Library of the Institute. ' 

Kesearches by M. Dufour have elicited facts relating to Peter 
Martel. It ai^iears that he was born in 1701 or 17n2, and was the 
son of a French refugee, a shoemaker, who settle<l at (uMieva at the 
beginning of the 18th century. Two references to the son have been 
discovered m the Keg. du Conseil of Geneva, both of which are t.» 
his cre<lit;- and it has also been foim<I ont, from documents whidi 
are in existence at Geneva, that he ultimately went to Jamaica and 
died there in 1761. 

If the niannscript versions of Windham and Martel's relations 
which have l>een printed by M. Dnfonr were exact transcripts of the 
original letters, the English translations (of i744) are very free 



1 WILLIAM WINDHAM ET PIERRK AL\RTKL. Relations de leurs d-ux vovaL^es 
aux (.lanei-s de Cliaiuonix (1741-1742). Texte orio-iii'il Frineii^ mil.ii/ vT , . ^o\aj^es 

fois avee une introduction U des notes par TllSjiliii S^ t^St, ' 'h- 'iV;^!""!: 
justice de (Jent^ve, Directeur des Archives de I'Etat. Geneva, 1S7J> - 

- At Feb. 10, 1723, there is this entry. '' Gratiticatio)) ,) Vn,-t.>7 ,..„.. « i • 

Monsieur le sindic de la j^^arde a fait voir at^ Conse mi jH isfC avr.n'n "."•". 
denvu-on demi-pied de hauteur, ren.pli ,le non.l.re e 'er<-les e^ .U I,?.), "*"• 

representent le mouven.ent des pla.,6tes, selon les diff^rens A tSn" elf P £, 'et ''d'i 
operni<% conH>ose par un jeiuie honune nomm6 Martel, tils <" n . ordo ! • ^ 

Leaucoup de talent pour le dessein et pour la niecanimi.' nnV < ';'<";j'i"it'r, «|Ui a 

BiMiotheque. Sur .fuoi ^tant opine. 1- " a^tT d^'^ffi'Vu ' m.^l^-^^t S 

louis dor pour 1 encoura(,'er." j,iaiin( atioii de dix 



1 

1 



translations. The deviations from the French are frerpient, and there 
are additions and omissions. These dillerences are not of a nature 
to be attribnted to printers" 'devils," or compositors. Altlumgh very 
numerous, they are of little im[»ortance so far as facts are concerned. 
The principal interest of the two narratives lies in the information 
they afibrd about the condition of Chanumix and the Ghamoniards a 
centnry ami a half ago. It api)ears that at that time, althongh it 
was customary for visitors to do little more than insjiect the ends of 
the glaciers, there were aheady (inides and Porters. There was a 
jnevalent rnmonr that the glaciers were increasing. Windham says 
he was told by his Gnides "that in the time of their Fathers the 
iihirirre'' (that* is the Mer de Glace) "was but small, and that there 
was even a Passage thro' these Valleys, by which they conld go into 
the ]'(il <rAo.ste in six lumrs."" Ihit thronghont the whole of his 
acconnt there is no menti«m of Mont Blanc, and an omission so 
strange makes one conjecture that it must have been invisible during 
his stay. Peter Martel, however, mentions Mont Blanc four times. 
In the English pamphlet, at i>. lO, he refers to "the Mountain 
called Mo)if htfuir'^; on pp. 17 and 19 he calls it "the Mouf Bhnu'' \ 
and upon p. *22 he says ''Mont Blnnc, which is sujiposed to be the 
Heighcst in all the Glackres, and i)erhaps of all the Alps. Many 
Persons cd* the Gonntry who have travelled assnred me, that they had 
seen it from Dijon, and others from Lnngres, which is l.*].') Miles 
distance. '" 

I have been unable to learn that the name Mont lilanc has been 
printed at an earlier date. It would seem therefore, under any 
circumstances, that it came into use somewhere al>out the time of 
Martels visit. Possibly, it was invented to satisfy inquisitive visitors 
demanding 'what do y<ui call this?' and 'what do yon call that?' 
Some of the Aiguilles had been christ<'ned already. The Dm, the 
Gharmoz (Ghanueaux), the iilaiticre (Pdaiterie), and Miuit Mallet 
(Mallay) were established names in 174-2; and 1 imagine that, perhajts. 
when Slartel pursued his impiiries, and pointing to the great snowy 
doiue demanded 'ami what do you call that?' the Ghamoniards 
replied simply, "Oh! we call that the white numntain," withont 
intending him t<» sujipose that this was an established appellation. 
Down went Mont lilanc in his notes, and the name has stnck to 
the mountain ever since. 

However this may he, Martel was the first to nse tiie name <ui a 
mai>.i The shoemaker's .,ou had the honcuir to introduce Mont Plane 
to the worhl, and the fame of the (Jreat White Mountain soon spread 
abroad. 

1 M \ndri'' IVnin savs in his IJixfohr (at )). C) that Bourrit was the fii-st to -iive the 
name Mont Blanc o,i a 'map (the nuii> in his Soinrlle Ih-scription des (^lacicre.^ ct (^lacu>r.< 
iU' Sacou*', published in 178;'.). This is incorrect. >Lartel gave it forty-one yeai-s earlier 
on the Map (I'late II) that accompanies his pamphlet. 



CHAPTER 11. 

THE EARLIEST ATTEMPTS TO ASCEND MONT BLANC. 

THE nLAClP:RFS BKCOMK KAMOFS — HORACE HENEDRT DK SAUSSUHE— 
WONDERFUL EFFECT OF FAITH — DE SAUSSURP/s REWARD— FIRST 
ATTEMPTS T«» ASCEND MONT I'.LANC — THE NATIVES COMPLAIN OF 
TOO MUCH HEAT — MARC BOUHRIT TRIES THE ST. (JERVAIS SIDE 

SOME OF HIS PEOPLE OFT TO THE FOOT OF THE ROSSES DU 

DROMADAIRE— JOINT EXPEDITION OF ROURRIT AND DE SAUSSURE 
A RACE FOR THE SUMMIT DECIDED IN FAVoUI.' < >F (HAMONIX. 

Chamonix speedily Leiielited from the ]m]>licity wliicli was <.;iven to 
it Ly tlie circulation of Windhani and ^Lirtels letters. It soon 
Leeaine the fas/n'on to visit the GlnrUres. 

Anionjist those who went there was a youn^ man name<l Horace 
IJenedict de Saussure. He l>elon«;ed to an old Swiss family,^ 
settled a few miles from (xcneva, at a i>lace called (Jenthod. When- 
ever he walke<l abroad, the (Jreat White Mountain must have caught 
his eve, on the o]>i>osite side of the lake. De Saussure was a man 
of stmlious hahits, and at the early a«xe of twenty -two Lecame 
Professor of Philosophy at the Academy of ( Jeneva. "As for me," 
he says in his Travels;- " I had from my infancy a most decided 
jta-i.sion for mountains. in 17()<>, I went alone and on foot to visit 
the (Jlaciers of Chamonix. I returned a«;ain the next season, and 
since then F have not allowed a year to ]>ass without making journeys 
amongst mountains for the sake of study." 

He said that so early as 170(> and 17(il he had it proclaimed in 
the three jtarishes of the valley of Chamonix that he would give a 
considerable reward to anytme who should discover a prncticahlc way 

1 Hprai-e Benedict de Saussure was l)orn in 1740. Tlie De Saussures trace their 
descent from Monjrin de Savssvre, Escnyer, Seijrneur de Donipniartin and de Monteul 
sous la ville d'Aniance en Lorraine, who in 147r> was attached to the Court of Rene, 
Kinj; of Sicilv and .lerusaleni. His son, Antoine de Saussure, succeeded to liis offices 
and"di':rnities ; but in 15.51 became Protestant, wtis inii»risoned and deprived of liis 
possessions, and retired to Metz in \'i'>l. He wa-s ejected from Met/., and then went 
with his famil\ of twelve cliildren successively to Strasburj;-, Neucliatel, and (Jeneva, 
and finally settled at Lausanne in l;">(i. He died in ir>(il>. Horace Benedict de Saussure 
was the oiih son of an only son, and was ei^dith in a direct line from .Mon;.,''" 'It- Savssvre. 
I take these facts from a family tree, comnuinicate<l to me by Mons. F. Henri L. de 
Saussure, <,'ran<lson of Horace Benefli»^t de Saussure. 

2 Voyaijex thins lex Alpex, 4 vols. 4to, Neuchatel. 



CHAP. II. 



WONDERFUL EFFECT OF FAFTJI. 



13 



to the toj* of the (Jreat White Mountain, and that he would even 
pay for their time if their attempts were unsuccessful.^ It does not 
api)ear, from aught we know, that any(me even contemplated the 
ascent of Mont JJlanc before tliis rewanl was ottered; or that any of 
the peaks of Mont Blanc had been ascended at that time, or that 
the Chamoniards in general were entitled to be considered mountain- 
eers ; though long before the visit of Windham they were aciiuainted 
with some of the jieculiarities of glaciers, as they well might be, 
inasmuch as the glaciers come almost to their <loors. From the 
fcdlowing passage, taken from the Life of Jean d'Arathon d"Ale\, 
ptiblished at Lyons in 1707, it is obvious they knew that glaciers 
sometimes advance and sometimes retreat. 

"The inhabitants of a parish called Chamounix shewed in ti remarkable 
Uianner the confidence they put in the lilessing- of their Bishop. Chaniounix 
is upon the Iroutier.s of the Valais, liaving great mountains laden with snow 
and ice, in sunmier as well as in winter ; their height seems to carry their 
tops to the skies, and they rise almost as far as the sight can reach ; and the 
snow and ice, continually inclining downwards, threaten to ruin the surrounding 
localities. As often as the Bishop visited this region, the people begged him 
to exorcize and to bless these icy mountains. About five years before his 
death- they sent a deputation to beg him to come once more, offering to pay 
his exi)enses, and assuring him that since his last visit the tj/arieirs had 
retreated more than eighty paces. The Bishop, delighted at their faith, 
rei)lied. -Yes, my good friends, I will come to add my prayers to yours.' 
He went. . . I have a declaration," says the writer, "made on oath by the 
most notable persons of those parts, in which it is sworn that since this 
benediction by Jean d'Arathon, the f/laciere,s have retreated, to such an extent 
that they are now an eighth of a league from the places where they were 
formerly."^ 

They knew also that i>ersoiis lost upon and swallowed uj) by glaciers 
might be exhumed in the course of time, in the natural order of 
things. Windham says that when he got ujum the ice (of the Mer 
de (Jlace) he found an intinite numl)er of cracks (crevasses). "These 
Cracks were so «leep that we could not even see to the Bottom ; those 
who go in search of Crystal are often lost in them, but their Bodies 
are generally found again after some days, perfectly well preserve«l. 
All our (oii'des assure(l us, that these Cracks change continually, and 
that the whole Glacierc has a kind of ^Motion." 

This i»assage from Windham shews that earlier than his time 
there were some who ventured ujton, or higher than the glaciers, an<l 
were more or less mountaineer^. The majority of the Chamoniards, 
however, do not a^'pcir to have been very advanced in mountain-craft ; 
for, when ^Vindham i»roi>osed to go to the Montanvert, " the greatest 

1 ' Lors(|ue j'ecrivois le discoui-s preliminaire et la i)remiere partie de cet ouvrage, 
j'envisa},a'ois la cime du Motit-Blanc conune absolument inaccessible. Dans mes premieres 
courses a Chamouni, en 17G(» & 17G1, j'avois fait publier dans toutes les paroisses de 
la vallee, «iue je donnerois une recomi>ense assez considerable a ceux qui trouveroient 
une route praticable iwur \ parvenir. J'avois meme promis de payer les journees de 
ceux (pii feroient des tentatives infructueuses." De Saussure, § 1102. 

- .lean d'Arathon d'Alex was Bishop of Geneva from 1(360 to 101)5, and died in the 
latter year. 

•5 Quoted from Oseillationx des ijuatrc <jramis Glaciers de la Vallee de Chamonix, 
par Vcnance Payot, CJendve, 1S79. 



u 



CHAMONIX AND MONT BLAXC. 



CHAl'. II. 



CHAP. II. 



JOBASSE WISHES FOR A PARASOL. 



15 



Part of tlieiii represeiitetl the Tliinji as very diftiiult and laborious ; ' 
tliey told us tliat no-body ever went there ]»ut tliose whose l>u.sinef<s 
it was to search for Crystal, or to shoot Bouqut'tina and (.'hanwia^^'' 
and this although there was ti ftnth. Therefore, one can hardly wonder 




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Hii. 






ON THE MER DE GLACE. 



that De Saussure's otl'er did not produce immediate results. A few 
feeble attem])ts were made, which gave no promise of ultimate succe.ss.- 
It was not indeed until ITT."), iifteen years after the reward was 
offered, that four ]»easants^ made what may be called the lirst serious 
attemi>t to ascend the mountain. They commenced by scaling the 
long buttress which is called the Montague de la Cote, and got some 

1 "We started at seven for the Mer de Oku.-e— one of the 'Hoik:' of Chamouni. 
llaviny ]»een tol<l the ni^dit before that tJie road wa« very dany:erous." Ar.;"rt Smith, 
in The Stonf of Mont lilaiic, speakin-,' of lH^H. 

- De Suussure says (S IKCJ) " Pierre iSiinon essaya line fois du coti* du Ta<'ul, une autre 
fois du cote du glacier des IJuissons" (IJossons). The years in which these attempts 
were ma<le are not stated. "The side of tlie Tacul " probably meant Ity way of the 
Glacier du (.ieant or du Tacul. IJourrit said in 17S5 that the ;^^ui«les thouj^ht it would 
not be impossible to ascend Mont Blanc by way of the Glacier du Tacul, if a sleei)iiiy-place 
could be found. Soucdtc DeHcriptioa den (JlaciereH et Ulaviera de Savoye, par M. Bourrit, 
Uen6ve, ITSo. 

^ Their names have been preserved h\ Bourrit. They were Michel Paccard and his 
brother Franvois, Victor Tissai, and ' the sou of the respectable Couteran.' 




distance uj* the glacier above — how high is not known. They seem 
to have Ijeen discouraged l)y finding that they could not go up and 
down again in one day, and they deemed it indispensable to make 
the ascent in a single day, considering that it was too hazardous to 
pass a night amid the snows. The i»easants of Chanionix, at that 
time, were indeed almost entirely unacquainted with the snows and 
glaciers of the u^tper regions, although they had for a nund»er of 
years conducted visitors over the lower i»ortions of the Mer tie (Jlace, 
and perhaps over some other of the glaciers.* 

Eight 3'ears elapsed before there was another attempt, and then 
(in 1783) three others ^ tried the same way; and, in order to have 
as much time as possible, passed a night on the top of the Montagne 
de la Cote. At daybreak they took to the glacier, and reached a 
considerable elevation, but when they were at their highest i)oint 
the strongest and most vigorous of the three was seized with an 
over[»owering desire to go to sleep, and begged the others to go on 
without him. But they would neither do that nor let him go to 
sleejs and in the end they gave up the enteri>rise and came down 
to ('hamonix. The great heat which occius uj>on glaciers in line 
weather seenis to have surjaised these peasants, and they seem also 
to have been influenced by the superstition, which still ]>revails in 
many i)arts of the Alps, that it is fatal to gi\e way to sleep when 
at great elevations. In this case it api)eare<l that they a))i»rehended 
their com]>anion would l)e killed by sunstroke. De Saussure said 
after this attempt in 1783, "from the information they gave, I 
regarded success quite inqjossible ; and that also was the oi>inion of 
the best men in Chamonix." He remarked that even if this sleepy 
episode had not sto]>ped these fine fellows {ces braves gens) *'it is 
very likely they wouM not have got to the top, for they had still a 
long May to go, and the heat was exceedingly trying, — an astonishing 
fact at such an elevation." They made much of the heat when they 
returned, and Joras.se seriously told De Sau.ssure that it was useless 
to carry ino\isions, and that if he went back again the same way 
he would only take a parasol and a Ixjttle of smelling salts. " When 

1 A lon<,^-winded account of this attempt is "riven in Bourrit's Nouvelle Description, 
w hich he say.s is a transcript of a relation supjilied one b^- of the guides (* the son of the 
respectable Couteran'); and from this it api)eai-s that the party started at 11 p.m. on 
•July 13, and, after walking for two hours and a half, went to sleep at the foot of the 
Glacier de Taconnaz. At daybreak they commenced to ascend the Montagne de la Cote, 
mounting at fii-st on the Ta<.'omia/, si<le, and at the upi>er ])art turning over to the 
side fiv-ing Chamonix. They found a jiath on the Montagne de la Cote, and a number 
of goats and sheep, high up, sent to fatten on the mountain during the sunnner. 
At S a.m. they took to the ghu.'ier, which appeared to them to be about half a league 
across, and they occui)ied more than three hours in crossing it, on account of the 
detours wluch were constantly nei-essary to avoid creviisses. It is related that there 
was on their left a rock in the middle of the snow (the Grands Mulcts), and they 
stopped there to collect crystals. After that, the account becomes somewhat incoherent. 
No times are mentioned, except that they got back to Chamonix at 10 p.m. The cause 
of turning w;is that they became enveloped in clouds and feared to lose the way. 

It is still customary to send sheep and goats to the Montagne de la Cote, and to 
leave them to themselves for weeks at a time. The ftvct that there was a path in I77.'i 
shews that this nuist have been a known locality long before. The height they reached 
cannot l)e stated with any certainty. They were probaljly the lirst to get to the 
Grands Mulets. 

2 Jean-Marie Couttet, Lombard Meunier dit Jorasse and Joseph Carrier. 






rilAMoMX AM> MOST IILAM'. 



CIIAI'. II. 



M 



(HAP. II. 



J(H!ASSE WISHES FOR A PARASOL. 



1.") 



l*;irl <»r iImmii i('j>rosentt'<l tlie TliiiiLi as very dittitiilt aii<l lal»orious ; ' 
lln'V told us llial iM>-iM»<lv ever went llieie Imt tiiose wliuse IWisiuess 
il was to .seareli tur Crvstal, nr to slioot JiofH/iutlns ami f '/tt<mot.s\'^ 
ami tliis altliou,i;li there was t/ jkiI],. Tlierefore, one can lianlly w«»n«ler 




J, 1 w 



>^.'^>^ 



ON THE MER DE GLACE. 



llial I>e Saussiires oiler dul nut produce innnediate results. A tuw 
feeble attempts were made, which ;;ave no promise of ultimate success.-' 
ll was not indeed until I77'">. fifteen yeais after the icward was 
ollered, that four peasants •' made what may he ealle<l the lirst serious 
attemid to asceiul the mountain. 'I'hev eommenced hv scalini: the 
long huttres.> which is called the Montagn«_ de la Cote, and got some 

1 " Wf slarUd at stveii for liu' Mtr <k' <Jl;uf — oin.- of the 'lion' of Cliaiiiouiii. 
llavinu bcfii toM the niuht hfft.if lliat Hit- iua<l \vars \trv 'laii;;tious;."' Ai5;<Tt Sniilli, 
ill Till Stiii-fi of Mont llUltic, >i\\i.'iik'm'^ of ISiS. 

- \K- Sau^surc sa\s(Ji lli)-J) " I'it'ire Simon tssaui uiic lois du cote du Tacul, uiu- autic 
fois (III role (111 ;:laiier (k-s lUiissoiis '' (Mossoiis). The .\eais in wliich tlie>e alleiiipls 
were maik" are not slated. "Tlit- side of llie Taiiil" i>rol»ahly meant l»y \va.\ of the 
iMaeier dii (Jeaiit or du Tacul. lJ<jurril baid in 17s.') that the ;;iudes thoip^iit it would 
not he imi>ossil>k' to as^eeiid Mont lUaiie h\ wav of the (.daeier du Tacul, if a sk-ipiii^-jilmtj 
could he found, yniirillr Iji'.srriiifiini tlrs (ild.riii'o' ct (flitrirr-^ dr SurniH', par .M. Iloiirril. 
(Jend'xe, ITs.'i. 

•" Their names ha\e keen preserved hy iJourrit. The\ were Michel I'accard and his 
hrolher Fraii(;ois, Victor Tissai, and 'the sou of the respectahle Couteran.' 



h 



!t) 



^ 



■I 
I 

f 



distance up the glacier aho\e how high is not known. Thev seem 
to have heeu disctuiraged hy liuding that they could not g(» up and 
<lown again in our (hni, and they deemed it indi.spensahle to make 
the as«'ent in a single day, considering that it was too hazardous to 
]»ass a night amid the snows. The [teasants of Chamoni.v, at that 
time, were indeed almost entirely unac<juainted with tiie snows and 
glaciers of the uj>]ter regions, although they had for a numher of 
years con<lucted visitors over the lou-tr portions of the Mer de (dace, 
and ]»erhai»s over some other of the glaciers. ^ 

Eight years elapsed l>efore there was another attemjit, and then 
(in lysH) three others- tried the .same way; and, in order to have 
as much time as i»ossil>le, passed a night on the toji of the Montague 
de la Cote. At dayhreak they took to the glacier, and reached a 
considerahle elevation, hut when they were at their highest ]M)int 
the strongest and most vigorous of the three was seized with an 
oveipowering desire to go to sleep, and hegged the (dheis to go on 
without him. Hut they would neithei- do that nor let him go to 
slee|», and in the end they gave up the enterjtrise and came down 
to ('liamoni.\. The great heat which occurs upon glaciers in line 
weather seems to have surjuised these peasants, and they seem also 
t(» have heen inlluenced l»y the sui»erstition, which still pievails in 
many parts of the Alps, that it is fatal to give way to sleep when 
at great ele\ations. In this case it appeared that they apprehended 
their com|»anion would he killed hy sunstroke. De Saussure said 
after this attempt in ITS.S, '"from the information thev uave, 1 
legarded success <|uite imjtossihle ; and that also was the opinion of 
the hest men in Chainonix." He remarked that even if this slee|>y 
episinle had not stopped these line fellows (rt'.v braves ijru.s) "it is 
very likely they would not have got to the top, for they had still a 
long way to go, and the heat was exceedingly trying, — an astonishing 
fact at such an elevation."' Thev made much of the heat when they 
returned, and .lorasse seriously told De Saussure that it was useless 
to carry |>ro\isions, and that if he went hack again the same way 
he would oidy take a [>ara.sol and a hottle of smelling salts. '• When 

1 .\ loii^i-winded account of this attempt is ^iven in I'ourrit's Smu'iUi' Di'tn'rijillmi, 
which he sa>s is a transcript of a relation sujiplied one h_\ of the -guides ('the son <jf the 
resi»ectahle (."outeran ') ; and from this it appears thai the party started at 11 p.m. on 
.Inly i:;, and, after walking- for two hours and a half, went to sleeji at the foot of the 
(dacier de Taconnaz. .\t dayhreak they eonuneiK-ed to ascend the Monta.mie de la t'ote, 
moiinliii'4 at first on the Taconnaz side, and at the upper ]»ait tiiniiiiii- over to the 
side facing t'hamonix. They found a path on the .Monta,:;iie de la Cole, and a nunihir 
of "ioats and sheep, hi.'ih ui>, sent to fatten on the mountain durinii- the siunmer. 
At S a.m. they took to the glacier, which ai)i>eared to them to ]»e ahout half a league 
across, and they occupied more than three hmirs in ero.ssinjj;' it, on account of the 
detours which were constantly iiecessar\ to avoid crevasses. It is related that there 
was on their left a rock in the middle of the snow (the (Jrands Mulets), and they 
sto]»ped there to c(Mlect crystals. After that, the atronnt heconies somewliat incoherent. 
No times are mentioned, e\cei>t that they uot hack to C'hamonix at 10 jt.ni. The cause 
of turniiiii was that the\ hecame eiueloped in clouds and feared to lose the wa\. 

It is still customary to send sheep and uoats to the Montague de la Cote, and to 
lea\e them to themsel\es for weeks at a time. The fact that there was a j>afli in 177.'> 
shews that this must ha\e heen a known localitA lon<j: hefore. The liei.uht they reached 
cannot !>(.• stated with any eertaint\ . They were prohahl\ the lirst to j;(!t to the 
iirands Mulets. 

- Jean-Marie Couttet, Lomhanl Meunier dlt Jorasse and Joseph Carrier. 



0> 



I« 



CHAMONIX AND MONT BLANC. 



v\\.\\\ \\. 



I i»ictuie to myself,"' said tlie Professor, " tliis bi^ and robust 
iiiouiitaiiieer scaling the snows, lioldin*;" a little parasol in one hand 
and a bottle of sniellin*:, salts in the other, notliin^- ;;ives nie a l>etter 
idea of the ditlioulty of this nndertakiny, and its absolute impossibility 
to people who have neither the heads nor the lind»s of a ^ood 
(Mianiouni uuide." They came back, IJourrit says, with swollen lips 
and dilapidated skins. These are some of the trifles, mentioned 
incidentally, which shew that the ( Miamonianls at this period were ([uite 
unaccustomed to j;et to considerable elevations eitlier on snow or rock ; 
for if they had been in the habit of doin<i so tliey wouM have been 
familiar with the fact that a considerable decree of heat is often 
experienced (in the sun) at great heij^lits, and that it is by no means 
piienomenal to lose the skin of one's nose, or to <;et swollen lii»s. 

Shortly afterwards, at some unknown date, the Monsieur iJourrit 
(who has been already mentioned several times) endeavonred to follow 
in the steps of Couttet, '.lorasse,* and Carrier. Monsieur Marc lUmrrit 
was l)orn in 173o. He was an artist, and Precentor of the Catheclral 
Church of (ieneva, who visite<l Chamonix and its surroundings some- 
what fre<[uently, and wrote several l)ooks upon his excursi<>ns. His 
intentions were better than his execution ; and as a mountaineer he 
was not a success, thouiih he considered that he had taken an 
important part in developing the guides of Chamoiux.^ At some 
unknown date in 17H3 he arrived on the top of the Montague de la 
Cote, and after having passe<l the night in the open air, found him- 
self, at live o'clock in the morning, "in the region of snow and ice. 
It was everywhere cut u]> by horrible crevasses. . . I saw my 
comi»anions opening up a way with their batons and hatchets, become 
all at once invisible, then reapi>ear on pyramidal blocks; descend into 
labyrinths from which they could hardly escape, escalading walls 
forty feet high. . . When I was about to follow in their track, T 
saw a cloud growing round the snmmit of Mont lilanc, and descend- 
ing upon us. This sndden phenomenon alarme*! nie ; I called to my 
coiiipani<ms," and he bolted down to Chamonix as hard as he could go. 

Somehow or other, M. Bourrit ac(|uired the notion that an ascent 
might be more easily made by mounting from the side of the (dacier 
de Bionnassay, and then by following the ridge leading towards the 
summit from the Aiguille de (Jofiter thnmgh the Dome du (louter, 
than by ascending from the valley of Chamonix ; and, learning that two 
Chasseurs had actually got to some height upon the I>i(»nnassay side, 
he found them out and persuaded them to take him in tow. Tin f/ 
started in Sej»tember, 1784, but the weather was cold. Monsieur 
Bourrit couhl not stand it, and diil not even rejich the ridge ; though 
two of his men did, and they followed it, they said, until they came 
to the foot of the two snowy humps, which are now called the 
Bosses du Dromadaire. Time ran short, and they came down, like 
all the rest, without having reachetl the sunimit. 

1 " Les uns se sont formes dVux na-mes t'li allajjt a la rec-hcrclie du t-ristal et a la 
chasse des chamois ; d'autres doivent leurs coinioissaiices a M. de Saussure et a inoi ; 
non seulenieiit nous nous en sonimes fait acconipaj^'-ner sur la nier de jj^lace et les 
sommites voisiiios, niais encore dans des voya<res lointains en Pieniont, en Vallais, dans 
les monta-jnes de la Suisse et celles du Milanois." 



\ 




CHAT. II. 



A RACE FOR THE SUMMIT. 



17 



De Saussure heanl of this, and, with the concurrence of Bourrit, 
had a little hut built iiigh up on the Bionnassay side, in order that 
they might start from a high level. In Septemlier, 1785, they went 
to it, and essayetl to follow the route which had been struck out the 
year before. But he failed even to reach the ridge. His hut was 
too low dow n ; the attempt was made too late in the year ; and they 
went back to (ieneva without having accomplished any advance. 

This was the first occasion that De Saussure had set foot on the 
mountain, and his presence on the spot probably stimulated the 
natives. Moreover, he shewed that he was in earnest by uivino 
instructions to have another hut constructed, considerably higher \\\k 
\U\ was convinced that if the summit should ever be attained it 
would be from that direction. The peasants of Chamonix did not. 
however, all share this o[»inion. Some were in favour of the Bion- 
nassay side, and others espoused the valley route, and they took to 
l>etting on the subject. It was arranged that some of them should 
start from one side and some from the other, to see who would arrive 
first at the foot of the final peak. They started on June 30, 1786. 
Three came up from the l>ack, and three others went via the 
Montague de la Cote, and these latter arrived at the rendezvous 
long before the others. There was still time to spare, and they 
attempted to complete the ascent hy following the ridge, but found 
that the ridge was too much for them. Just below the Bosses du 
Dromadaire it becomes narrow and steep, and requires the use of the 
ice-axe, with which the peasants of Chamonix at that time were 
scarcely acquainte^l ; and so they turned to come down, convinced 
that it was qnitr impossihlr to complete the ascent by that way. 
This brings us down to the time when the first ascent of the Great 
White Mountain (ie (irand Mont Blanc) was ettected. 




t 



C 



CHAP. in. 



♦ THAT FOOL OF A JACQUES. 



19 



■".'1 ..' * "^ .' '*. "•' 



■'•>' ...foK' X ' i • 




"3 




J 




■^3 


. -, ■ ■• ■ ^ # 



K^f^ /..>' 



IN FRONT OF CHAMONIX CHURCH. 



CHAPTER TIT. 

THE FIRST ASCENT OF THE GREAT WHITE MOUNTAIN. 

JACQUES BALMAT DISCOVERS THE AXCIEN PASSAGE AND NEAKLY 
REACHES THE SUMMIT— DR. PACCARD AND BALMAT MAKE THE 
FIRST ASCENT — DE SAUSSURE CJIVES INSTRUCTIONS TO LEVEL THE 
WAV — RECRIMINATIONS — WHO IS THIS DR. PACCARD? 

Along with the three \\iio it has heen mentioned ascended from the 
valley of Chamonix, there wa.s a fcmrth, who attached himself to the 
others almost .against their will — a young man named .Iac<|nes lialinat. 
Just before thej' st.arted, he is said to have i>assed a couple of days 
in searching for a route upon his own account, and he was returning, 
with his clothes sticking to him half frozen, when he met the others 
ascending. Thej' were unwilling that he should accompany them. 
Thfj/ wanted the reward, and so did fie. But he went with them, 
and when the others turned back, he lingered behind to look about, 
and they went on, it is said, and deserted him intentionally. 
" Balm at is lively," said the others ironically, "and will catch us 
up." "I found myself .alone," said he, ".and was divided between a 
wish to rejoin them, and an ambition to .atten»i»t the ascent alone. 
I was ])i<iued at being left behind, and something told me that, this 



t 




time, I should succeed.'" ITe decide«l on the Latter course; descended 
on to a great snowy |»lain that is about 2(>(M) feet below the summit 
(the (Jr.and IM.ate.au), .and remounted by the excee<lingly steep snow 
which is on the right of the engraving (m ]>. 20,^ <ligging out 
footstej>s with the point of his brit()n, until high enough to see all 
the rest of the w.ay clear to the top. " It w.asn't either easy (n- 
amusing, I can tell you, to be hung up so to speak on one leg, with 
an abyss underneatli, .and obliged to f.ashion this sort of staircase. 
But .at Last I got to the Bocher Rouge. ^ Oh ! I .am there, I said. 
There w.as nothing further to hinder one — no more steps to make." 
Night w.as .appro.a(^hing, there were clouds .about, .and he did not trj^ 
to go to the top- less frouj fe.ar of losing himself th.an from the 
conviction that he wimld not be seen, .and th.at no one would believe 
he h.a<l been there. He came <lown .again the same way, but on 
.arriving .at the (ir.and Pl.ate.au w.as ne.arly blind. "The snow had 
so affected my eyes that I couldn't see .anything. I sat down, closed 
my eyes, .an<l jmt my he.ad 1>etween my hands. At the end of half 
.an hour sight came back, but night had come. T h.adn't t.alvcn two 
hundred stei>s when I felt with my baton th.at the snow w.as ffiviu" 
way under my feet. I was on the edge of the great crev.asse which 
we had crossed in the morning by .a snow-bridge. I sought for it 
.and couldn't lind it. Something h.a<l to be done. I put my kna[>s.ack 
r>n the snow, tie«l my h.andkerchief round my f.ace, .and ]>re]»ared to 
p.ass the night .as well .as I could, i^'rom the place where 1 w.as I 
s.aw the lights of f'h.amonix,"^ where my comr.ades were sitting cosily 
round the tire, or, it m.ay be, were in their be<ls. Perh.aps none of 
them gave a thought of me ; or, if he did, it would be only to s.ay, 
when stirring u}* the embers or «lr.awing the ccmnterp.ane over the 
e.ars, '.lust now th.at fool of ,a J.acciues is beating his feet to keep 
them w.arm.'" Next morning he returned .alone to his vill.age. 
" All w.as right .at home. My wife g.ave me something to eat, 
thiuigh I w.as more sleei)y than hungry. She w.anted me to go to 
bed in my room, but I was .afr.ai«l of being tormented by the Hies ; 
so, shutting myself up in the b.arn, I Laid down upon the hay, .and 
sle])t twenty-four hours without w.aking." 

Halm.at, .at this time, was twentj^-four years old, .and though so 
young ha<l already made two .attempts to .ascen<l jVIoot ]>lanc. Once 
he ha«l jwassed .a night on the top of the Montague de La Cote, and 
on the next day re.ached the (Jr.and Plate.au, ffl(f?ie. He h.ad now 
done a more notable thing, but still did not awake to hud himself 
famous ; fm- no one, not even his wife, knew the inform.ation he had 
g.ained. If he divulged it, he C(mld not ho]>e to profit. Hence, 
"upon return to Chamonix, .at first he ke]>t his <liscovery a secret. 
But .as he understood that Dr. P.acc.ard w.as thinking of makinsf 
some .attempts on the mount.ain he communicated his secret to hinj, 
and offered to .act .as his guide" to the summit. So s.a3's De S.aussure 

1 This is now teniied tlie ' ancien paamge' {i.e. the old way). 

- The Roi^her Ron<,''e is the ;j:reat t'liflf seen in the en<rravin<f on p. 20. Its situation 
ill relation to the summit will be un(lerstoo<l hy reference to the larye enifraviny of 
Mont Hlane from the Hrexent. 

•"5 It is to he remarked, however, that Chamonix cannot he seen from the Grand Plateau. 



DR JANSSENS HUT 




THE ROCHERS ROUGES AND THE 'ANCIEN PASSAGE." 



rilAI'. 111. 



THE FIRST ASCENT OF MONT BLANC. 



•21 



ill Vol. IV. of his Vot/m/es. Paccaid, the Village Doc-tor, was known 
to (Miaiiionianls as a niouiitaineering amateur, aii<l in 17S0 was al)out 
thirty-four years of a-e. Thou-li he nii-ht he little service as a 
(•oniiKinion, he couM he useful as a witness. Paeear.l agreed to go. 
Then three weeks of had weather intervened ; hut at last, on August 
S 17S0, it seemed line enough to start. "AH our little matters 
hitvino heen arranged," said IJalnuit,^ "and goo<l-hye said to our 
wive-^ we set out ahout live in the afternoon, one taking the right 
aiiil t^ie other the left hank of the Uiver Arve, in or<ler that no one 
should -uess what we were ahout, and we rejoined each other at the 
village of La (^■.te.•" They eampeil at the top of the Montague de 
la Cr»te (the long huttress which is seen in the engraving on p. '2o, 
extendin.. from the valley towards the summit), ahout 5500 feet ahove 
Chamonix. So far there was no ditlieulty. " 1 slept like a top, s^iid 
lialmat, '• until ahout half-past one," and then awoke the doctor. " The 
sun arose chmiUess, hright and shining, promising us a grand day. 

The tup of the Montague de la C6te ahuts on the glaciers wlucli 
extend continuously to the summit of Mont IJlanc. The (Uacier de 
Taconna/ descends on its right and the (ilacier <les Hossons «>n its 
left, and at th(? place where they separate the ice is extremely hssured 
an.l' ditlicult to traverse, iialmat made no fuss alxmt this. '"In a 
nuarter of an hour," said he, "we took to the (ilacier ile laconnaz 
The tirst steps of the <loctor were rather unsteady, Imt seeing how 1 
mana"e.l he gained conlidence. We soon left the (Jrands Mulcts 
hehinil us.- I pt.inted (mt the place where T had passed my lirst 
ni<-lit He nuide a signilicant grimace, and held his tongue U>v ten 
mhiutes, then said all at once, ' Do you think, liahnat, that we 
shall get to the top to-day?' I promised nothing tor two hours 
more we continued to ascend in the same way. After tlie ((.rand) 
IMateau, the wind rose, and grew higher and higher. At last, on 
arrivin.. where the rocks wiiich we called the Petit Mulct -^ peep out, 
a violent gust carried away the doctor's hat. I saw it scuttling 
away, while he lookcl after it with outstretched arms. ' Uh ! Doctor, 
I sa'i<i, -you will have to go into mourning; you 11 see it no more. 
It's otr t() Piedmont. iJood-hyel' 

'• I had hanlly shut mv mouth when there came such a s.piall as 
ma.le us lie Hat on our komachs, and for ten minutes we couldn t 
o-et ui» a-ain. The doctor was discouraged. As for me, just then I 
was thinking only ahout the shop-keeper who cmght to he looking 
out f(n us,'» aiul I stoo.l up at the tirst opportunity, hut the doctor 

1 The account that follows of the ascent with Paccard is principally taken from the 
relation oT it which wa^ 5,nven l.y Balmat to Alexandre Dunia^ in 1832, forty-s.x years after 

'•J Tht"( Jrands Mulets is the name -In en to the first little -roup of Aiguilles which appear 
throu.d\ tl.e ices aVxne the Montague de la Cote. They are at the left-hand bottom corner 
of tht^en-ravinK, Mont Blanc from the Brevent. 

:« Balmat <lisi>oses of the -reater part of the accent in l^^^"--^-; «^;^^';^J;''Vf;^, J^^^,,^*^^ 
Mulcts (as tlie rocks to which he refers are now terme<l) are a si"--}", P^t l\ o' '> ■^■>'»/ttt 
iXw the sununit, (MK) feet above the top of the llochers Rouy:es, and al>out om) teet above 
tlie (irands Mulets. . . , .t 

4 Before leaving Chamonix, they h:ul told a marchande de strop to look out for them, 
near the top of the mountain, at a certain time. 



DR JANSSENS HUT 







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THE ROCHERS ROUGES AND THE 'ANCIEN PASSAGEc" 



(MAI'. III. 



/'///•; FJnST ASCKXT OF M(L\T llLANi\ 



•_>I 



ill V«»l. IV. (.f liis Vo»/ff(/rs. I'juvanl, tlic Vilhige I)o<l(.r, wus kiu.wii 
to Cliiuiioiiianls as a niouiitaiiieerinu aiiiateiir, aiul in I7S0 was al^ml 
thiitv-four years of a-c. Tlioii-li lie mi-lit l»c little serviee as a 
coinilaiiioii, he coiiM l.e useful as a witness. Paecar.l a-ree.l to -o. 
Tlieii three weeks of haa weather iiiterveue<l ; hut at last, on Au-ust 
S ITSO it seemed line euou-h t(» start. *' All our little matters 
haviu- heen arran-e.l," sai<l IJaliiiat,' -ami -oo<l-hye said t(» our 
wives we set (Uit ahout live in tiie afternoon, (.ne takm- the ri-lit 
ami tiie other the left l»ank of the Uiver Arve, in order that no one 
^iMMild "uess what we were ahout, and we rejoined each other at tlie 
viUa-e "of La (".He." They eamped at the top of theMonta-ne d_e 
la Crite (the lou" hultress which is soen in the engravm-- (m p. 'io, 
exteii.lin-' from the valley towards the summit), ahout ,V>()0 feet ahoye 
('ham<Mii\. So far there\vas no ditlieulty. " I slept like a top, saul 
IJalmat, " until ahout half-past one," and then awoke the doetor. - 1 lie 
sun arose eloudless, hri-ht and shinin-, pn.mising us a ^rand slay. 

The t<»p of the Monta-ne de la Cote ahuts on the -laeiers which 
extend c.mtinuously to the summit of M<mt lilanc. The (Ihu-ier de 
Tacimna/ .lescends* <m its ri-ht and the (ilacier des IJossons (»n its 
left an<l at the place where they separate the ice is extremely hssured 
and dilVicuU to traverse. IJalmat ma.le no fuss ahtmt this -In a 
nuarter of an hour," said he, -we took to the (Jlacier .le laconnaz 
The lir-t stei.s of the doctor were rather unsteady, hut seein- how I 
mana-ed he -aincd conlidence. We .soon left the (irands Mulets 
hchind us.- r pointed imt the place where I had passed my hist 
ni-dil lie made a si-nilicant -rimace, and held his ton-ue for ten 
,,,'hiutes. then said all at once, 'Do y<m think, llalmat, that we 
shall -vt to the ti.i' to-day?' I i»r<Mnise.l iiotlnn- For two hours 
more we continued to ascend in the same way. After the ((,rand) 
IMateau, the wind r(»se, an.l -rew hi-her and hi-her. At last, (m 
arrivin.. where the rocks which we called the IVtit Mulct • peep out, 
a viokmt mist carrie.l away the doctor's hat. 1 saw it scuttling 
awav, while Iw hn.ke.l after it with (Uitstretehe.l arms. '(Mi 1 Doctor, 
I sa'i.l, -y.Mi will have to o,) into mournin.u : you 11 see it no more. 
It's oir t(') IMe<lmont. ( locxl-hye ! " 

- I had hanllv shut mv iiuaith when there came .such a s.pia I as 
ma.le us lie Hat on our .stomachs, an.l f..r ten minutes we .-oul.tn I 
..ot up a-ain. The .loct.u- was .lisc.mrage.l. As f.)r me, just then I 
was thiiikin.. onlv ahimt the simp-keeper who .»uiiht to he h«»kin- 
out f.»r us,^"an.l 1 st.M».l up at the lirst opportunity, hut the doetor 

1 The aivoui.t that follows of the tuscent with i'uivar.l is prhu.'ipally taken from the 
.vlati...!" .;! ll whi.l. was yiven by nalniat to Alexa.ulre Dunuas in 1832, forty-s.x years after 

^ '-^ TlR^Crand- Mulets is the name ui\en to the first little -rouj) of AijiuiHes which appear 
thnnT'h the ice, above the Monta^ne de la Cote. Tiiey are at the lett-liand bottom corner 
of the" en-ravin-. Mont IJlanc from the Brevent. 

". I'.almat .lisnosfs of the uieater part of tlie asi-enL in half-a-dozen lines. The etits 
Mnl.l^ s the nuk". to whirl, he refers are now termed) are a small patch only .{...» feet 
iXv tht .smmn.U.KHlfeet aboxe the top of the lloehers Uou-es, and abont 53.).l feet above 
the <;rands Mulets. .... 

1 IJtfore leavin- Chamonix. they had told a nHirrhitnde dv .strop to look out tor them, 
near the top of the mountain, at a certain time. 



22 



CHAMUNIX AND MONT BLANC. 



C'HAl". III. 



\voui«l only follow on all fours. In this fashion we came to a place 
where the village could he seen ; 1 got out my glass, and twelve 
thousand feet helow in the valley made out our gossip, and a crowd of 
others looking at us through telescopes. Considerations of self-respect 
influenced the «loctor to get on his legs, and the moment he was up 
they recognised us, he in his ])ig frock-coat an«l 1 in my regular dress. 
Down l>elow they waved their hats, and I replied with mine. 

" I'accard had used up his strength in getting on his legs, and 
neither the encouragement we received nor that which I gave him 
made him continue upwards. xVfter 1 had exhausted all my elo«iuence 
and saw that 1 was only losing time, I told him to keep in move- 
ment and as warm a.s possible. He listened without hearing, and 
answered ' Yes, yes,' to get rid of me. He was sullering from the 
cold, and I myself was benumbed. I went oil" by myself, saying that 
I wouM come back to look for him. 'Yes, yes,' he replied. I 
recommended him again not to keep still ; but 1 had not g()ne thirty 
steps, when, on looking round, I saw that, instea<l of running abo\it 
and beating his feet to keep them alive, he was sitting with his back 
to the wind. 

"From this time the way «lid not present any particular «liHiculty, 
but, as I got higher, the air liecame less and less tit to l>reathe. 
Every ten steps 1 was ol)liged to sto[). It seemed as if 1 had an 
empty chest and no lungs, and the cold laid hold of me more and 
more. I went on, with face lowered, but presently, not knowing 
where 1 was, raised my head and saw that at last I was on the 
summit of Mont Blanc. Looking around, trembling lest I was 
mistaken, and shouM see some fresh aiguille or new point which I 
should not have strength to scale, the joints of my legs only seemed 
to hold together by the help of my trousers. IJut no I no I I was 
at the en<l of my journey. 1 was where no one had ever been before. 
Then I turned towards Chamonix, waving my hat at the end of my 
baton, and saw through my glass that they answered me. 

" When this exciting moment was over, I thought of my poor 
doctor ; and, descending to him as (quickly as possible, called him by 
name — quite frightened not to hear him answer. At the end of a 
([uarter of an hour I saw him from afar, roun«l as a ball, not moving, 
notwithstanding the shouts which he certainly must have heard. 1 
found him doubled up with his head between his knees, like a eat 
nuiking itself into a mutl'. I slapped him on the shoulder, and he 
mechanically raise<l his head. 1 told him that I had reache<l the 
summit of Mont Blanc, but that appeared to interest him very little, 
for he only answered l>y inquiring where he could lie down and go 
to sleep. I told him that he had come on purpose to go to the top 
of the mountain, and that he must go there. 1 shook him, took him 
by the shoulders, and made him go a few steps ; but he appeared 
stupeiied, and as if it were all the same whether he went one way 
or another, either u[) or down. However, the exercise I compelled 
him to take restored his circulation somewhat, and he asked if I 
hadn't by chance another pair of gloves in my pocket like those 
which were on my hands. They were of hareskin and had been made 



CHAP. III. 



THE DESCENT 



23 



expressly for the occasion, without divisions between the lingers. In a 
siniilar situation, 1 wcmld have refused both to my I'^-^ther bu I gave 
him one. Soon after six we were on the summit of Mont Blanc. 

"Seven o'clock came; there were only two hours and a half more 
of ,layli..ht; it was time to be off. I caught Paccard again under 
the arn^ wave<l my hat as a last signal to those ^^^l-^ ' «f^^ ;;,« 
be-an to go <lown. There was no track to direct us except the little 
hoTes which luul been made with the points of our iron-shod batons 
l>accard was no better than a child, without will or energy, ^vl;<^l«^ J 
oiiided over the good bits and carried over the bad ones. ^iglit 
K-an to close in when we crossed the big crevasse, and caught us 
beFow the (Jrand Plateau. Paccard stopped every moment, declaring 
that he could go no farther, and I was obliged to compel liim to go 
forward, not by persuasion but by force. At eleven o clock we got 
out of the ice-world, and set foot on terra Ji mm 

They had now got back to the top of the Montague de la Cote. 
P>almat remarked here that the doctor ma<le no use of his l\ands juid 
found that he had lost sensation in them. " drew oil his gloves 
his haiuls were white, and as if dead." One of Balmats own hand> 

was in a similar state. , i i * n... 

" I t(dd him that there were three frost-bitten hamls between the 
two of us, but he only wanted to lie down and go to sleep, though he 
toM me to rub my hand with snow. The remeily wasii t far otl. 1 
<onnnen<.cd on bin,, and tinished on myself. Presently the l>lood came 
back, and with it warmth, but with the most exciuisite pain. . .1 
rolled up mv doll in the rug, put him nnder shelter ot a rock, we ate 
a bit, .Irank a drop, pressed one against the other as close as we 
couM, and went to sleep." 

Next morning the doctor was snow-blmd, ^^;^'\/;'^% ^^•^. /.?. 
bolding on to a strap of his guide's knapsack ; and Ba .nat said that 
he hiuTself was unrecognisable. "1 had red eyes, a black face, and 
blue ears." Four days afterwards he left for Geneva to announce his 

""''' But 'before lialmat and Paccard came back, a special messenger was 
•ilrea<lv on his way to Geneva, sent by a sharp innkeeper who hoped 
'to'^ure the pat/onage of De Saussure. The reply which came from 
the Professor is an interesting document. It commenced thus: 

-I im very much obliged to you, my dear Jean-Pierre, for sending an 

express W nforn^me of the happ/ result of Dr. Paccard's expedition. 1 was 

^^TLmoI ^t the news that 1 ffave two new crowns to the messenger. . . 

^" ^'N^w am goLg <> ten you^somethiug that you must ke^P - I'-^ouud 

? ' 1 fK; i< fhnt T mvself wish to try the same route ; not that I flatter 

secret and this 1. ^^'^^^ ^^> "^ J ^have neither the youth nor the agility of 

myselt I '^^V,^ \^et f,^ /^ ^'^j^J,^' ^t anvhow, Uy a considerable elevation, and 

^Z.^:o^Zer^:^lr:i^^orin..n^ which will be very i^nyK^rtant ^ 

e Now as it appears that it is very troublesx^me to get across the glacaer 

which is above thl^Iontagne de la CAte 1 -ish you to -nd ^^^ ^ce ^^f^^^J 

the journey with Monsieur Paccard, and give hnn higher paj. 



24 



rUAMoXIX AMf MOXT liLAXC 



CHAl'. III. 



Ami tlion, after various other «lireeti(»iis, comes tliis eiirious passage. 
••Hut. in all this, I expressly iorhi<l you to mention my name: say 
that all this has heen onlered hy an Italian nohleman, ^^ho does not 
wish to he known. I ha\e the .strongest rea.siuis for Manting not to 
l>e talked ahout, and that no one shall kn(»\v I have got this idea 
in my head.' What these rea.sons were we <lo not know. He came 
to (iiamonix a week after writing the letter,^ hut hjul weather set 
in, and another t/ritr passed hefore De Saussure stood on the summit 
of Mont lilanc. On August 1, 17S7, he set out with seventeen men 
led l»y Jac<iues Hal mat, and passed the lirst night on the top of the 
Montague de la Cote, the next under tent near the edge of the 
(Jrand^IMateau, and uium August 3, at 11 a.m., ''1 enjoyed,'' he 
said, " the i)leasure of the accomplishment of the project which 1 
had jdanned twenty-seven years hefore, namely, upon my first journey 
to Chamonix in 1 700— a i»roject which I had often ahandoned and 
taken up again, which was a constant matter of care and anxiety 
to mv family.'' 

In the hook hy M. de Saussure a plate of Mont Hlanc is given, 
with his track marked thereon ; and, although this plate inarcurately 
represents the mountain, one can tell from it where he went, and 
the route that was first (»f all «liscovered hy Halmat, Nvhich was 
suhsequently followed hy Halmat and Taccard.- The opinion of De 
Saussure (printed nine years after his ascent) was that this route 
was " very certainly the only one hy which the summit could he 
gained." * In this lie was mistaken the mountain has, since then, 
heen ascended from half-a-<lozen dillerent directions. Hut the route 
taken on the lirst ascent is the most direct of all, and, in some 
respects, is the most natural one." 

An episode relating to Jac«iues Halmat remains to he mentioned, 
which appears to have heen overlooked or igmued hy writers nn Mont 
Hlanc. In the numher (tf the Jonnnil ilr Ijni.smuir for Fehruary 'J4, 
17S7, an anonymous jirticle appeared questioning the accuracy of the 
account of the ascent which was generally received. It claimed that 
Paccard had di.scovere«l the route which was followed ; it stated that 
he ha«l 'selected' Jacques Halnuit to accomi>any him, and had done 
s(» merely hecause the other guides were away and he was the only 
one unoccupied ; and that he was selected not as a ynidi- hut as a 

1 Tlie original klttr Iron, \k- Saussure was ro<-cntl\, and I sujipose is still, in fxistt-m-e. 
Il was y:iven In .Mons." E<hvanl Tairraz to the late Sir. Albert Smith. The letter In De 
Saussure, advising; him that Mont Blanc had been ascended, was written h\ Jean Pierre 
Tairraz, who kei>t a little inn. 

- The engraving: on p. '1^) is a reproduction of this plate. 

3 The first route has been improved upon, and to some e.xtent has l)een sui>erseded. 
The usual course is to ]>rocee«l from Chanumix (3445 feet) to the IMerre I'omlue ((5723). 
So far there is a mule path. From the Pierre I'ointue to the spot called Pierre TEchelle 
(7!H0), at the ed-,'e of the rijfht Ixvnk of the (ilacier des liossons, there is a rou^h i»ath. 
The (Ilacier des Bossons is then crosse*l to the roc-ks calle<l the (;ran<ls Mulcts (10,113), 
aiKl there the ori^nnal route is taken uj), and followed so far as the (;rand Plateau 
(about l-J.iXH)). Balmafs route is then departed from, and there are two ways, which 
are used about etjualh -one >)V the rid;,a' of the Busses, and the other bv what is termed 
*the Corridor'— a steep bank of ;,dacier leatlin-; from a l»reak in the Mont Maudit ridge 
down t(» the (Jrand Plateau. Those who ascend by the latter way take up Balmat's 
route ayain upon re iching^ the top of the llochers Kouyes. 







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'24 



CHAMnXIX AXn MnXT V.LAXr. 



( n\i'. III. 



AikI tlion. aftiT various ollici- (liiTrli<tii>. coiiio tlii> (•uii(»u> i»a>sa^t'. 
• IJiil. ill all tliis, I e.\i»R'N>ly torl>i<l yon lo iiienlioii my naiiio : say 
lliat all this lias lioeii onk-icMl l>y an Italian iiol.kMiian, who does not 
wisli lo l>o known. I lia\c iIk- slion.uvst ivasons for wanlin- not to 
1.0 talked al.out, and tliat no one shall know I have ^ot this idea 
in my head." What these reasons were we d(» not know, lie came 
to ("hamonix a week after writin- the letter,' hut had weather set 
in, and aiu.ther //"//• jiassed hefore De Saussure stood on the summit 
of M«»nt r.lan<». On Au-ust I, 17S7, he set out with seventeen men 
le<l l>y .lae<|ues llalmat, and j.assed the lirst ni-ht on the toi» of the 
Monta-ne «le la Cote, the next under tent near the ed-e of the 
(h-ancriMateau, and upon Au-usl S. at 11 a.m., "I enjoyed," he 
said. •• the pleasure of the accomplishment of the pn»ject which I 
had jdanned twenty-seven years hefore, namely, upon my lirst journey 
to ('hamonix in f7()U -a jtroject which I ha«l often ahandoned and 
taken up a-ain, which was a constant matter of care and anxiety 
to my family."' 

In the h<>(d< hy M. de Saussure a plate of Mont lUanc is -ivcii. 
with his track marked thereon : an<l, althou-h thi- plate ina«'curately 
rei»resent- the mountain, one can tell frc.m it where he went, and 
the route that was lirst of all discovere<l hy lialmat. \\hi<-li was 
suhseuueutlv foUuwed hy lialmat and Taccar*!.- The o|.iniun of 1 )c 

It * 1 1 * 

Saussure (printed nine years after his ascent) Nvas that this route 
was "very certainly the only one hy which the summit could he 
piined." In this lie was mistaken the mountain has, since then, 
heen ascended from half-a-do/en dillerent directions. lint the route 
taken on the lirst ascent is the most direct of all, and, in some 
respects, is the most natural one.' 

An episode relatin.i: to ,lac<|ues Ualinat remains to he mentioned. 
\\hi<li appeals to have heen overlooked or i.ui»<»ied hy wiiters on Mont 
r.laiic. In the numher of the JoKninl (h Linismnir for Fehruary lM, 
its;, an anonymous arti«'le ap|»eared questionini; the accuracy ot the 
account of the ascent which was ue'n^'ially received. It claimed that 
Taccard had discovered the route which was followed : it stated that 
he had 'selected" .lac<iues Ualmat to accompany him, and had d(»nc 
so merely because the other .guides were away and he was the only 
one unoccupied ; and that he was selected not as a nnuli hut as a 

' The itriiiiiKil Itlttr //"/// I >r Suiissmv was ivceiitly, ami 1 sii|»im.-,i' i'-xtill. in c\istfiii-i-. 
It \va.syi\fM l.\ Moiis." Ivhvanl Tairra/ t.» the latt- Sir. Alla-rt Siiiilli. Tlu- kllir to l>c 
.Suussun-. a<lvisi)i.i: him that M«>iit IMain- liad httii a^ceiKle<l, was \viitleii h\ Jean I'lerii' 
Tairra/.. who ke]tt a little inn. 

- Tlie eni^ruviii;; on j*. '1') is a repnjductiun of this plate. 

3 The first route has heen in(i»rove(l iii>»>n, and to some extent has heen suiterseded. 
Tlie usual course is to proceed from t'ham<.ni\ (:{44r. feet) to tlie I'ierre rointue (CmI':;). 
.So far there is a nuile path. From the I'ierre I'ointue to the spot railed I'lerie rE.helle 
C'.HU), at the edu'e of the ri-ht hank of tlie (Jlaeier <les IJossons, there is a rou-h j.ath. 
Tlu- Clacier des I'.ossoiis is then crossed to the rocks called the tirands Mulets (ln,ll;i), 
and there tlie oiiiiinal route is taken uj*. and f<.llowed so far as the (Jrand I'lateau 
(about 12.;kmi). Balmals mule i^ then deparle<l from, and there are two wa\ s, which 
are u>efl ahout e«|uall\ -one hv the ridj;e of the ISosses, and tlie other h\ what is terined 
'the Corridor" a steep hank of -lacier leading from a break in the Mont Maiidit ridj;e 
down to the (;iiind I'lateau. Those who axend b.\ the latter wa> take ui» IJalmafs 
route a;^aiii upon reichiiii; the top ot the Kocliers Kouj;es. 




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CHAMONIX AND MONT BLANC. ciiAi-. 



Hi. 



26 

irorkman. -He was ouiae.l,' said this anonymous c-oH.niunic'ati<ni, 
"and encoura-ed l»y M. Paeeard. l*accard pressod hini to j;o on 
when he wanted to turn back, lialniat was usetul to hini, (U»ul>tless, 
]>ut not in attaining the sunnnit. . . Jiahnat did not get there the 
first— M. Paeeard has certiiicates wliicli prove this —and lie Nsas 
not unrewardeil, for the Doctor gave liini money." 

M. Dourrit took up his pen in defence of the ( hanionix guide, 
and sent a letter to the Journal dc Laumnnc, which appeared in 
its nuinl»ers for March 10 and 17, 17S7. He contra^hcted point-Mank 
some of the aljove statements, and challenged the production ot the 
certiiicates. " If M. Paccard rewar.led IJalmat," said liournt, " it must 
have been afta' the publication of my letter; for I^ ]<now that he 
ottered hhn a crown, and that P.almat refused it.' lhis_ causcMl the 
publication in the Jounud de Ijumnnie for May 1;2, 1/H/, ot tNNO 
declarati(»ns (purporting to be signed by IJalmat), which were prefaced 
by the following editorial remarks. " Our impartiality Icil us to insert 
in our 13th, 15th, and 10th numbers, the complaints ot Dr. I accard 
and M. Bourrit. . . We admit to-day the following ccrtihcates, 
which we ilo not feel able to refuse to insert. Ihit we will say now, 
to those interested in this dispute, that the scheme of our paper will 
not allow us to occupy the attention of our readers any l^'nj^^;;; <»» 
such matters, which, perhaps, are not generally interesting. 1 hen 
follow the declarations. 

-I the undersigned Jacques, son of J. T. Balmat, of Pelerins, (V.mnume of 
Chainonix, declare to all these it may concern, that I otfered my sorxicCN to 
dSM Paccard, having learned that he wished to make a new attempt 
on Mont Blanc, in continuation of those which he had already made, and 
knowing that his own guide was away. ^. ^^ ., . , , .,., ^.■. ...„ 

"As he proposed to go by the side ot the Montagne de la Cote, ^^hich we 
thoufflit was an impracticable route, I had doubts as to the sxiecess ot the 
enterprise ; but he told me that he had examined this direction, tor the space 

ot three years, with his telesct>pe. . , • u u i .,i ,..r. 

"1 dedare that except tor the steady manner in which he proceeded v^c 
should never have succeeded ; that he continually encouraged me 'that he 
shared my lalx,ur, and sometimes himself carried a portion o the things ho 
had i?iven me to carry ; that when 1 wanted to come down, as 1 had pronused, 
to bf of asltonce to' my wife and a child who was ill (this latter died on 
the 8th of August), he regarded my represen tuitions as excuses. ..^. 

"He would not follow the route which we had t^iken on our last attempt, 
but kept straight on to the middle of the plain which is aboye the (xlacier 
des Bossons. He himself traced for me his new route, by going before me 
up a steep slope, which is at the foot of the great Mont Blanc. As he had 
always sa d that we should sleep out on the mountain, he made me look tor 
a camping-place, as soon as we got to the top of this slope whilst he ;|^cen led 
to examine the rocks. Not finding any, he determined to ascend he sa e 
evening to the summit, the object we were in pursuit ot. He called to nc 
and I followed. At the same moment, 1 saw something dark pass alxne me 
-it was his hat, which the wind carried away with such velocity that we saw 

""rlTe^octor continued to ascend nimbly. We came to a little rock 
behind which 1 sheltered myself from the wind, whilst he examined it, and 
mad'e collections. We were near the top of the mountain. I l>ore away to 
the left to avoid a snow slope, which Mons. Paccard courageously scaled to 

1 Hence it appears that the anonymous article was written by Dr. l»accard. 



( llAl'. 111. 



WHO IS THIS DE. PACCARD? 



•27 



get straight to the summit of Mont Blanc. The detour 1 made delayed me 
somewhat, and 1 was obliged to run, to be nearly as soon as he was on the 

aforesaid spot. . , • , , i. i 

"He made experiments there, and observations, which he wrote down. 
He left a mark there, and we then came down at once, (luickly, lolUnving our 
track and hM)king tor it in turn. We arriyed on the top ol the Montagne 
de la' Cote, where Mons. Paccard slept, on the side exposed to the glacier. 

" He fed me, he paid me, and handed over money which had been given 
to him to transmit. In witness of which I sign this at the Wmr^ ot Chamomx, 
this 18th of October, 1786, in presence of the undersigned witnesses. 

"Jacques Balmat. 

"CV>unter- signed by Joseph Pot and Joseph Marie Crussa, the requisite 
witnesses, called expressly." 

Second Testimony of the aforesaid J. Balmat. 

" i the undersigned, certify having received of Dr. Paccard a new cnnvn 
r the Baron de Gersdorf, on August 10, 1786, at the same tune 



on the part of 
as my wjige. 

"Chamonix, U.^th of March, 1787." 



Jacques Balmat. 



\t must be taken for grante.l that Balmat actually sigiie<l these 
documents, but the (piestion arises, <lid he know what he was sign- 
iu<--'' Their obvious aim is the glorilication of l^accard. Lrom lust 
to'last it is Paccard who said this or di<l that. The merit of having 
,K»intcd out ami led the way, and the honour of tirst reaching the 
summit, are declare<l to be his. It is Paccard who heli>s and en- 
courages P,almat, not Jialmat who assists the doctor. If one believes 
P,almat, the village doctor cut a sorry Hgure cm Mont Blanc. it 
one crc<lits l^accard, the [.art taken by Balmat was quite subordinate. 
Thou'di these curious documents may have answered their lairpose 
at tire time of publication, posterity has not estimated Paccard so 
highly as he might have wished. A monument has been raised in 
(MTamonix to Balmat, and another to De Saussure. \\ hi st their 
names are remembered with gratitmle, that of the village doctor is 
welliiigh forgotten : ami, if one were to make iiKiuiries about him, 
it is more than likely that the answer wouhl be, "Who is this 
Doctor Paccard V''i 

1 l)r Paccard continued to live at Chamonix for many years and is referred to in 
soveral" of the accounts of earlv accents of Mont Hlanc. At the conclusion ot the 
hunoul ;/aeniew between Alexandre Dnnu^ and IJahnat in 1832 the former en.,u.red . 

'« ' Kl U* (l<M-teur l"a<'<"ard, est-il reste aveu^le .'' . . . ,• * f 

' \h • on ave -de Ml est mort il y a onze n.ois, h l'a{,^e de so.xante-dix-neuf ans, et 
il hijut" encore s^;*ses lunettes.^ Seulement il avait les yenx diablement rou^^es. 

' Des suites de son ascension;" 

'Oh I <iue non I' 

'Kt de (luoi alorsV 

' Le bontiomme levait un pen le coude. 



CHAPTER IV. 

ASCExXT OF MONT BLANC BY HORACE BENKJ)1CT 1)E SAUSSURE.' 



I)E 8AUSSUKE STAllTS, LED BY JACCiUES HALMAT — THEY CAMP ON 
THE TOP OF THE MOXTAGNE DE LA c6tE — AKE AFFECTED I!V 
•HAKEFACTION OF THE Allt ' — STOP A SECOND NKJHT AT THE 
EDGE OF THE GPvAND PLATEAU— KEACH THE SUMMPl' ON AUG. 8, 
17S7_-PASS A THIHD NUiHT OUT— KENCONTKE WITH HOUinaT. 

The l'ul)lic have loanit from various perio<Hf{il i>ul>lic;itions, tliat in 
the month (►f Au-ust, hist year, two (/hamotiiards, M. I'accanl, Doctor 
oi medicine, an<l Ja<iues- Balmat, .unide, jiot to tlie summit of Mont 
lUanc, which until then lia<l heen considered inaccessilde. 

I heard of it the next (hiy, and «et out for the sjjot to endeavour 
to foHow tlieir track, hut rain and snow ohli<ied me to j;ive it ui» for 
that season. 1 left with Ja«iues Balmat a commission to examine the 
mountain as early as the ]>ej;inning of June, and to advise me directly 
it ]>ecame accessilde by the lessening;- of the winter snow. In the mean- 
time I went to l*rovence, to make at the level of the sea some 
experiments whicli mi^^ht he comi>ared with those which 1 pro^josed 
to attemi>t on Mont Blanc. 

datjues lialmat made two unsuccessful attempts in the month of 
.lune; however, he wrote to me that he had no douht that we should 
l)e able to .i;et up at the hej;innin- of duly. I then set out for 
Chamouni. I met at Sallenche the coura;^eous Balmat who was 
comin^^ to tJeneva to tell me ahout his latest success,— he had ascended 
to the summit on July 5 with two other j;uides, Jean-Michel Cachat 
and Alexis Tournier. It was raining when I «;ot to Chamouni, and 
had weather continued for nearly four weeks. But I resolved to wait 
to the end of the season rather than miss a favourable oi»portunity. 

The moment so mucli longed for came at last, and 1 set out on 

I This account is ^dveii by De Saussiu-f in Chapter IL of the fourth \ohuue of his 
Vomqex danx les Alpcx, and is lieuilefl "Relation abre^ee d'un voyaire a la einie du 
Mont'Blatic en Aout 1787." In a note he says, "This account is that which I publishect 
in 1787, inuiiediately ui»on my return. As the public appeared satisfied with it, I lia\e 
preservetl it without alteration. " 

- Throuyhout this account, De Saussure's spelling of ]>roper names is retained. My 
own notes an<l conunents can be distinguished from De Saussure's by being bracketed. 



OHM' IV DE SAUSf<VRE^S AHCEST. '29 

u!is natnro. I ol,lij,e,l bin. to !,'ive it u|.. H. re.nan.cl at /. I,.n.r. 














^ ■ ' 



i I If * 



'iWJlfi 



WiU^ 



^— - --m ■ ■ *aK 









MONUMENT TO HORACE BENEDICT DE SAUSSURE. 

Where he n.ade. with nnich care, corresponding observations with those 

^'lllhoml^ns'"!^ two and a <ptarter leagues in a straight line 

from the 7V.V..T ./. rLnounl to the sunnnit ot Mont blanc, this 

I Here are their names. 

Ji'an-Michel 
Michel 



I 



Fra)i{'oix 



Jaqnes Balmat, dit le M<>„t-Dlain: 
Pien-e Ralmat. 
^i:.SSlmat,do^nest.<le>Uie.Couteran. 

Jean-Mlehel Cachat, dit le Geant. 
.fean-Baptixte Lombard, dit Jora^xe. 
Alexia Tournier. 
Alexis Balmat. 

Jean-Umis D6vouassou. R-,vanel 1 

* [E\identlv a nuspnnt foi Ka\anei.j 



y D6 vouassou , f reres. 



Pierre ) 

Fran(:oi>f Coutet. 

Ravanet.* 

Pierre-Fra )t{-oi>! Favret. 
Jean-Pierre Cachat. 
Jean-Michel Tournier. 



30 



CHAMONIX AND MO XT BLANC. 



CHAP. IV. 



excursion has always required about 18 hours' walkin;^, because there 
are niaitvais pas, dcfours, aiul about 1920 toises of ascent. 

1 carried a tent in order to be i>erfectly free in the selection of 
jdaces to pass the nij^ht ; and on the lirst eveninj^- 1 camped under 
this tent at the toj) of the monfar/nr dr la Cofr, which is situated to 
the .south of /(' J'rtrtnr, and at 770 toises alK)ve that villa<;e. This 
day is free from trouble and danger ; one goes over turf or rock, and 
gets to the top easily in five or six hours. 15ut thence to the summit, 
one only Avalks over snow or ice. 

The second day is not altogether easy. At first one must traverse 
the glacier de La Cote^ to reach the foot of a little chain of rocks 
whicli are enclosed by the snows of Mont l>lanc. This glacier is 
diHicult and dangerous. It is interspersed with large, deep, and 
irregular crevasses, and often one can only cross them by snow-bridges, 
wliich are sometimes very thin, and hanging over abysses. One of my 
gui<les just misse<l losing his life there. He went overnight with two 
others to reconnoitre. Fortunately they took the precaution to tie 
themselves together with roj^e ; the snow gave way under him in the 
middle of a large and deei> crevas.se, and he remained suspen<led 
between his two comrades. We passed close to the hole which was 
matle under him, and 1 shud«lered at seeing the danger he had en- 
countered. The j>as.sage of this glacier is .so ditlicult and tortuous, 
that it took three hours to go from the top of la Cote to the first 
rocks of the i.solate<l chain,-' althcmgh it is scarcely more than a quarter 
of a league as the crow Hies. 

After having reache<l these rocks, one recedes at first from them 
to .ascend in a winding manner in a valley filled with snow, which 
runs from North to South to the foot of the highest point.*' This 
snow is intersecte<l at intervals by enormous and su]>erb crevasses. 
Their clean sections show the snow arranged in horizontal beds, antl 
each of these l)eds corresponds with a year.^ Whatever may be the 
size of these creva.sses, one never sees to the l>ottom. 

My guides wanted to pass the night upon some of these rocks ; 
but as the highest of them were still 000 to 700 toises below the summit 
I wishe<l to get higher. To do so one must cam]> in the middle of the 
snow, an<l I ha<l much trouble in getting my travelling companions to 
assent to this. They imagined that absolutely insupportable cold 
reignetl at night in these high regicms, and were seriously afraid that 
they would i)erish there. 1 told them at last I was determined to go 

1 [There is no (Jlacier de la Cote. The Montai,'ne de la Cote, i,t will be seen by 
reference to the Ma]», is the rid'^e or buttress dividint; the lower portions of the CJlacs. 
des liossons and de Taconnaz. The 'little chain of rocks' are those now called the 
(Irands Millets, et«-., and are doul>tless a continuation of the ridj^e which, lower down, 
is called the Montaigne de la Cote.] 

- [In 1894, when niakinji; an ascent of Mont IJlanc by this route, I occupietl the same 
length of time, thouj^h led by such <;ood icemen as Daniel Maquij^naz and M. Zurbriygen. 
The part of the j^lacier traversed is now calknl ' the junction.'] 

•5 [This is very accurately stated. At present, upon lea\in,!^ the Orands Mulets, a 
course is steered across the Glacier de Taconnaz towards the Ai.i,aiille de (louter. See 
the Maj), and the enici-avinj; of Mont Blanc froni the Brevent, on which the rout« at 
present followed is laid down.] 

^ [This is \erv doubtful.] 



('U\\\ IV 



TffEY CAMP ON SNOW. 



31 






there with those upon whom 1 could rely, that we would dig deep 
down into the snow and cover the excavation with the tent-cloth, that 
we should l»e enclosed all together, and so slumld not suffer from cold, 
however severe it might be. This arrangement reassured them, and 
we went forwards. 

At f<mr in the afternoon we reached the second of the three great 
snowy i)lateaux which we had to cross, and there we encamped at 
H.lGtoi.ses above le I'rieure and 1995 above the sea, 90 toi.ses higher 
than the top of the Peak of Teneritte. We did not go so far as the 
last i>lateau, because one is exposed there to avalanches.^ The first 
l»lateau that we crossed is not exempt from them. We traversed 
two avalanches that had fallen since IJalmat's last ascent, the debris 
of which covered the whole breadth of the valley. 

My guides at once set to work to excavate the place where we 
were t^r pass the night, but they soon felt the efiect of rarefaction 
of the air. These hardy men, to whom seven or eight hours' walking 
counts as nothing, did not thr(»w out more than five or six shovelfuls 
<»f snow before they fouml it imi>o.ssible to continue, and were oblige<l 
to relieve each other from one minute to another. One of them, who 
went back to get in a cask some water which we had seen in a 
crevasse, was taken ill whilst going down, came back without any 
water, and i>assed the evening in great suttering. I myself, who am 
so accustomed to the mountain air that 1 feel better in it than down 
below, 1 was exhauste<l with fatigue when observing my meteorological 
instruments. This indisposition i)roduced a burning thirst, and we 
could only get water by melting snow ; for the water which we had 
seen when coming up was found frozen when we went back for it, 
and the little furnace {trchaial a charhon) which I had brought 
sui>plied twenty thirsty i)eoide very slowly. 

From the middle of this i>lateau, enclosed between the sunnnit of 
Mont Ulanc on the south, steep slojjes on the east, and the Dome du 
(Joiiter on the west, one sees scarcely anything but snow, pure and 
of a dazzling whiteness, contrasting remarkably on the high elevation 

1 [The 'third' and 'last' plateau referred to by De Saussure is now called the Grand 
IMateaii. aTid it is, as he savs, exposed to avalanches, that fall on to it from the •glacier 
(underneath the siunmit) which extends from the llo<'hers Rou^jes to the Bosses du 
Dromadaire. See eni;ravin<,' of Mont Blanc from the Brevent. De Saussure could not 
ba\e been aware froin ]>ersonal knowledyfe that avalanches fell there, but it does not 
ai»pear from whom he learnt this, or at whose advice he pitehed his camp where he 

The en"-ravinjf on i)a<re 25 is a repro<luction of IM. II. vol. iv. of De Saussure's Voya<H'x, 
which -dves his"track. The two asterisks indicate the places where he encami>ed when 
as«•endin'^ {Plan'x ou I'nn a cain]>*'- ni uiontant.) The lower one is placed a little l)elow 
the top "of the Monta-ne de la Cote. At that position there are at the present time 
some very lari,'e boulders, and it was a<rainst these I>e Saussure's ramp was made. This 
is clear fiom a later narrati\ e in wliich he enters more into detail. A little lower down 
the track is made to ]»ass alon«r the side of the Glacier des Bossons. I doubt \ery much 
if he did so,— firstlv, from the nature of the ;j:lacier at that point, and, secondly, because 
there is no mention of anvthinj,' of the kind in the narrative. On the contrary, he 
states regai-dinj,' the first day, "This day is free from trouble; one «xoes over tnrj or 

Tlie higher camp he expresslv states was not matle upon the third (i.e. the Grand) 
l)lateau. '''We did not jro so far as the last plateau;" but upon the enj^ravintr the 
asterisk is place«l higher than the Grand Plateau. These may l>e nustakes of the 
draughtsman of the plate; anyhow, the plate does not agrree with the narrative.) 



(•HAP. IV 



\U RIVAL oy THE SUMMIT. 



33 




HORACE BENEDICT DE SAUSSURE, 

FROM THE PICTURE IN THE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY. GENEVA. 



with the ulniost hhick sky of these h>fty reoi(,ns. No livin.u hein.o is seen, 
no trace of ve-etation ; it is the aho.le of frost and stillness. When 
T i»icture.l to myself Doctor Paecard and Ja«ines Ualniat arriving in 
this \vilderness "towards the end of the day, witlumt shelter or 
assistance, withont even the certainty that men conld live in the 
places where they aspired to -o, yet always pnrsnin- tlieir course 
with intrepidity, ' I admire<l their strenoth, spirit, and courage. 

My ..uilles, 'always preoccupie.l hy fear of cold, closed the tent so 
ti-htiy"that I suttercil much from heat and the stuthness ot the 
at'inosphere. In the course of the night I was obliged to go out to 
hreathe. The moon shone hrilliantly in an elnniy sky. . . NN e liaa 
at last hcMin to sleep when we were aroused hy the noise of a great 
avalanche,'^ which covere.l a part of the slope we ha.l to ascend the 
next .lay. At dayhreak the thermometer stood at three degrees 

helow freezing point. i„,oi 

We starte<l late, because it was necessary to melt snow for bitak- 
fjxst ami for use on the way. It was drank as soon as melte<l, and 
these people who took religious care of the wine that 1 brought, robbe<l 
n.e continually <»f the water which was kept in reserve. 

We be.-airby asceiuling to the third and last plateau, then we 
lK,ro away"' to the left to get to the highest rock on the hast of the 
summit. ' The slope is extremely steep, 39 degrees in some places ; 
everywhere it abutte.l on precipices, and the surface of the snow was 
s<, hard that those who went tirst ccmld not make sure of their footing 
witlumt using an axe. We took two hours to scale this slope whicli 
is about 27^) toises high. Arrive<l at the last rock, we turned again 
to the ri.d.t. to the West,i to climb the last slope, the i»erpendicular 
height </ which is abcmt 150 toises. This slope has an inclination 
<.f only ab<mt -28 or 29 degrees, and is free rom danger; but he 
air is 'so thin there that the strength is rapidly exhausted. I con d 
not take more than 1.") or 10 steps at a time witlumt stopping to 
breathe. I felt even from time to time a tendency to swo<m which 
obli-cd nie to sit <lown; but as respiration was righted I ttlt > 
strength restored ; it seemed when recommencing to walk that I could 
:.o i.r a Hash to the summit of the mountain. All my guides were 
hi the same comlition. We t(»ok two Imiirs trom the last rock to 
the top, and it was eleven o'clock when we got there.- 

My lirst looks were directed to Chamouni, where I knew that m> 
wife 'and her two sisters, with eyes iixed at the te esc.>pe, were 
watchin.^ my movements with uneasiness. . . I could then en.)i>N 
t e .n-aud spectacle which I had beneath my eyes Light vapours 
a ..^ ' about the lower reghms n.bbed me indee<l of the lowest am 
helaiThest details, such as the plains of France and Lombardy : bu 
li ot miu-h regret this loss ; that which I came to see, and what I 
aw most clearly, was the general effect of the ugh ^^^^^ ^^^ 
arrangement I had s<. hmg wanted to umlerstand. I couldn t belune 

> iTliis i^ not correct,-lhe course is more south tliaii west.] 

l»etits iVorhei-s Kou-es a,ul ti.e Petits Mulcts) are h.-her u,..] 

1> 



(11 \l'. IV 



AinnvAi. ffX THE si'mmit. 



33 




HORACE BENEDICT DE SAUSSURE, 

FROM THE PICTURE IN THE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY. GENEVA. 



witli tl.r almost Ula.k -ky of tlu'M' \uhy n-icuis. No l.vin.u Urm.u is sirn, 
MO traro of v(-vtiitiou: it is tlie al»o(le <»f frost aiM stillness. N\ lu'ii 
I ,,i,.tnn-l ton.vself Doctor I'accard nn«l .hi-nu's lialniut arrivin- iii 
this wlMrnu'ss 'towanls tl.o .'ii.l of tl..' <lay, without shelter or 
assistanr... without even the eeitainty that men <ouM live in the 
, .hires where th.'V aspire.! l.» .u<s vet always imrsiiiiio their <-oiirse 
with intrepiUitv.'l a.lmire.l their stren-tl.. si.irit an.l eouia-e, 

Mv -ni'les, 'ahvMVs ineo.cui.i.Ml hy fear of eohl. eh»se.l the tent so 
ti-htiv"tl»at 1 snileie.l much from heat ami the stulhness ot the 
.•vt^nos'i.here. in the course ,»f the ni-ht I was <»hli-e.l to .uo out to 
hie-ithe The moon shone hiilliautly in an eh<»ny sky. . . N> e nad 
ut last iM-un t«» sleep when we w.'ie aiimse.l l.y the imise (»t a -reat 
avalaiicher which c<,v(Te.l a jKirt of the slope we ha.l to aseeml the 
next .lay. At .layhreak the ihernMmieter stoo.l at thre(> .le-rees 

helow fn-ezinu point. .- i i 

We >tarte.i late, hecause it was necessary to melt snow tor hreak- 
f,ist an.l for use on the way. It was .Irank as so<m as incited am 
tlM-.' people wlm t<M.k reli-i-ms care of the wme that 1 hron-ht, rohhed 
n.e <-ontinnallv of the water which was kept in reserve. 

We iK-an' hv aseen<linu to the thinl an<l last plateau, then n e 
hnre aw.MV^t<. the left to -et to the hi-hest rock on the Kast <jt the 
Mimmit The >h.po is extremely steep, 31> de-rees in some places; 
(^vervwhere it ahutte.l <m preciiaces. an.l the surface ot the sik.w was 
so har.! that those who went tirst conhl not make sure ot their t..o inu 
without usinu an axe. We to<.k two hours to scale this slope which 
is alumt -J.-.d toises hi-h. Arrived at the last r<»ck. we turn.Ml a-am 
to the ri..l,t. to the West.' to cliinh the last sh.pe. the perpemlicular 
hei..ht ot^ whirl, is alHMit ir>(> t.nses. This slope has an inclination 
of 'onlv ahout -JS ,.r -JM de-rees. and is free from daii-er : hut the 
air is 'so thin there that the stren-th is rapidly exhausted. 1 <<.u .1 
not take m,.re than IT. or Id steps at a tinm with.mt stoppm.u to 
,„,,m„, I ,Mt evrn from time to time a temlency to sw<Mm whiH, 
ohliued me to sit down: hut as respiration was riohted I telt i > 
.tren-th restored ; it seeme.l wIumi renm.mcKin- to walk that I coul.i 
..,» in"' a lla>h to the summit of the uMmnlain. All my -uides were 
hi the same condition. We look two hours fr.m. the last r.u-k to 
the t(M'- .nid it was eleven <.Vlock when we .u<.t there.- 

Mv lirst looks were .lirected to Chanmuni. where I knew that m> 
wife "and her two sisters, with eyes fixed at the telesc-opc were 
watchii... mv movements with uneasiness. . . I could then eujo> 
the ..rand ^pe.-tacle which I had heiieath my eyes. Li,u 't vapours 
haicinu ahout the lower iv.ui.ms rohhed ...e indecl ot the lowest and 
thelarthest details, such as the plains oi Knuice and l.m.hardy : hu 
, .,i,l not muchreuret this h.ss ; that which ^ ^^'^^.^^ ^''^ "^^^ ""^^^^l 
saw most clearlv, was the general ettect .jt the hi.h -''''''"'.y^ / ;^^, 
arraiiMcMnent I had so hm;; wanted to understaml. I c<mldn t helieve 

I iTlii-. is i...t c.nvrt, llu- .Mmrso is iu..n- s.uUh llu.ii wi'st.l 

^i.,r^:::.,:^T:;;;l,'-J:-u'r^v;u:ii^;..^^v'-ti,;;:';,;.: 



34 



CHAMONIX AND MONT BLANC. 



CHAP. IV. 



my eyes, it seeme<l like a tlreani, to see ]>eneatli my feet these 
majestic peaks, these foniii<lal)le Ai^ijiiilles, le Midi, rAi«,'entiere, le 
Cieant, to «jcet to Avhose very l)ases liad heen for me so ditficnlt aii<l 
so (hxn»j:eroiis. I seized their hearings, their connexion, tlieir structnre, 
and a single glance cleared away douhts which years of work had 
not heen ahle to enlighten. 

Dnring this time the guides })itched my tent, and set uj) the little 
tahle for my experiments with hoiling- water. 15ut when I hegan to 
arrange and to ohserve my instruments, I found myself constantly 
com])elled to leave ott' work to take care of my resjnration. If one 
considers that the harometer stood at only IG inches and 1 line^ 
[French], and that the air, thus, was scarcely more than half its 
usual density, it will he understood that it was necessary to make 
up for the want of density hy fre<]uency of insjtiration. This ([uick- 
ening accelerated the movement of the hlood, so much the more as 
the arteries were not sul>jected externally to the usual x)ressure. Thus 
we were all feverish. 

When I kept [>erfectly quiet I experienced hut little discomfort — 
a slight tendency to sickness. But when I took trouhle, or when I 
kei)t my attention fixed for several seconds continuously, and especially 
when 1 compressed the chest in stooping, I was ohliged to rest and 
]>ant for two or three minutes. My guides exi)erienced similar sensa- 
tions. They had no ai)petite, and indeed our i>rovisions, which were 
all frozen in roidr, were not calculated to excite one. They did not 
even care for wine and cau-dc-ric. In fact they had found out that 
strong drink made them worse, douhtless, hy further acceleration of 
the circulation. Water alone did them good and gave jdeasure, an<l 
it needed time and trouhle to light the fire, Mithout which we couldn't 
have any. 

I remained, however, ujton the summit until half-i)ast three, and 
th(»ugh I did not lose a single moment I could not make in those 
four hours and a half all the experiments which I have frequently 
performed in less than three hours at the level of the sea. 1 made 
carefully, nevertheless, those which were the most im})ortant. 

I «lescended much more easily than might have heen ex]>ected. 
As ones movements in coming down do not compress the dia])hragm, 
resj)iration is not ujiset, and one is not ohliged to stop for hreath. 
The descent from the rock [Hochers Rouges] to the first i)lateau 
[the (hand Plateau] was however very ditticult on account of its 
stee]>ness, and the sun lighted uj) the precij»ices at our feet so 
hrilliantly that good lie.ads were necessarj^ not to l>e frightened. I 
camped again on snow, 200 toises lower than the previous night, it 
was there I hecame convinced it was the rarity of the air which had 
incommoded us on the summit, for if it had heen fatigue we should 
have heen much worse after this long and tiring descent ; Imt on the 

1 [E(inal to about i'-ii^ inillini^'tres. From another ol)servation he o})taine(l a shirhtlv 
lower relulinJ,^ His mean ai»])ears to ha\e been about 434 inin. This was on Au,i,''ust 
3, 1787. Fifty-seven years later (Any:. 1844) Charles Martins found the incaii of four 
ol»servations of niereurial barometer, re(luce<l to 32 F., was 424"27 nun., and fifty years 
after Martins (Juh 2(>-27, ls!)4) I found the mean of seven observations of mercurial 
barometer, reduced to 32 F., was 423 mm.] 



CHAP. IV. 






1 HAPPY PETURN. 



35 



contrary we ate with a goo<l ai>petite, and I made my ol)servations 
without any discomfort. 1 think that the height where ill-ettects 
he^nn to he'felt is perfectly deci<led for each iiidivi<lual person. I keep 
very well up to 1900 toises [12,150 feet] alK)ve the sea, hut I com- 
mence to feel inconvenience when I get higher. 

On the morrow we found the glacier de la CAte had un<lergone 
chan-es from the heat of the two past days, and was still more 
ditticult to cross than it ha<l heen on the ascent. We were ohliged 
to descend a slope of snow at an inclination of 50 degrees, to avoid 
a crevasse which had oiiened during our journey. At length, at 
half-i.ast nine, we landed on the montagne de la Cote, well pleased 
to find ourselves on soil which we were not afraid would yield under 

our feet. , , - 

I met there M. Bourrit, who would have engaged some of my 
<nii,les to remount immediately with him ; hut they found themselves 
verv tired, and wished for rest at Chamouni. We descended all 
to-ether merrily to the Prieure, ami arrived in time for dinner. 1 
had much ideaiure in hringing them hack safe and sound, with their 
eves an<l faces in the hest condition. The hlack crape with which 
we had covered our faces perfectly protected us, instead of which 
our preilecessors had come hack almost hlin.l, and with their faces 
hurnt. cracked, and hleeding fr<»ni the '^ reva-biratiijH (ks urujes.- 













■«^\ 




ICE-AXE AND BATON. 



CHAPTEK V. 

CONTIXrATTOX OF insTOlJV OF CHA.MOXIX AXT> MOXT HLAXC. 
DK SAISSU1{K"s FOLLoWEHS — HIS KKSIDKNTK ON THK V()\. DV (JKANT 

— HIS liAnrjknK j.^/jll^a'?/;^ dkviations fijom thi; (Hjkmnal 

HOUTK ri' MOXT HLAXr — THK TOKIJIDOU* KMU'li: - ALKXANDIIK 
DUMAS AND JACH^rKS IJALMAT — AUUUSTK IJALMAT — AI.HKI:T SMITH 
AND HIS SHOW — FIRST ASCENT OF MONT HLANC F1!(>M ST. (JKIIVAIS 
— THE KOl'TE IJV THE ' BOSSES "—NAPOLEON III VISII'S ('HAM(>NIX 
, — MONT I'.T.ANC INVADED — TAP.LE OF ASCENTS. 

IIoKACE JJenkdict de Sacssche Was not a iiioniitaiiieer, aiwl <li<l 
not jtretend to l»e one : Imt liis ascent of Mont Blanc ^ave an impe- 
tus to mountain exploration, an<l, un\vittinj;ly, he started tlie fashion 
for mountaineering^'. No sooner did he return t(> Cliamonix than a 
tourist who was there went oft" and foUowed De Saussure's track. 
He was ahnost the lirst of the njountaineerin;^ race. Tlie (Jenevese 
phihysoplier ascended the mountain to make ]>hysical, meteondo^icak 
and ueoh>;:ical ohservations ; ( Vdonel IJeaufoy went ujt |»rincii»ally to 
amuse liimself. De Saussure «h)es not, however, seem U> have done 
much in tlie wav of attractin<i' others to Mont Jilanc, for verv few 
ascents were made in the twenty-Hve years following 17.S7. There 
was one in 17S8, hut not another until 1 S(>2, and the next one was 
made seven years later. The Chamoniards, on their part. ]»ossil(ly, 
were not eat;er that ]>eople should attempt an enterprize wliicli they 
thenjselves found was lal>orious ; or, it may he, that j>reoccnpied hy 
matters of j;reater moment, which atlected every hearth in the valley,' 
they paid little attention to affairs that did not promise immediate 
results, and that this exjdains mIiv no records relatin*^- to the earliest 
ascents can he found in their archives.- 

In the twentv-tive years after Mont IJlanc was con«iuered there 
were <mly half-a-dozen other ascents, an<l the persons who went up 
had to he nursed and caied for like so many children. Eveji the 
professional ;4uide went ahout in those days in a fashion which would 
now he thouirht ahsurd. The ice-axe was almost unknown, and 
when difficulties were met with they had to l>e avoided, or circum- 
vented. During the lifetinu' of De Saussure two enj^ravin^s were 

1 See pajfes 4, ">. 

■- By the courtesy of M. le Maiie, I liave been pennitte<l to search the arcliives, and 
have not found anythiir,^ relatiny- either to the fh-st as<'ent h\ Bahuat, or tlie )sul)se- 
(jiient ojie h\ De Saussure. 



.ST 



<H.v. hi-: SAiSSrJiK CJIL'ISTKNS THE COL I)U HE ANT. 

executed under his <lirection shewin- the manner in which he ami 
his troop <»f <.uides went t(» the Col «lu (leant an<l hack a-ain. in 
the one which shews them (/rsmnflui/, they are m)t usinj;- a rope, 
an.l are wanderin- ah<mt like a tlock oi sheep. The whole of the 
partv are emph»vim; alpenstocks— not ice-axes— an<l for the most part 
are 'hohlin- them improperly. They are endeavouring to prop them- 
selves up with them in fnmt, instead of leanino upon them heliiml, 
as thev shcnild d<». M. .le Saussure (who is seen on the lett) is about 
to haiiHMMi one of his own feet ; and, if he continues to hohl the 
implement in that manner, in the ccmrse of the next tew yar.ls must 
infallihlv tumhle head (»ver heels. De Saussure went ahcmt (m his 
mountain expeditions in a lon-taile<l silk coat, with enormous Imttons. 
The c(»at which he is said to have w(»rn on his ascent of Mont J.lanc 
is ineserved at the familv house at (Jeiithod, near (ieneva; and, 
whether it is the i<lentical coat or not, it a^nees fairly well with the 
oarment in whicii he is represented in the en<-•ravln<,^ 
"" The soiourn of De Saussure on the top of the Co\ du (.eant,— a 
nno^'Ht to his ascent of Mont lUanc, which originated in his desire 
to comidete ohservati<ms that were left unHiiished on the summit ot 
the numntain- was a tnmhlesome, and, for the period, a remarkahly 
adventurous undertaking, which was successfully carrie<l out. l>e^i;l«^ 
the initial dithcultv of transporting the food an.l the means of shelter 
for a lunnher of i»ersons durin- a Ion- stay at a considerahle e eva- 
ti<m there was the more wearisome husiness of coaxinj,^ his people to 
remain, and of preventing them from holtin-, thnmoh nnnn, from 
want of occupation. , 

He starte.1 fnmi (Miamonix on duly ± 17SS, and camped undei 
tent <-lose to the little lake at the Tacul. They continued upwards 
at :..:i(» a.m. on dulv 3, an.l at 12.80 arrived at the cr,bnnc which 
he had had constructe.l at the summit of the pass. " / ra/l f/ns idare, 
he sai.l "Me Col 'hi <.Vro/r'— which is somethin- like evidence that 
the pass had iH»t heeii nnmnf hefore. In -oin- to the Col from the 
Tacul, thev.li.l not take the same way as "their predecessors in the 
previous year," an.l went hy the eastern side of the glacier which is 
;,ow calk'd the (Jlacier .lu (Jeant or du Tacul, skirtm- the base of 
the Ai.'uiUe Noire, ahm- extremely steep sm)w-slopes fringed with 
crevasses -Our guides assure.l us that this way is much more 
dan<.er.)us than that which they had followe.l in the prevums year; 
hiit^I .l.nit place nnich depeiulance upon these assertions, because 
present .langer always appears greater than that which is <»ver, an.l 
because thev en.leav.)ur to flatter travellers by telling them that thev 
have escaped fr.>m great perils. Still," he says, "the way by la 
\.>iiv is actually .langerous ; an.l, as it ha.l tr.»zeii in the night, it 
w.>ul.l have been imp.^ssible t.) have traverse.l the steep an.l hanl 
^n.»w, if mir pople had n.)t gone overnight t.) make st.^ps, while the 
slopes were s.,ftene.l by the rays ..f the sun, -an.l this seems to 
shew that thev were imt great a.lepts in the us.^ ..t the ice^^xe. 
That is all De' Saussure says alumt the passage of the lee-tall of the 
(llaci.M- .lu (leant, whi.di always re<iuires skill an.l cauti.m, an.l ..tten 
in these later vears taxes the ingenuity ..I those wh.) pass that way. 




riiAP. V 



THE '11 A mil ERE ambulaxte: 



39 



Six ei-lit, or even ten hours are sonietiiues occupied aniung i\\Q semes 
of the''(ieant alone; so that, in taking only seven hours to j-et from 
the Taeul to the Col, De Saussure must be regardeil fortunate. 

r>otli upon his visit to the Col du (leant, and upon Ins ascent ot 
Mont Jilanc he escaped aci-i<lent, though his manner of gomg about 
^vas well calculated to lead to troulde. JJefore 1787 (although he luu 
ascen.led the IJuet), it is probable that he knew nothing from personal 
experience about concealed crevasses, and the precautu)ns which it is 
desirable to take in regard to them. There is no inihcation that he 
was ever attached to his guides by rope. In speaking of his ascent 
of the slopes al)ove the (Jrand Plateau, he said that he got assistance 
from his guides by a method which appeared to him to be at once 
the safest for those who are assisted and the least inconvenient for 
those who assist. "That is, to have a light, but strong baton 8 or 
10 feet Ion.'-; and two guides, one before and the other behind, hol.hng 
the baton ".y its ends, on the side of the precipice ; while you walk 
between them, with this ^ burrurc ambnUmte' to support you in case 
of nee.l. This neither i)ores nor tires the guides in the least, and 
may atlord support to them themselves if one should happen to 
slip. . . It is in this attitmle," he says, - I have been represented 
by M le Chevalier de Mechel in the large crdoured plate that he has 
eii-raved of our caravan." i This was his method of insuring himself 
a-ainst slips, or falling into concealed crevasses. It is apparent, 
however, that the Chanumix guides (►f his time were ac(|uaiiited with 
the use of the rope, and that they sometimes attached themselves 
to'^ether, an.l so averte.l disaster ; though more commonly they merely 
carried rope aUnit with them, and only brought it into use to repair 
the results of want of knowle.lge or stupidity. This is seen from the 
inci<lent that has already been related, in which Mane Couttet owe. 
his escape to being tied to two of his comratles ; but the incident .lid 
not make a very deep impression, for on the journey to the lol du 
(Jeant m) one, apparently, was roped. " All at once, sai<l De Saussure, 
"we heard cries of ^ des eordes, dcs eordes.' They were wanted t.. 
..et \lexis lialmat -one of our porters who was ab<mt a bundle, 
paces in advance-;mt of the bowels of the glacier. He .lisappeared 
all at once in the midst of his comrades, swallowed up by a large 
crevasse, sixty feet deep. Happily, half-way down, he was supported 
by a mass of snow stuck in the cleft." 

1 This is tlie en-raviiij; entitled ' Horace Benedict de Saussure and his son on the 
wavTo Jhe CI du cSantT' Do Saussure is shewn between two ^audes, who are hol.hn;4 
tlR^Jton 'on the side of the (five feet high) precipice.' The ladder - hearer leads the 
\x-iv and is followed bv tlic oulv man with an ice-axe. ^ , , r^^ * 

Tkrori 'inal MeteoroloLncul Observations made by De Saussure on the Col du Geant 
were pvd. hshed inexZ>i.<rtor the first time by his .grandson (Henri de Sa"^=^^|re) in he 

occasion of the centenary of the foundation of the bocietx . T«^e >Iemo r has as fron^^^^ 
piece a photojrraphic reproduction of a drawing which i« ^^f J^/« , J'^ ^^ .fAJ," " 
?iuthentiQue retrouve dans les papiers d'H.-B. de Saussure relatits k cette expedition 
TWsdS- appears to be a first sketc-h for the en-rayed plate-, and has numerous 
diff^ren^^s fronl V, amon.^st which it may be "-"^ioned that the laclder-be^ 
the rear, the man with the axe is fourth in line, and M. de Saussure has not ^ot tne 

"'^"n^l^^-S^^S^Xrtshewn descending is ^vened, through the^;lr-i"|; 
having bein made the wrong way upon the plate. De Saussure descended the lUhan 




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CIIAI'. V. 



77//-; ^iiAnnikni': AMnrLAxri:. 



80 



Six, c'i-lit, or even ten liouis arc sonit'linies occnpicl auHUi- tl>e .sr/v/r.v 
of the'tJwuit alone; so tliat, in takin- only seven hours to -el fn.ni 
the Taeul to the ( ol, De Saiissure must he re-anle.! fortunate. 

lloth uiHUi his visit to the Col <lu (leant, an*! upon his aseent <»t 
Mont IManc he eseapcl aeri.lent, thou-h his manner of -oin- ahout 
was well ealc-ulate I to lea<l to tnmhle. liefore 17S7 (alt!iou-h lie lia. 
aseen.leil the Ihiet), it is prohahle that he knew nothm.u- from personal 
eKperienee ahout eoneeale.l erevasses, aii.l the precautions whieh it is 
(lesirahle to take in re-ara to them. There is no in<lication that he 
was ever attaeheil to his -ui.les hy rope. In speakin.u (»f his aseent 
of the slopes ahove the (Iran.l Plateau, he sai.l that he -(»t assistance 
from his .-uides hy a method whieh appeared ti) him to he at <»nee 
the safest" for those who are assiste.l and the least ineonvenieiit tor 
those who assist. -That is, U> have a li-ht, hut stron- haton S (U- 
U) feet hm"-; ami two -uides, one hefore and tiie other hehind, Inddiii.!;- 
the haton'l.v its emls, on the side of the precipice; while you walk 
hetween them, with this • h^frrlnr nmhnlnufr' to support you in case 
<,f nee.l. This neither i»ores nor tires the -uides in the least, and 
mav alloid sui>i.ort to them themselves if «me shouM hajipen to 
sli,; . It is in this attitude," he says, -I have heeu represented 
hv M Ic Chevalier de Mecdiel in the lar-e nd.mred jdate that he has 
eii-raved of cmr caravan.- i This was his methoil of insurin- himself 
a-aiust slips, or fallim; into concealed crevasses. It is ai.parent, 
however, that the ('ham<mix -uides of his time were ac.|uamte<l with 
the use <»f the rope, and that fh'-n sometimes attached themselves 
t»>--ether, and so averted disaster; thou-h more nnnmonly they merely 
eanied r<»pe ah,»ut with them, an.l only hrought it into use to repair 
tlie results of want of knowled-e or stupi.lity. This is seen from the 
inci<lent that has already heen related, in which Mane Couttet owed 
his escape to heiim" tied to two of his comrades; hut the incident did 
not make a verv deei. impression, for on tlie journey to the ( ol du 
(ieant no one, api.arently, was r«»ped. " All at once,' sai<l De Saiissure, 
-we heard cries of ' ,h's ronfr.s, r/r-v ron/rs/ Tiiey were wanted in 
"Vi \le\is lialmat -one of (mr porters who was ahout a hundre* 
pace, in advance mt of the howels of the -lacier. He disappeare.l 
all at once in the midst of his comrades, swallowed up hy a hu-e 
erevasse, sixty feet deep. Haj-pily, half-way down, he was supporte.l 
hy a mass of snow stuck in the cleft.*' 

1 This N llie en-ravin- t-ntitU-.l ' Horace Benedict de Saiissure and his son on the 
wiv to the CI <lu (Jeant? De Saiissure is shewn hetween two -uh es, wlio are lioM n,^ 
the iKUon 'on the si.le of the (rtve feet hi-h) preriime.' The ladder-hearer leads the 
wav and is tullowed bv the only man with an ice-axe. ., /- , ,i,, i -...,,, t 

The ori-inil Meteor* lo-ical Observations made by De Saussure on the ( ol du (.eant 
weJe\.ubh;^l^ ;. lifc-.^J-for the first time by his ^ran.ls.y. (Henri l^f, >^|;;>^j;^) "[ \\\l 

This S,..^^^ m^^^^^^^^ a tirst sketch for the en-rave<l plate, and has numerous 

d!ff rnl:^' fconr;;? " non-st which it inay be "-"tioiu^.l Uua the a. er-bc.r 

the rear, the man with tlie axe is fourth m line, aiul M. de Saussuie has not „oi tnc 

baton on the side of the preciince. ,• ;• •.>:..-<,..l tlimn-b the drawiii" 

The en-ravin- in which he is shewn descendin- is >*'m'/mv/, throu- i , l.. V,.i n 

having been luarie the wron- wav upon the plate. De Saussure descended the Italian 














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ciiAr. V. 

N,>thii.- iiCLMl Ue sui<l alnrnt the iiiajorily of Uio ascents (.f Mont 
i;i,UK' whkl. were n.a.le in tl.e early part of the H)th century, (.ui.les 
.-1,1,1 t<»urists, alike, were content to follow ,n the estahlishe.l track : 
ana down to 1S19 the only variation that ha< heen made upon the 
(udinarv route was at the ccnnnencenient of the ascent. Insteail ot 
..oin.. i-ia the Monta-ne .le la Cote, the line was taken which it has 
r^HMrcuston.arv to follow ever since, hy way of tlie Pierre l>ointue and 
l»ierie de IKchelle ; a line that to some extent avoids, thou-h it does 
not entirely escape, the ccmtorted and riven ice at the 'junction, 
which has always heen found trouhlesome.i . 

The next deviaticm from IJalmafs ori^nnal way ^yas made i" 1^-'' 
when Sir C Fellows and Mr. Hawes went from the (.rand 1 lateau 
to the summit hy what is now termed the Corridor route; aiul, from 
that time until 'the ri.l-e of the liosses was shewn to he practic- 
•ihl,. the (*<)rri.h»r r«mte hecame that which was usually taken. JSlr. 
John Auldjo, who went up Mont Blanc on Aug. 9, If-^'' fX^ ''^ 
crossed the Crand Plateau towards the left, " leaving the old route, 
whi,-h led right acr<,ss the plain ^ ; and later ^^^ :^^'^\/^'''V: ^ 
Uochers Uouges, he menticms that he "came again into the old liiiL 
of ascent, which we had <iuitted (m the (;raml Plateau, and says 
that the new line was Hrst taken " hy Messrs Hawes and Kd ows, 
„n the '1:a\x of July last, we having followed the route which these 
• •entlemen had discovered.' - ... 

'^ (Kher things happened in the early part of the century which 
spread the fame of Chamonix and M<mt lilanc. ( hanumix has always 
henelited hy pnUicit^/, aiul Alexandre Dumas gave it greater puhlicit> 
than anyone had doiie hefore his time hy the chapters in his h.rrc.snws 
,f, Vu,,m,r in whi.-h he descrihed the inci<lents ot his visit an.l related 
his interview with Jacques P.almat.^^ Ten years later puhlic attention 
was a..ain drawn pnm.inently to Chamonix through the ohservations 
which" were made hy Prof. J. 1>. Forhes when studying the move- 
ments of glaciers, and especially hy the map of the Mer de Mace hat 
he constructed in connection with his work, which gave to the puhl.c, 
for the tirst time, an intelligihle representation ot the renowned glacier 
and its trihutaries.^ Professor Forhes' ol)servations and experiments 
sMe of the C'ol. The valley .lown below on t^e left sho^ild he "V-n ^he ri^ht of the 
i.lute. It is intended to represent tlie upper end of the Itahan \ al I'Uitl. 

;;S;e;:!r:';ies'^;^on: tx%:^L^. and only a f- huj^red yards ^^^nn U. .nnnn o 
the Monta-ne .le la C'Ate. whieh was just helow us. lilt "Y^^^'^^'J^^^^ 
w».re hruu-ht ui» hv enormous and impassable crevasses. }^f^e>e ttun **," "'" j '"^^ 
TL bv he HeN. Charles Hudson and Kdward Shirley KeTU.edy, Lo.u Ion, 18.^.. 

' Sarntfir^ofa, ■Ucn.t tn the s.unnli of Mont lilam; by John Aul. Ijo Esq ; 8vo, 

hamlets of les Praz ami les Tines. 




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II 



Notliiii'4 nciM 



1 ho s;ii«l alMHit llic inajori 



Iv of IIk' nsconts «>t' M<nil 



liluiic wiiicli were iiuu 
lik( 



;iim1 tiuuists, alike, were eon 
and down to ISMJ tlie only vaviu 



lo in the early i»art of the lOth eentury. dnide 

the estahlished track 

th 



itent to f(dlow in 



ordinary rontc was a 



I tl 



It' coniiiiencenjen 



tion that had heen made njton the 
t of the aseent. Instead (►f 



ro 



inu ria the MontaLi'iie » 



heen cnstoniarv to follow ever sniee 

rime de IKehelle; a line that ti» s«.nie e\ 



le la ('«'»te, the line was taken which it ha 

l>v way of the I'ierre Pointne and 

tent av(>i<ls, thon.uh it does 



not en 



tirel 



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le 



tl 



le col 



it<nted and riven ue 



at tl 



le 'jnnction, 



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hi<'h has 'always heen fonnd tnmhlesonie, 



Tl 



le nex 



t deviation fnun liahnats ori-inal way was made in 



IS: 



when Sir 



('. 1' 



low 



aiK 



1 Mr. Hawes went trom 



the (iraiul IMatean 



to the sii 
that time in 



mmit hy what is now 



termed the Corridor route: aiul, froii 



itil the rid<ie of the liosses ^^ 



hie. the Corridor route heeame that \\ 



John Auldjo. who went \\\ 



as shewn to he ]>raetie 
hich was usually taken. Mr 

h 



Mont rdanc (»n An--. *>, lS-27, says he 



crosse< 



1 the (iraiid IMatean towards the left 



leavinu the old route. 



which led ri.uht a«-r<»r- 



the 1 



daiii 



md later on. ^\ 



hen 



hove 



tl 



le 



{{ocher 
of ascen 



INuiLi 



(*s. 



le nn 



ntions that he "came auam i 



t, which wc had <[nitted on 



the (Jraiid IMatean." an<l sa\ 



nto the (dd line 
1 



that the new line wa 



first taken •• hy Messrs. 



Hawes and Fellow 



o 



n t 



he -jr.th ..f duly last, we having followed the ro 



aite which these 



gentlemen ha<l discovere< 



1. 



(Kher 



things 



liajtpene 



il in the early part (»f the centuiA 
and Mont lUanc 



oj.n'ad the fame of Chamonix 

hcnelitel hv inihUrU if, an<l Alexandre Duma 



which 

(Miaiiionix has always 

ive it greater jmhlitity 



than anyone 
il. ]'t,t/n/ff in 



had done hefore his time hy the chapters in his I ,„in;ss><u>s 

lents of his visit, and related 



hich he descrihed the inci( 



hi> interview with dac<nu> 
was auain drawn i>romim 



IJalmat."' Ten years later imhlic attentum 



n 



tly U\ (Miamon 



ix through the ohservation^ 



w 



hich were ma* 



Ic hy rr(»f. d. I). F<»rhes w 



hen 



4udyimi the move 



ments of glaciers, and esjtecially 



hy the map of the Mer de (Jlaee 



he constructed in c<»nne<-tion with his w( 
for the lirst time, an ii 



that 
L'<-tion with his work.' which gave to the i.uhlic, 
itelligihle representation of the rencjwned glacier 



am 



1 its ni 



hutaries.i Professor Forhes" o 



hserNations and experiment; 



Sll 



K- <»1 tlK- Col. The- valU'V «l(.\\ii l»elo\v on t 



Ik- left shoiiM l>c upon tlu- ri^lU of lliu 



ihilc. 11 is inU-ink-tl to ivinvsiiit the uiM)er e 



m 



1 of the Italian yal Ferret. 



So ret 'ell 



th as IS;').'!, Messrs. Hudson 



Kennedv, .\inslie an( 



I Snn th. who were amongst 



tlie best amateurs of their tnne, wc 
loll of the Monta<rne «le la Cote. 
(Jlariers <les r,<iss(»iis and Taeonnay, anj 
the Monta^ne < 
were 



re inidhlf to desceiK 



1 from the drands Mulets to tin. 



We arrived at a i>om 



t situated on the edjie of tlie 



le la (V)te, whieh was just helow us 



t of 
But in" eaeh attenii>t to L;ain it. 



1 onlv a few lnui«lred vards from the siunmi 



hrou-'ht ui> h\ enormous and inijia 
hv tlie Uev. t'liarles Hudson an( 



ahl 



e crevasse 



H7, 



'ii'i't' 



th 



I'I'C X 



a Wilf there 



(I W'x.'f, 

- .\ (I r I'd fire i>f an 



Asi-int to the sininin 



i<ondon, ls.i(t, pp. ."d, :• 
lion of his own ascen 
Marie ('outlet. 



t (made in Is-So), that the Corridor ron 



I Kdward Shirley Keiuiedy, London, 1S.'.<!. 
7 of Moiit lUiuie, hy John Auldjo. Ks(|. ; 8vo, 
h<»wever, stated in the descrii>- 
te was discovered h\ .Iosei)h- 



The Hon. Kd. 15. Wilhraham, 



■i Pumas visite<l Chamonix m 



\SA-1. M. \iinnce I'ayot (son (• 



f the I'ierre I'axot who 



w 



;is the no\t 



list's -iiiide) tells me that the famous uitiiview w 



ith I'.almat took place at 



the little Hotel de la Couromie, at tlie corner ( 



f the I'lace <le IKulise 



■» This maji remainetl for twenty \ 



ears 



the onlv accurate one of any i)orti<»n of the 



Chain, an( 



I it is not vet sui»erseded. His hase-hn 



)it-2 feet lonu', from which his scale 



\\ 



as ohtaine< 



i, was meas>n-ed on 



the road tV«:m Chamonix 



to Aruentiere. between the 



hamlets of les I'raz and les Tine; 




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ALllERT SMITH AND HIS SHifW. 



43 



I 




AUGUSTE BALMAT. 



CIIAI'. V. 

were carried cm in 1S42 l>etweeii the Montaiivert an.l the Tacul and 
^^ "only assistant was a very intelligent and very worthy |;n.le <jf 
C'haniouni, An-nste I5ahnat by name," an exceptional man all round, 

a j^'ood mountaineer, an excellent 

-nide, and a man (►f admirahle char- 
acter, who endeared himself to all. 
He was equally eHicient in escortin-- 
the Km[»ress En«^cnie across the Mer 
de (Jlace, or in scaling the highest 
Alps. From his appearance no one 
would have suspected him to l.e an 
Alpine peasant,— it would have been 
<.\iesseil sooner that he was a doctor, 
liiwyer, or dii.lomatist. He hecanie 
the 'favourite guide of Mr. Alfred 
(now Mr. Justice) Wills, and died 
ill Ids arms. It was Auguste lial- 
uuit who led the future judge to 
the sumndt of the Wetterhorn. 

IJut l>efore that stirring episode 
(K-curred, another person di«l more 
t(> magnify Chamonix and Mont 

lilanc tiuiii any other who ha«l pre- j •,,,.,.„*. „v conceived the 

cckMl l,i,„. Mr. All.evt Hmitlj, '-^ 'il'tln^r ^^ U U" ■ '• ^ --, 
i.lea tliat an ascent ot Moul \Mw\ iim^tiaiui i.j 

n,.rae..eive himself. So popular ,11,1 l,e "'-ke it .at 't- '';.'' „ 

less, still l.e running' if Al'''^^rt^"''l'!;^T I , .?n as V v«^^^ 
the aseent of -Mont Hlane «as usually lookcl u ,on '^'' "^ / ^. y ' \ . „j„ 
usi ess. Men conunonly n.a,le wills iK^fore starting f"> t- ' . ^.'^^^ 
ea V • a^.-ounts of the '.landers of the enterpr.se when t ' > -' ^ 
\Ll .Vlhert Sn.ith invente.1 a ne^v trcatna-nt n - --I; - 
xvhole thin- was a j«ke-a piece of sport, "« •^'y- ' ^^ y,^t ^.^ery- 

;::,■";;. 'sllU. with a faney '^.^f -.l^'-^U^^irt^irLX 

of Dr. Ilanicls attempt to reach the ''"''"'''^"^0'""', /,',""',' f,,|™ 

„ this occasion three lives were lost throu^r. '''f "; l'"-^. ^\Xta i n 

snow. This little twa.hlly l».ok, which was l-"'' 'l;'"^'' ""• Ty'lTZ 

1 1"'' i"' ' ..;r ' -■ u,an;,e"y-:;;r'. x;,^ w thi..,^ favour 
"^^^^^^'^ifltt^ ^r^- rr^.ii;t-p'::l 

only audience, but a most admirable oiie-NXouM Dttome ii i 






N 




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o 


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1- 




LU 




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££ 




liJ 




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' 


_l 




o 




ill 




I 


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\lju:i:t ^mitii asd his s/nnr. 



43 







^. 



r- '.»==L 



"Or. 



-^^Z' 



X 



AUGUSTE BALM A r 



(Ml \l'. N. 

were cunicl on in 1S4-2 I^oIavclmi the Montaiivort nn.l tlu' Tucul aiul 
^^ .only assistant was a very intelligent an.l very Nv<Mthy pi.h^ ot 
(M.anMmiii, Au-uste Uahnat Uy name," an exeei.tn.nal man all nmnd, 
—a -ood nuamtaineer, an excellent 

mii.le, and a man of a(lmiial>le eliai- 

acter, who endeared himself to all. 

He was e«inally ellieient in escort in<; 

the Kmi>ress En.uenie aeross the Mer 

de (dace, or in scalin- the hi-hest 

Alps. From his appearance no one 

wonhl have snspeeted him to he an 

Alpine peasant,— it wonld have heen 

-uessed sooner that he was a doctor, 

Tawyer, or diplomatist. He hecame 

the^av«airite -ni-le <>f Mr. Alfred 

(now Mr. Jn>tice) Wills, and died 

in his arms. It was An-nste lial- 

mat who led the fntnre jud-e to 

the summit of the Wetterhorn. 

lint hetore that stirrin- ejusode 

occurreil, another ]»erson did more 

to maunify Chamonix and Mont 

rdanc t1wui any other who had pre- /•//;,,,/,.„. ,.<,iu'eived the 

• 1 I- M MK-.,.f siiiiUli M strn«'"lin<'' itt( tKtrin , (.ontinm m'- 

E' E'::: His :!;:p'- =::;t?!= B- 

„„r,k..-c.ivo l,in,sdf. S„ populav <1M l.e "-^e U ■; •'"'';,.''„, 

l,.ss, still be ruMMin.u if AM...t S.n.tl, wore st. 1 "'',''• Vv'^^i,,,,, 

11,0 ,«-e,.t of Mont Ulan,- was usually l-mko-l upo., ^'^ '^ ; '. > "\ . "^'^ 

,wi OSS Mou o,.u,u,oulv uui.lo wills l-otorc startin- for it, . n^ » i >^^ 

la a....ouuts of the -.lan^.ors of the '-'"t^'n";-' -'';- \ >,|:"X: 

.,, . AlUon S.ui.l, inveme,l a new treaUuout I "^^^^ ^ 

whole ihiuK' was a .joke -a ,,ieee ot s,M.rt. "^: '' "^-, , .^ .^'^^ , ' .. 

t,,.„l,|os, joste,l at the funu.y persons he ;-^: ' \. J; 'V ' '^ ^"^ ^,. „„i 

Ihiu-. I'r,.u. the aoeouut whieh he hnusolt has f^'^"- '• '' '^.l ' . , ,,.,^. 

,.. was su,itteu with a ^^l^^^^^^Z^^^' ^''^^^ 
When he was ten years old he haU a iiiut ouuk ., 

..,■ ..I.il.lreu, lua.lo a ,leop luipressiou upou ""^ "";''*;'".",";,;„,,„ ,-,,vour 
„,i„k,- he sai.l •• that tl'o /V;/-- ; V,,/, .» st l^^ ^. 

with n,e,- an.l he --■'";'' (,,/;"';^;l •\r'. - "" o pail.te.l u,. an,! 
the horrors portain.n- to Mont 1. 1.>. ^i.tor-wlio was n,y 

'::^^i:::i:i:^ "^ ^ "-'- -'- 

with frijiht." ,, \n,,.,.f Smitli went to 



44 



dlAMoXIX AM) MifXT liLAXC 



CIIAI'. \ 



Ji •iiJiinl lecture ahout tlie Alps. I copied," lie said, ''all my pi<'tures 
oil a eoiiipaiatively lar^ie scale— aWout tliree feet lii<ih— with siicli darin;,' 
li<4lits and shadows, and streaks of sunset, that 1 have since trenihled 
at my temerity as I looked at theui ; and tlien, contriving;- some simple 
URM'hanism with a carj)enter to make them roll on, I ]>roduce<l a lecture 
which in the town" ((/hertsey) -'was considered (piite a 'hit/ . . 
For two or three years, with my Alps in a hox, I went round to 
vari()us literary institutions. . . \ reeall these lirst eflorts of a show- 
man — for such they really were— with <^Teat pleasure. I recollect how 
my hrother and 1 used to drive our four-wheeled chaise across the 
country, with Mont lilanc on the ha<-k seat."' 




ALBERT SMITH. 

In IS,")! he carried out his lon^- cherished desire, and attained I lie 
summit of Mont lilanc ; and nine months afterwanls i>n)duced at the 
K-yi»tian Hall, Piccadilly, an entertainment descriptive of the ascent, 
which '• took the world hy storm, and became the most poiuilar 
exhihitiim of the kind ever known." The effect was immediate. 
Whereas in the sixty-four years from 17S(> to the end of 1S.")0 there 
had heen only lifty-seven ascents of Mont lUanc, in the six years 
lS.V2-.')7 there were sixty-four ascents. Before 1S.")1 (Alhert Sn'iiths 
year) several seasons often passed without anyone reachinji the summit : 
hut since IS.")! y/o year has <;(,iie hy without an ascent heiii^ made, or 
several, or inany. This development was, however, at lea^t in part, 
owin<;- to Chamonix hecoiiiin;^ more accessible thron.uh the extension 
of railways; hut it is due to Alhert Smith to say that his influence 



liOUTE BY THE BOSSES. 



45 



CHAT. V. 

extcn.l,.l nnu-1, l.ev,m.l Cl.anumix aiul Mont l.!''".cM.'iny persons 
Ito tl,eir lirst .-ravin^^ for tl,o Al,.s fro,,, tl,e t„„e "ben they , u.1 
this ahle leotnrer an.l ^-enial show„,a„,' ami a„,o„^'st < '^;^' J 1^; 
so„,e of those who made the Hrst ascent of Mont l.h.no w.thont 

'""The lirst ascent of Mont IManc /-■»,„ >V. "''■'■"'^ «as '"^'le i" 18M 

Uv a i,a.-tv of Kn-lish,„en. two of wl,on, (Hn.lson an.l Kenncy) 

l.hHsh'.;. a lK,ok in-^lH.-,.!, ,ivi„, a ;Iescri,;tion of the ex..,r.cm, un, er 

Z<' r. onfr .n,./ ,ritl.u„t <„Mrs. They started on the Kith o 
\ , mst takinjj six p-teis and three chasseurs. The porters were sent 
in -k, ,c„ some r.L„cs were rea<-l,ed on the Ai^'n,lle dn (iouter wh,..h 

1 h: ,nt u,. in 18.-.S-4. at a hei,d.t of -''7V^">"'- ^'1';, ('on" 

the I4th they c.„ti„ned npwaids to the top of the A,-ni le du (k fttei 

^■^l 'thence to the l.on,e dn (ioftte,- hy the sa,,,e "'"^^e '-t ha. i, en 

taken in I7S4, hv the chasseurs wl,o were with l.onint.- 1 10, , tl,t 

Ih^ue .In Coftt.-,-: Hu.ls,,,, an.l KennclyV p,u-ty ,h^-emkd on o th 

■ ,./ ri„l.:n,. ;till a.-.-.„„,,auie,l f.,r so,„e of the .hstance hy tw., of 

t e chasseuis. Cui.let an.l Hoste, the former of wh<„„ po.nt«l out t ,e 

■ay t, the Coni.lor -.^ hut the re.nain.ler of the ascent and the . es.en( 

to V a„.,nix tM the Corri.lor, (iran.ls Mulcts, an.l I'.erre l>.„nt c 

we,e .„a.le alone. Althou^d, this «as .allcl 'a new ro"te, • " 1 ut 

of it was new,-the l).„„e .In (ioftter, «« «;" I'^y" ■''■''"'•.V see 1 • M. 

havin.' heen rea.l,...l fioni the Chan.onix si.le l,y Jac.pies l.al„,at .u,.l 

""itTr.l't.^'v Sv explaincl in the account which was puhlishe.l 
ah., t the excuisio,. wi,y this eccentric .oute was followed; hut , on, 
sn.h ,e„,arks as are ,„a.le up..u the „,atter, >t seems that the j.a, > 
s .M with a .lesi,e (if not with the intentnm) to ,,,ake a., as..e t 
Iv wav of 'the liosses-; an.l that, on a,T,v„,^' at the toot of the 
. we, • iosse (that is to say, to about the ,.osition at p,es,.nt occup,jM 
hv th.. \-allot ( .hservatorv) they came to the cou.lus,.,,, that the 
•hl..e of the Itosscs was i„o nu.ch for then.. All the i-arty it is 
ad e pe i^llv pai.l attention to the IJosse .In l)ro„,a lane, an. the, 
■' ,'a,d,'„..„s s-t,',n,' .-ouvictiou ■ was that there «- -th,,., to l„,.le 
.,„e f,-o,„ .-eachiuf. the su„„„it hy that way. " ^\ e .11 't- ~ 
ever tiy the ' Drome.larys Hun.p' on this occasum, fo, the n..,tl 
win.i was very st,<„,« ali.l <ol.l, an.l we shoul.l have '-..expose, 
to its chilling iuHnences for ,„ore than wo ''""'"•• -"X"''^ 
s»,„e of the i7a,tv we,e ohlifje.l to he 111 hn^lan.l in a few .l..ys, «e 
di.l „.,t like ' t.. en.la,.f;er the success of this their last atte,„pt hy 

■ A,„„t S,nith-. wi„o 1,1.1 ..as,.^«-|«l "^t! riVS'TiSris,':,,.'!' hL "o^k? 
U^eneration of tourists. He took 1 >.i •'^l"'t> oi ''.,;"'';' y)^^ ordinaire seems to 

tJ^^ r^ a'iST^ ^/^;r:S„r:u;:rlo;i»' ?fr..,.s ;. ce„tl,„e. a„i.ce. 
Prices have risen. 

' ^^^ ^^^^*^ ^^' . . i,„^,^„r< Piiidpt and Hoste, accompanied us for a few 

3 "Tl»e two remannng chasseurs, C mrtet '^"V "™'(j , Vlateau, and then we 

lmn.lred yards down the ^rentle slope ^^'V.^\\,J^^\ /" *'^,^.;;j;',':;tS of the I'lateau, 

haUe<l. Cui.let pointed out ^^ }^^'T:^^%^ "ffi^ information was i.seful." 

and told us the Chamonix route la\ betwetn tnem. im^ 

Where there's a Will there's a W an, p. 4.{. 



i I 



(11 A MOM X AM) Mn\r IlLASC 



CUM'. \. 



a -r.uiil Icflinc alxml llic Alps. I coidcil." lir >,ii(l. "all my pidinvs 
on a ('oiiiparativoly laruv scale aln»nl three feet lii.uh with sucli <larin.u- 
li.iihts anil shadows. aii<l streaks of sunset, that I have since tremhled 
at my temerity as 1 looked at them ; and then, contriving some sinijile 
mechanism with a carpenter to make them roll on. I pnMlnced a lecture 
which in the town " ((Miertsey) •• was considered (|uite a -hit.' . . 
For two or three years, with my Alps in ;i l»o\. I went round to 
various literary instituti«»ns. . . 1 recall these lirst eflorts of a show- 
man for siich they really were— with peat pleasure. I recollect how 
my hrother and I used to dri\e our four-wheeled chaise across the 
country, with Mont IManc on the hack scat." 











ALliKKT SMIIH. 



In ls:>| he carried out his lon^u -cherished desire, and attained the 

sunindt of Mont IManc : and nine months afterwards produced at the 

Kuyi»tian Hall. Piccatlilly. an entertainment descrijitive ui the ascent. 

which "took the woild hy >torm, and hecame the most |>oj»ular 

exhihition of the kind ever known." The effect was immediate. 

Whereas in the sixty-four years from 1 7.S() t(» the en<l of 1S.~>(> there 

had heen only lifty-seven ascents of Mont Hlanc. in the six years 

lS.V2-.')7 there were sixty-four ascents. IJefore IS.")! (.\lheit Smith's 

year) sexeral seasons often passed without anyone reaching the sunnnit : 

hut since IS.'jj //'/ year has ^one hy without an ascent hein- made, oi 

several. (»r many. This development was, however, at least in part, 

owinu to Chamonix hccominu more accessihle through the extension 

of lailways: hut it is due to Alheit Sndth to sav that his inllnence 



UOFTE liV rilK liOSSI'JS'. 



4."") 

Manv persons 
I 



CHAI'. V. 

extended u.uch hevond Chauumix and Mont lilanc. -Many ,.c.sw„. 
,,ate their lirst cravin;; for the Alps frmn the tune when tl^T -y'^ 
this ahle lecturer and ^.enial showman,^ an<l amon;^st ^ '^^v' ^^ 

s,Mne of those who made the lirst ascent ot Mont Idanc xMthout 

^"VhT' lirst ascent of Mont Whuw fro.H Sf. (hrrals was ma<le in isr,r. 
hv a party of Kn;.;lishnien. two of whom (Hudson and Kenue. y) 
,.uhlishe<l a hook in is;^(>, ;.ivin^ a descnption ot the ^-;n^<>n unde 
lie title Whrrr thnrs n Will fhrrrS a II <///, "" "-v../ M/ ; ^^'' (^;'' . 
l^„ ,n,r rn„fr .nul o.fhunf .jn.hs. They starte.l on the Uth o 
\u..ust takiu.. six porters an<l three chasseurs. The p(nters were sent 
h. ck wi.e me rln.s were reached on the Aiguille du Gouter whu-h 

I i: mt up in lS.8-4,at a height of ^^^^ ^^ ^"^ "^^ ; ^^^ 
the Uth theveontinued upwards t<» the top <.t the A.^u le du (xnte 

1 tl en.-e {o the Dmne /lu (;<.raer hy the san.e route that had heen 

ken in 17S4. hy the ehassenrs who were with HourrU -' Iron, the 

Drnne .lu (uulter, Hu<lson and Kennedys party ^^;-';'^'^''^ Z'' /^^ '' 

iir,n„l rh'tnn,. still accompanied for son.e ot the .hstance h> tN o , 

the chasseurs. Cuidet and Hoste, the former ot whom pointed out t u 

... . \i.. c.vvidov .:'. hut the remainder of the ascent, and the descent 



the chassenis. i uniei anu rn»sic, lmt, .w. ...v ' , ^i i ,,.. 

,v to tl,o C.rn.l,,.- .'• l.nt tlie venmiiKler of tl,e ascent an.l the .U.s.-eut 

;'V L,n,.„ix ,•;,; the (•..n-i.l,.,-. .iran.ls Nlulets, an,l I'.erre V,n, e 
wen. nm.le al.me. Altl,.,.,^l, this was ealle.l 'a new '''"t^; ' 1 l" 
..,■ il was ,„.«,- tlieDen.e ,l.i ( l.mter, as we liave aliea.h seen (,,. I,). 

avin- heen lea.-lie.l fi.mi tlie Clianionix si.le l.y .lae^iues halnial an. 

is asso,-iates in 17S(i „„l,lishe, 



sociates m l<No. ii: i.^i 

,. is not veiv eleailv explaine.! in the aeeount wh,,-h was jnihUshe,! 
„,„„n .he ex.nrsion wi,v this eeeent.ie ronte was tollowe, ; m .on, 
sn.l, reniaiks as aie .na.le npo., the matte.-, .t see.i.s that th. paitj 

" e with a ,lesi,e (if not with the i..tentio..) to ,nake an as,...., 
Iv wav of 'the l!..sses-: a.,.l that, on a.nv,n- at the toot of th. 
h we,- liosso (that is to say. to ahont tl,e ,K.sition at ,..-es,.nt o.-.-n,..e.l 

,v ,h.. \alh.. ..hse.-vato.-y) they .a.ne ... tl,e '';"'• !'^'"' ''''': 
,i,l.„, of th.. liosses was t.M, nn.eh to.- then,. AH the i-a.ty. .s 
"hi es,,e.-iallv ,.ai.l al.enli.,., ..> the Itosse .In l),-.n„a,hu,-e. an, .he 
.:' «,i,'„.,„s;t,-I.n, .-onvietion •■ was that the.e -- ""''''"^^ , ;;^''^ , ^ 
„„„ f,„,„ ,eaehin^ the s„„„„i. hy that way. - ^\ e ...1 ''- ." 
,.ve.- t.-v .he -l>,-o.„e.hii-v-s linn,].- on th.s o.eas.on. to, the no,. I 
li,;,! was ve,-y st,-o..,- an.l e.,hl, an,, we sh.mh have '-.. es,os. 
.., its .liilli,,..: inllnenecs fo,- .„o,-e tl,a., .wo honis. . -V^'""- -^^^ 
. ,„ of .h,. iK.,-.v we,-e ohli-e,! to he i„ E..tihu„l ... a tew ,lays. ve 
^" "„. . . ' ■ .,„h,„..e,- the s„e.-ess of this their h.st atte„,i,t hy 



emjit hy 

more tluui a 



e ,»f th.' i.artv were ohli-e.l to i»e m rn^.an.i u. .t ..» 
aid n..t like to 'en.lan-er the success of this their last att 

-i'l K-ration ef tourists. He to.>k 1 i.i hoUK^ o\ ^ ^^^ ';^' ,. onlinal.r seems to 

i::.-:^';;:; i:".,^;;;;- Ta^t •;L'^;r;-;i;„r:',J;;r;^;,s"^^h.„« ;. ,..„.i,„es ,.,..... 

Prices have risen. 

•-■ See paj^e lb. y,^..^„y.^ Cniilet -in.l llosle. aecompanie.1 us for a tew 

Wlinr tlH'rr:< ,i H'/// ///r/vx o M (uj, j). 4.5. 



I 



46 



CHAMOXIX AND MOXT BLANC, 



CHAP. V. 



trying a route ^vlli(■ll rnii^lit have envied in (lisai>}M)intnient." When 
upon tlie summit ridge, two of the party went to its western end 
and h>oked down upon the Bosses, "and as the eye hastily surveye<l 
it . . . they cinUd detect nothing to prevent the ascent of Mont 
BLanc being made hv " tluit way. 

The first ascent of ]Mont IJhmc that is known to have been 
effected by the ridge of the Bosses was made by tlie Bev. Charles 
Hudson, with the guides Melchior Anderegg, F. Couttet and others 
in 18.">9. Since then, this route has grown steadily in estimation, 
and at the present time it is perhaps more generally taken than the 
way by the Corri<lor. Public opinion, in the course of a century, 
has declared in favour of the route which was originally ju'ojtoscd, 
and which was attempted to be foUowed in 1780 by dacipies Balmat 
«and his associates. 

The visit of Napoleon III in 1860, following on the annexati(m 
of Savoy, had an important effect on the future of the valley. It 
drew the largest concourse of i>eople together that has ever been 
seen at Chamonix, either before or since ; and led to the constructicm 
of the line roa<l from le Favet via Chatelard ami les Montces, 
which superseded the old an<l rougher road by way of Servoz, and, 
by rendering access easier, produced the natural result. 

Although it was apparent to C'hamoniards by this time (and had 
been apparent long before) that Mont Blanc was a gold mine for 
the valley,^ they did not seem to perceive that there were other 
mines in the range of a similar n.ature, which might become equally 
lucrative. A])art from the ex}>erience they gaine<l in crystal hunting 
and chamois hunting, they had little practice in the higher regions 
beyon<l such as it is jjossible to acquire by crossing the Col dii 
(ieant, or upon ascents of the Buet and Mont l^lanc; and it is to 
this circumstance that, so recently as 1860, the majority even of the 
best Chamonix guides were more dexterous u]Km snow and ice than 
ui»on rocks. Down to 1860, but few of the minor points^ and none 
t)f the highest peaks in the chain of Mont Blanc had been ascended, 



1 It is statetl by Gapt. M. Sherwill that De Saussure paid his ffi"fles> on the ascent 
of Mont Blanc, idx francs 2*('>' <^«.'/- Sherwill seems to have got the information from 
one of the Couttets who went with the Professor. 

In 1820, the price j>er *aii(le for Mont Wane was forty-eight fi-anes. Mr. Jackson, in 
the account of his ascent made Sept. 4, 1823, mentions that the guides were paid 
sixty francs apie<'e. "Upon my return," he says, "I made them a present of an 
additional fi\e franc piece, with which they were all perfectly content." 

liy Ibnl, the 'tarif had risen to ItK) francs per man, and it has remained at that 
figure ever since. 

*- The Aiguille du Midi was ascended in August, 18.56, by Alexandre Devouassoux 
and Ambroise Simond (guides) and by .Jean Sinion<l, a boy of seventeen (porter), who 
were eniploye<l by Coimt Fernand de Bouille. Twenty-four metres below the sunnnit, 
the Count and the rest of his party were left behind, while the three went uj). They 
were away an hour, and upon returning flatly refused to conduct their em])loyer to 
the sunnnit. Said Devouassoux, amongst other things, " .Monsieur le conite, your 
flag floats above, the as«'ent is made ; but for all the riches of the world 1 won't go uj) 
again." Said Simond, "There's not one of you cai)able of going there without losing 
his life. M\- spirit may go there perhajis after my death, but my bod_\- tii'rer. The 
business is over, — no one shall compel me to go there again " {IjCs Fastis ihi Mont 
likiae, par Stepheji d'Arve, Ciene\e, 187<".). It was rather hard on the Count, who had 
taken eight guides and porters, and a miner, on the oc<'asion, and ha<l made several 
other attempts to ascend the .Aiguille. 



CHAP. V. 



INVASION OF 310 NT BLANC. 



47 



and no passages were known across the main chain excepting the 
(\)ls du CJcant, de jNliage, and du Tour.i The exidoratiim of the 
little- known parts of the range was mainly effected by the enter- 
prize an«l through the curiosity of strangers. 

In 1861, Mr. Stephen Winkworth effected the first passage of the 
Col d'Argentiere ; and in 1863 Messrs. Buxton, George, and :\lacd(mald 
inventeirthe Col de la Tour Noire, and Messrs. F>randram and Beilly 
crossed the CVd du Chardonnet. The latter excursion was made in 
connection with the mai> of Mont Blanc upon which Mr. Beilly was 
en<'a<--ed, and the production of this map gave an imi>etus to the 
investigation of the chain of ]Mont Blanc. 15oth the ends of the 
chain were little known, and to survey them a certain amount of 
exploration was necessary. Mr. Beilly invited me to join him in this, 
and on July 8, 1864, we crossed the Col de Triolet, on the 9th ascended 
Mont Dolent, on the 12th the Aiguille de Trelatete, and on the l.lth 
the Aiguille d'Argentiere. - The selection of these points was solely 
deterniTned by to}K)grai)hical considerations, the aim being to attain 
prominent jjositions commanding the least -known parts of the range. 
In the following year I gave attention to some of the highest iK)ints 
of the chain, and en<leavoured to find a pass across the main range, 
which might comi)ete with or supersede the Col du Ceant. On dune 
24, 186.")," I ascended the Grandes Jorasses, on June 26 crossed the 
Col Dolent, on dune 20 ascended the Aiguille Verte, and on July 3 
crossed the Col de Talefre."^ Gn July 28 of the same year, my 
friends Messrs. Buxton, Cirove, and Macdonald conquered the Aiguille 
de Bionnassay ; and ^Ir. Fowler, on Sept. 20, scaled the Aiguille «lu 
C^iardonnet. *The lower peaks have all been ascended since then. The 
last to yiehl were the Aiguille du Dm (Sept. 12, 1878), the Aiguille 
du (ieant (July 29, 1882), and the Aiguille Blanche de Pcteret (July 
81, 188')). Some of these excursions have become popular. The 
ascent of the Aiguille Verte, for example, was made in. 189.") more 
than thirty times. But none of them vie in ])opularity with le (hand 
Mont Blaiic— the Great White Mountain. Time augment^s its fame ; 
and, annually, increasing numbers make pilgrimages to its summit, 
attractetl by 'the striking grandeur of its scenery, from interest in its 
traditions, and because it is the loftiest mountain in the Alps. 

1 The pa-t^s of the Col du G^ant is probably the Jirst wliicli was effected across the 
main range of Mont lilanc. 

•-• See Scrambles amongst the Alj)!^, chapter xi. 
3 Scrantbles anionfjsf the Alps, chai)s. xvi-xix. 



48 



nr A MO XIX A XI) moxt nr.Axr. 



on AT. V. 



Table of Ascents of Mon r I^lanc shewix(; how maxv (start- 
ing FROM CHAMOXIX) were MADE IX EACH VeAR, FROM 1 S.IO 
TO ISl).'). 







Xo. of 






No. of 






Xo. of 






Ascents. 






AsceTits. 






As('ent> 


e end 


of 18.'.0 


. 57 To 


the end 


of 1865 


. :341 


To the end of 1881 


. 801 


do. 


I8rd 


. -y'^ 




1866 


. :357 




1882 


. 84:} 


do. 


i8r)2 


. 60 




1867 






188:3 


. 895 


do. 


1853 


. 65 




1868 


. 405 




1884 


. 9:57 


do. 


1854 


. 8:3 


I H '• 


1869 


. 4:36 




1885 


. 956 


do. 


1855 


. 98 




1870 


. 445 




1886 


. 1012 


do. 


1856 


. 108 




1871 


. 156 




1887 


. 1059 


do. 


1857 


122* 




1872 


. 495 




1888 


. 1095 


do. 


1858 


. 152 




187:3 


. 52:3 




1889 


. 1144 


do. 


1859 


. 171 




1874 


. 557 




181)0 


. iii»»; 


do. 


1860 


. 172 




1875 


. 592 




1891 


. 1257 


do. 


1861 


. 209 


( (( ), 


1876 


. 6:56 




1892 


. 121I7 


do. 


1862 


. 2:31 




1877 


. 662 




189:J 


. l:5r>l 


d... 


186:? 


. 265 




1878 


. 691 




18114 


. 1400 


do. 


1864 


. :}06 


* H-,'« 


1879 

1880^ 


. 722 

. 799 




1S1)5 


. 14s:5 



Tliese li<iures are taken from the l{e<iister kejd in tlie r>niean des 
(inides, in whicli the ascents made from Chamonix are supiiosed to he 
nnmhered in rotation. In examinin;^- this Ke;4ister I iia\e noti<-ed two 
errors. Iletween the years 1S57-5S there is a jnmj* from No. 122 to 
Xo. 141, tliat is to say there are no nnn»I»ers 12:3 to 140 inclusive; 
wliile i»etween ISSO and ISSl there is a retrograde inovement, the 
year 1880 terminates at No. 71M), and 18S1 commences with No. ~{\{\\ 
To ascertain the numher of Ascents actually ni»on the Iveiiister, 
ei'ihteen must he deducted and forty must he added, and the corrected 
total, down to the end of 1895. is 1505.1 

57 Ascents were nuide. 

97 do. 

do. 

:354 do. 

4:{7 do. 

287 do. 

1 This is the number of Ascents actu:ill.\ u)»on tlie Reiiister, hut nuiny otlier ascents 
have l»een nuule both from Chanionix and tioni St. (Jerxais which are nnt ni>on tlie 
Keifister. 



\\\ the years 1787 to 1850 


J? 


1851 .. 1860 


ii 


1861 .. 1870 


>j 


1871 .. 1880 


• 1 


1881 .. 1890 


>> 1 


1891 „ 1895 



27:3 



t 



CHAPTER VI. 

A CHAPTER OF ACCIDENTS. 

THE AFFAIRE //J3//vL— ACCIDENT OX THE ITALIAN SIDE OF THE COL 
DU GEANT — AMBROISE COUTTET WALKS IXTO A CREVASSE — THE 
DEATH OF MR. YOUNG — CAPT. ARKWRIGHT KILLED BY AN 
AVALANCHE — MRS. MARKE AND OLIVIER GAY — ELEVEN PERSONS 
PERISH NEAR THE SUMMIT — DEATH OF PROF. FEDCHEXKO — MR. 
MARSHALL AND JOHAXN FISCHER KILLED IN A CREVASSE — PROF. 
BALFOUR AND PETRUS PERISH ON THE AIG. BLANCHE DE PEUTERET 
— M. GUTTINGER KILLED BY FALLING ROCKS— THE FATE OF THE 
ABBE CHIFFLET — BRUN0D\S END — LOSS OF COUNT VILLANOVA AND 
J. -J. MAQUIGNAZ— HERR ROTIIE KILLED ON THE PETIT PLATEAU- 
DEATH OF MR. NETTLESHIP— POGGI SLAIN BY A FALLING STONE 
— CUMANI DISAPPEARS — DR. SCHNURDREHER'S END — THE DEATH 
OF EMILE REV. 

Mont Blanc was free from accidents until 1820, and then three 
C'hanumiards lost their lives while conducting Dr. Hamel hy the, at 
that time, nsiial route. There is little in this matter to distinguish 
it from a numher of similar occurrences whicli Ibive haitpene<l 
suhsequently on Mont Blanc and elsewhere, hut from the almost 
romantic circumstances under Avhich the remains of the victims came 
to light, after having heen entomhed more than 40 years in the ice, 
the ff IP fire llfiitirl has attained an unusual degree of notoriety. 

The Hamel accident (1820).— Dr. Hamel started from Chamonix 
on August 18, 182U, with two young Englishmen (Messrs. Durnfonl 
and Henderson), to make an ascent of Mont Blanc. They were «le- 
tained on the 10th at the Cirands Mulcts hy had weather, and during 
that day a consideral)le quantity of snow seems to have fallen on the 
upper i>art of the nnmntain, though not down l)elow. By 8.20 a.m., 
on the "iOth, they got to the (irand Plateau ; at 9 they continued 
the march; and at 10.30 they were somewhere upon the ' coicioi 
passacfc; ahove the level of the Dome du (Joilter (14,210 feet), and 
not nitich helow the toj) of the Kochers Rouges, mounting in zigzags 
to a\oid crevasses, and to ease the gradients. P>om the several 
accounts which have heen rendered, ^ it would aiq)ear that at the 

1 One })V Mr. Durtiford in the Xeic Monthbi Magoztne, and another l)y Dr. Hamel in 
the nihU<>!hh<iii(> rnircrxclle, both written and i>ubHshcd shortly after the oocnrrence ; 
and two others by .Joseph-Marie Couttet, the ]>rincipal j,^uide, more than forty years 
later. There are many (liflferences in these narratives. 

E 



50 



r II A MOM X AM> MOM' IILAXC 



ClIAl*. VI. 



iiioment of tlie aecident a guide named Aiiguste Tairraz was leading, 
and cutting or making steps, followed l>y four others, Tierre Carrier, 
IMerre lialiuat, Julien Devouassoux, and Joseph-Marie Couttet. Half- 
a-dozen paces hehind came the three tourists with three more guides. 
They had just faced about, and were going ohliquely across the slojjc, 
making a deep groove in the newly -fallen snow. Mr. Durnfonl 
saysi;— 

"As we were crossing oblitiuely the long slope above described, which was 
to conduct us to the Mont Muudit,- the snow suddenly gave way })eneath our 
feet, beginning at the head of tlie line, and carried us all down the sloi)e to 
our left. I was thrown instantly otf my feet, but was still on my knees and 
endeavouring to regain my footing, when, in a few seconds, the snow on our 
right, which was of course' above us, rushed into the gaj) th\is suddenly made, 
and completed the catastrojihe })y burying us all at once in its mass, and 
hurrviug us downwards towards two crevasses about a furlong below us, and 
nearly parallel to the line of our march. The accunudation of snow instantly 
threw me backwards, and T was carried down, in spite of all my struggles. 
In less than a minute 1 emerged, partly from my own exertions, and partly 
because the velocity of the falling mass had subsided from its own friction. 
I was oltliged to resign my pole in the struggle, feeling it forced out of my 
hand. A short time afterwards, I found it on the very brink of the crevasse. 
This had hitherto escaped our notice, from its being so iar below us, and it 
was not until some time after the snow had settled, that I perceived it. At 
the moment of my emerging, 1 was so far from lieing alive to the danger (»f 
our situations, that on seeing my two companions at some distance below ine, 
uj) to the waist in snow, and sitting motionless and silent, a jest wa.s rising 
to my lips, till a second glance showed me that, with the excei)tion of Mathieu 
Balmat, they were the only remnants of the i)arty visil)le. Two inore, how- 
ever, being those in the intervtd between myself and the rear of the party, 
having quickly reai)peared, I was still inclined to treat the affair rather as a 
jierplexing though ludicrous delay, in having sent us down so many hun<lrcd 
feet lower, than in the light of a'serious accident, when Mathieu Jialm;it cried 
out that some of the i)arty were lost, and pointed to the creva.sse, which had 
hitherto esca]>ed our notice, into which, he said, they had fallen. A nearer 
view convinced us all of the sad truth. The three front guides, Pierre Carrier, 
Pierre Balmat, and Auguste Tairray, being where the slope was somewhat 
steeper, had V»een carried down with greater rapidity and to a greater distance, 
and had thus been hurried into the crevasse, with an immense mass of snow 
upon them, which rose nearly to the brink. Mathieu Balmat, who was fourth 
in the line, being a man of great nniscular strength, as well as i)resence (»f 
mind, had suddenly thrust his |X)le into the firm snow beneath, when he felt 
himself going, which certainly checked, in some measure, the force of his fall. 
Our two hindermost guides were also missing, but we were soon gladdened by 
seeing them make their api>earance, and cheered them with loud and repeated 
hurrahs. One of these, Julien Devouassoux, had been carried into the crevasse, 
where it was very narrow, and had been thn)wn with some violence against 
the opi>osite brink. He contrived to scramble out without assistance, at the 
exi)ense of a trilling cut on the chin. The other, Jose^ih Marie Couttet, had 
been dragged out by his companions, (piite senseless, and nearly black from 
the weight of snow which had been upon him. In a short time, however, he 
recovered. It was long before we could convince ourselves that the others 
were past hope, and we exhausted ourselves fruitlessly, for some time, in 
fathoming the loose snow with our ixjles. . . The first few minutes, as may 

1 In the ^Vf^' Monthhj Magazine. 

- This is a mistake,— tlicy were not ^oin-; near Mont Plaudit. Mr. Duriiford probably 
meant '*j,'oing towards, or in the direction of" Mont Muudit. 



CHAP. vr. 



SI L EXT AS THE Oil AVE. 



51 



be readilv imagined, were wasted in irregular and unsystematic attempts to 
recover them. At length, being thoroughly convinced, from the relative 
i.ositions of the party when the accident happened, that the poor fellows 
were indeed in the crevasse, at the spot pointed out by Mathieu Balmat, the 
brother of one of them— in our opinion, only one thing remained to be done, and 
that was to venture down upim the snow which had fallen in, and, as a forlorn 
li,,i.c to fathom its unknown depths with our poles. After having thus made 
every effort in our power for their recovery, we agreed to abandon the ent<3r- 
i.rise altogether, and return to the Grand Mulet. The guides having m vain 
attemi.ted to divert us from our purpose, we returned to the crevasse from 
which durinir the consultation, we had separated ourselves to a short distance 
and diseende.l upon the new-fallen snow. Happily it did not give way beneath 
our weiixht. Here we continued, above a quarter of an hour, to make every 
exertion in our power for the recovery of our poor comrades. After thrusting 
the i.oles in to their full length, we knelt down, and apphed our mouth to 
the end, shouting along them, and then listening for an answer, in the fomt 
hoi.e that thev might still l>e alive, sheltered by some projection of the icy 
walls of the cfevasse; but, alas! all was silent as the grave, and we had too 
much reason to fear that they were long since insensible, and probacy at a 
vast dei.th beneath the snow on which we were standing. We could «ee no 
b.>ttom to the gulf on each side of the pile of snow on which we stood; the 
sides of the crevasse were here, as in other places, solid ice." 

It is not i)ossible to tell, from the narratives of this affair, where 
the avalanche was started. Mr. Durnford mentions being hurried 
'downwaiils towards tNvo creva-^ses about a furlong below.' Joseph- 
Marie Couttet in one of his accounts says that he was carried two 
iiundred metres below some of the others; and in another ]»lace he 
speaks of "••oing down four hundred feet in a minute, and then of tlyiiig 
through the air. The probability seems to be that the live guides 
Nvho were in front were carried a considerable distance down the 
sh.i.e and then shot over the ice clifi's, which are seen near the bottom 
of the en<-ravin<'- upon page 20,1 and that the tourists an<l the three 
other "uides diil not go over the cliffs.^ The three leading men were 
lost, a7id conqdetely buried up in the crevasse by the snow which 
they had dislodged ; and Joseph-Marie Couttet and Julien Devouassoux 
very narro>vly escape«l the same fate. The former is said to have 
been nearly 'black in the face when he Nvas dragged out. ^ 

Ten years later, when conducting Mr. Wilbraham by the 'corridor 
route, Couttet ].ointed in the direction of the crevasse which had 
nearlv swalloNved him up, and said, "lis sont la." "It was a 
melancludy retlecti(m," remarked the tourist, "ami all the guides 
seemed to feel deeply the loss of their ill-fated comrades; who wi 
in all probability remain imbedded beneath the CJrand Plateau till 
the day of jmlgment." Hut at that time (1S30), the bodies were no 
doubt alreaily a considerable distance from the spot where the acci- 
dent occurre«l, for the dismembered remains of the three unfortunates 
<-ommenced to re-appear at the Ivarr end of the Glacier des Bossons 
in 18(31, more than four miles away, in a direct line, from the place 

1 In this en-ravin-r, the ' ancicn 2)a«8age' is upon the right hand. The view was 
taken from the" Ilefujje Vallot. 

•^ The late Mr. J. J. Cowell, who interviewed J.-M. Couttet, says (Alpnie journal 
vol i V :m) that he was i>ositive the whole party was carried down no less than 12(K) 
feet. I'liis aj,'rees witli Mr. iMunfonls statement that, before the avalanche was started, 
thev had jrot hij,'her than the Dome du Goiiter. 



CHAMOXIX A XI) MOST BLAXC. 



(HAP. VI. 



52 

>vhere they l.ori.l,o.l, an.l must have travolle.1 .U.^mvar.ls on an 

-T^r. rVtv™"co:^a'tvft,K-" ".^ia .Io.o,h.Ma,.ie .ho .as 
•til! livin- "hen these vestiges of the catastrophe «e.e , iseove.e,!, 

rLt^ofthivr h,':;titiis that of I'i- f i;-);:^.?; 

^;- :. jl^L,t.;TlS'^^.>"--': sh.r o^ l^n!., a.; 
a -oclea e"of n.utton, ^e.e amongst the ohjects -•'"'' .<»'"^^.,* 
ri.ht ti'st "and in 180-2 a u.ultitu.le of other artules .huh .e e 

the lon.'-lost victin.s of the aff<nrc Hamd. Ihe niajo pait ot inc 
remah,>^vere interre,!, .vith eeren>ony, at Charnon.x, but son>e fe. 
were incorporated with the Museum at Annecy. 

Accident on the Italian side of the Col du G^ant (IfO)-,!''-': 
, 11 .wtpv in the ran"e of Mont lllanc occurred on the L.tli ot 
!r;"n^ So'Ulrca^^ed the death of three Englishmen a,,d a 
ChauKmix guide. The cause was n.ore or less <^"-'"''; T- f' , 
escaped, and .ere the only persons .ho could speak a o t t an , 
as there were certain circumstances .huh .ere not to then uuiit 
:;e ruXstand their reticence. The points that appear cer an 
•ne that the party arrived at tlie summit of tlie tol at a late i out 
;:rthet a,ld"Ln descen.ih.g to ^onrn.ayeur took to ----v.-^lope 
l,v Ihe side of tlie rocks which are usually tollo.e<l. A gunie lui 
idanotlier. ..ought up the rear, /,<-«/«. the rope hy which he 
others were attached ; and, when a slip occurred, they let go tiR 
ro e "All that is known to the public is that the two men who Km 
Tfollowed the party let go the rope an.l e-ai- .;;;'; - ' - 
|.n.-lisl,i,iert and Tairraz went to destruction. 1 auiaz scitamui, imi, 
like Fmdlshmen the others met their .loom .ith..ut a wor.l of ex- 
ItmaU™!- " Ti.ere is no obscurity about the acci.lent .Inch comes 
next in chronological order. 

Ambroise Couttet walks into a crevasse (1864).-Two AustrKin 
.e.™; had n"ae a successful ascent of Mont ^ ^^^ 
,,\ xv„r^ descendiii" to the Grand Plateau. "A j oung porter, 
I brose Coufterwlis some distance in front, n.,t attache.l to the 
;t^ He to^k a .lirection too near the e.lge of the P a eau ; an.l 
iustas the^uhlc of the party shoute,! t., wan. him of his .langei, 
e was emniTfel in a crevasse, bef..re the eyes of the ..thers. Ihe 
crevasse wli 90 feet of sheer .lepth, and the rope was not l....g en.mgh 
to read. Ihe iKittom.' Two following parties gave the use o then 
rooes "The "ui.les approached the e.lge of the crevasse an.l leant 
o"'r ThJy saw the trices of the .nan's fall, an.l called. In. receue. 
r answer The cold on the plateau was .ntense, and the gui.les 
feelin ' e^nvinced that the ...an was .lea.l c«ut.nue.l tbeir n.ute. 
'*''.' fhe'uie evening a party of gui.les l«^^ft fham.mn. to -cover the 
l,ody. Two, whose names shoul.l be mentioned, Michel l.ijot and 
1 Umn uj ExercM in the Alpx, l.y Jol;n Tynilall, 1871, p. 23. 



cii. VI. DEATHS OF MR. YOUXG * CAPT. ARKWRIGHT. S.S 

Simo.. Pierre IJenoit, .lescen.le.l 90 feet to the tu.-n of .H'e er«™««f • 
but could get no further fro... tlie ha.lness of the -^"^ >• Jhey 
lowered a bottle 100 feet more, which ca.ne up covere.l with hau (.). 
Tlu're isnow no hope of recovering the b„.ly.' • Ainne Journcd, 
vol. i, p. 384, .piote.! from a letter publishe.l m the luiies. 

The death of Mr. Toung (1866).-" On the 2.Srd of Atigust, 1800 

Sir (:e.,r.'e Voiing an.l two of his brothers reached the sunnnit of 

Mont l!la.,e witlmnt gui.les, an.l at about 1130 a.m. prepare.l to 

.lesceu.l. They ha.l ascen.led by the liosse, and in pass.ng the po.nt 

■here the route of the ^ nmk,, pa.sajC lay in.,..ed.ately below the... 

..y .lescen.le.1 a little, i.i or.ler to look for trac-ks m t hat .l.rect ... 

T Lev soon, however, ,liscovere,l that the whole surface in that .lire t.on 

w.usl.ar.1 a..,l icy, and th.tt they ...ust retrace their steps, and contiime 

ah,...' the su.n.nit ri.lge t..war.ls the usual line of .lescent t.. the > . 

.le la cue. In turning, one ..f the brothers slippe.l, an.l .lragge.l the 

thers .h.wn with him. They sli.l tor some .listauce, fell over a preci- 

pi.-e son.e V, .,r 20 feet high, sli.l again a little way farther, an.l were 

hen st.,ppe.l by the soft s..ow. Sir George an.l one of h.s brothers 

were u..l...rt by their fall, but the yo.mgest unhappily p.tche, on s 

bea.l an.l broke his ..eck." Alpine Joanml, vol. ii, p. .M2. II is 

la.,ientable aHair was followed shortly afterwards by another a...l 

more disastrous one. 

Captain Arkwright and three others killed by an Avalanche (1866) 
_"(m the 13th of (tctober, 1800, Captain Arkwright, with his gui.le 
Mich.d Simon.l, two porters, Franc..is an.l Joseph T.,iirnier, an.l 
accompanie.l by Sihain Conttet of the Pierre Pomtue, an.l a servant 
?,'m me ..f ihe Cham.mix h.,tels, both of .1...... were apparctly 

I nteers, left the tirands M,.lets at .i.3U a..,i. They took the route 
, "he './-•v-..« pa^saqe; and ha.l asce.i.led a little way, when an 
avalan.he fell fro... above. Couttet saw what was coming, and, along 
with the servant, ..,a..age.l to get out of the way. Captain Aa« '^ ^ 
a.iil his .nii.les either remaineil i.....,ovable, or tr.e.l t._> escape in the 

wro...' .liTection: they were overwl.elme.l by the ava bu.che, a...l .... 

;ra'*^,f the... was .Useer.,able by the survivors."'^ Alin,.- Jonnml, 

™ 'Vvahli.ches of the .lescription that .lestroye.1 this party fall fre.,nently 
frou. the ice-dills which are partially shewn on the r.gl.t l.a...l of 
the en-ravin.' on page 20, a..d their ./<*<«• son.etimes e.Uc.ls .,uite 
!^re-ti.ir.l w^y acL: the (;.an,l Plateau. Whi e .v.scen,l,„g by the 
a„cie,i passage, there .....st always be so..ie risk fro.n them. 

1 Michel Pavot, who is ^J^^^'l^^^'^,^^^'^ :::X^^ 
tidily .„.! ....v*lf. «ee *™'"*« "^'^ , t O.W^S' .'« '/"«'- -V™"* "'«'•«■". 

Arkwriirht was not found. 



54 



CHAMOXIX A XI) MOXT BLAXC. 



CHAT. VI. 



Loss of Mrs. Marke and Olivier Gay at the top of the Corridor, 
at the heoinniii<;- of Aug. 1870.— Mr. ami Mrs. Maike set out witli 
Miss Wilkinson and two Vahiisan <;ui<k^s to make the ascent of Mont 
lllanc. Tliey took a youth as porter at the (liands Mulets, named 
Olivier (^ay. At the top of the (Vnridor the ladies were fatigued, 
and remaine<l hehin<l with the jMnter, while Mr. Marke and the guides 
continued the ascent. The latter Mere half way \\\^ the Mnr de la 
Cote when they heard piercinii" shrieks, and returnin«;- with all haste 
found that Mrs"! Marke and Olivier (lay had disappeared in a crevasse. 
The ladies had been unahle to hear the cold, and wished to move 
ahout. The junter ottered his arm to Mrs. Marke, and very short ly 
afterwards hoth hroke throu^di a snow-l>rid<ie and were swallowed uji 
in a crevasse. The Ixulies were not recovered. 

The Editor of the Alpinr Jountnl made the following; connnents 
on this occasion. "The porter «;ives one lady his arm, and walks 
across a snow -held notoriously full of crevasses. The catastrophe 
which occurred was that >vhich every experience*! traveller would 
have i>redicted as highly prohalde. I will not enipiire whether, in 
this case, any blame attaches to the traveller : hut it is ditlicult to 
ima,uine that' anyone with the sli-htest pretensions to act as tfniilr 
could have comniitted the folly to which it was owin<i that the porter 
lost his own life and that of his companion."" Alpine Juunml, vol. v, 
p. 190. 

Eleven persons perish near the Summit (1870).— This catastniphe 
was the worst thin<; of its kind that has hai>pene<l on Mont lihinc. 
The entire caravan of eleven persons perished. The victim tourists 
were unknown at Chamonix ; there was no one interested in writinj:; 
an account of this <:;hastly attair, and anything' like one can only he 
constructe«l by reference to a diversity of sources. 

On Au^^ust 20, 1870, two Enjilishmen (Messrs. Sto<i<Ion and 
Marshall) came down to Thamonix, havinj^ escaped, so to speak, by 
the skin of their teeth from bein^i" lost on the summit of Mont 
lilanc. They had ascended by the ridj^e of the IJosses, and intended 
to come back another way. l>ein<; cau<uht in bad weather they 
returned in their track, through inability to descend in any other 
<lirection. It was a narrow shave. Their two j^uides, though not in 
their tirst youth or gifted with «;reat a<iility. Mere sturdy men — 
seasoned vessels. One of them, Sloritz Andermatten, had 1»een n}> 
Mont lilanc sixteen times. The other Mas Peter Tauj^Malder, pdri\ 
of Zermatt. "On the ni«:ht of our return," sai<l Mr. Sto^don, "an 
American gentleman named Randall asked me to let him come into 
<mr sittin<,^-rooni ami talk over Mont JJlanc. The ccmsequence Mas 1 
did not j^et to bed till tMo. I found in Mr. Kandall, in spite of his 
tiftv years, the most intense mountain enthusiast 1 ever had th<* 
]»leasure of meeting. . . To see. not necessarily to climb Mont 
Illanc had been the dream of his life, and he had come over at last 
to fultil it." The story he listened to seems to have had a stiiiinlat- 
ing rather than a deterrent ett'ect, and the next Mr. Stog<lon heard 
of Mr. Kandall was that he, along Mith ten <>thers, perished close 
to the to]) of the mountain, early in the following month. 



CHAP. VI. 



ELEVEX PEnSOXS PEPJ^U TOGETHER. 



55 



Mr IJandall, ai.parentlv, met casually at Chamonix another 
American, Mr. J. liean, and the Rev. (;. McCorkin.lale. It does 
not seem that any one of the three hail mountain experience. iliey 
determined, howt'ver, upon an ascent of Mont Pdanc, and setting 
out on Sei)tember 5, with three guides ami five porters, passed tliat 
ni-d.t at the inn on the Grands Mulets.^ The next day several per- 
sons in the Valley of Chamonix endeavoured to watch their i.rogress 
through telescopes. The weather aloft was bad. The wind is said 
to have been frightful. Even from below the snow was seen whirl- 
in..- alumt. In an opening in the clomls, about 2.15 p.m., the whole 
eleven were caught si-lit (»f for a short time near the rocks ca led 
the Retits Mulcts,-' and it was noticed from time to time that they 
had to throw themselves down to escape being carried away by the 
wind \ little later the clouds again parted, and they were per- 
ceived coming down near the same place. After that nothing more 
was seen of the toj) of the mountain for eight days. 

\o unr rrfurnrd, and cm the 7th fourteen Chamonianls started, 
to try to learn something, but they did not even reach the Oramls 
Mulets. Snow was falling heavily 2000 feet lower down and drove 
them back. On the 15th the weather began to clear, an<l hve b ack 
dots Mere discovered a little to the left of the Retits Mulets. 
Twenty-three men set out from Chamonix the next day, and on the 
17th found Mr. Mcf/orkimlale and two of the porters 750 feet l»elow 
the summit, lying, so they expressed it, here and there, M^ith their 
heads ri.'ht way uppermost, but with their clothes soinewhat torn, 
as if thLT ha.l 'slii.pe<l and fallen. About three hundre<l feet higher 
they can'ie upon Mr. Rean and another porter, sitting down the 
former with his head leaning on one haml an<l the elbow on a knap- 
sack ; ropes coiled up, batons, axes, an.l knapsacks roun<l about 
them one still containing some meat and bread and cheese. I p«»n 
Mr Rean a m)te-book was found containing the following entries, and 
iittle except conjectures can be added to the information they give. 

Tuesdav, September 6. Temperature 84 deg. F., ^.^ ^ a.m =' 1 ha^^ made 
the accent of Mont RUuic with ten persons; eight guides, Mr. Mctoikindale, 
vnd Mr Uan.lall. We arrived o,i the snnnnit at half-past two. Immediately 
alter iivigt was enveloped in clouds of snow. We passed the night in 
a grottTexcavated out of thL snow, affording very uncomfortable shelter, and 

' MoiU nlan^sln'tember 7. If any one fimls this note-book^ I beg that it 
may i>e sent U) Mrs. H. M. Bean, Jonesborough, Tennessee, United htates of 

"^"MvTlear Hessie,-We have been on Mont Blanc for two days in a terrible 
snowkOrn" We have lost our way and are in a hole -oP-l -t of th. snow 
at a height of 15.000 feet. I have no hope of descending. Perhaps thi> book 

1 As it wa-s late in the season, the servants at the Grands Mulets had already come 
'''T'por the position of the Petits Mulets, see the view of Mont Blanc from the 
*'Tt»w> ..ntrv 'Tenn>erature :U de-. F., at '2 a.m.' was doubtless made at the Grands 

teml>er 8. 



56 



CIIAMOXIX AND MOXT BLANC. chap. vi. 

may be found and forwarded. (Here followed some instructions oii pnvate 
nffiir^ \ We have no food ; mv feet are already frozen, and I am exhaubtca , 
f^:;^J^J^^to write a few words. 1 die in the i^^^h ot Jesu. Chns 
wit itfect'ionite thoiurhts of mv family; my remembrances to all. M> ettccts 
are in part a tL Ho^^^^ Blanc, and partly with me m two p<.rtmanteanx. 

Send them to the Hotel Schweitzerhof at (leneva ; pay my bills at the hotel, 
and heaven will reward your knidness. 

And lower down, in nearly illegible writing :— 

>b.rning. Intense cold ; much snow, which tails uninterruptedly ; guides 
restless. 

\11 the live eovi.ses were hard frozen. They were pnt into saeks 
and dragged down the glaeiers. It to.»k three days to transport 
them to Chanionix. The 
bodies of the six others have 
not been discovered. Mr. 
McCorkindale was bnried in 
the graveyard of the Parish 
Church, and bits of heather 
lind their way from time to 
time t<» the tomb of a man 
Avho was greatly beloved. ^ 

In referring to tliis tragedy, 
;Mr. Leslie Stephen remarked, 
" With a really experienced 
guide, I cannot Imt believe 
That the party who were lost 
must have been able to find 
their way. They might have 
suttered frost-bites, or even lost 
the lives of some of the 
weaker members of the party; 
but that eleven men slumld 
l)e so bewildered as actually 
to be incapable of discovering 
a route, imidies a singular 
want of that instinct for 
which a good guide is gener- 
ally remarkable, and which 
alf tolerable guides ought to 
possess." While concurring 
with Mr. Stephen's remarks, 
I think it is not at all unlikely that the whole of the party irrrc 
badly frost-bitten, and from that cause were uttahlc to proceed. 

The death of Professor Fedchenko by the side of the Glacier du 
Tacul in 1873, when upcm an ordinary excursion t<» tiie Col i\\\ 

1 Mr. lk>an is buried near Mr. Mc-Corkindale. The foUowin- inscription is over his 
..rave Junu-s (J. Bean of IJatt^Md. U.S. of Anuri.a. -Penslied near the sununit of Mou t 
rSnr almut the 7tli of September, 1870, ajre.l r.4.-()n bis person was tound a duu> 
.and anu.nrthe last wor.ls which he pencilk.l to his wife were these : " I die m i?ood 
faith in Jesus Crist and hope we will meet m heaven." 
















-i 



I 
















■v -7/ 



•^' 






■I-V-^-' 



GRAVE OF KEV. GEORt>E MCCOBKINDALE. 



THE FATE OF FEDCHENKO. 



Ol 



CIIAI". VI. 

(ieant was a .leiilorable oocnnenee, arising' fro... the tmirist l.ei.it; 
una le t.. «itl,sta..a l.a,l «eatl.er, at a low level, even for a s.i.i;le 
a -An ^.n,lue ,li.,H,situ,n wa« .hewn at the t.n.e to throw l.lan»3 
p„. a Cha,..o..ix guiJe an.l porter who '-^f ""H'-'f '' .^ *?{" 
chenko was a ...an of .i.i.WUe age, who l.a.1 hee.i m teiitia Asia, 
a ,a a n"ire.r there so,..e experience in ...ountai... travel ; an.l he was 
s r..." t a,',.eara,.ce, l,..t he was evi.lently w.tho,.t ">"< ,-t-""- 
The Tmhle-Joseph I'ayot-was a young ...an between 23 a 24 
ye,ars",f age ; the porter, his l.rother Prosper, was between 2i an.l 23. 

"M. Fedc.he..ko started fron. C*-»i^ »' S -^^ 
t i:^.^™ ^"h: th|^>;^^ 

ot the seracs f^'^Lrtho ^e%^^^^^^^ that thev noticed that the day, which, 

wmmmwmm 

;;;;il";n,l' :■ ^^ "i.^ Tv^J^^^ :"ready tired .™l the COM 
and wet told heavily «v«n hi.... . P»"V"Xin'Xh they ^erfemeCd: 

serars; ana it v^ab iieccfe^aiv b arrived at the loot ot 

tnvveljer, ^?*°. -■; -f,,!;, l^f^'eT y Jt, the Sh o? L;te,.,ber-....d by this 
the strars it was nightfall ^^^, ^^^ ^^'^ ^. .y._ .„,., Pav<,ts had to carry him 

party., remained upcm ^J^.^^^^^^^^^f \^ftra"^^^^^^ their feet ; but at length 

S\S ^(Srris rl^Sn^: '''ile'tdt.yti,.'h.\his condition, though 

. T..ki,.,' their .vouth and i.,experience into account thoy arpea.- to have .,el,av«l 
remarkal)l\ well. 



5G CHAMUXIX AXD MOXT BLAXC. cuav. vi. 

,nav bo t^Mma and tV.rwarded. (Here followed s(>me instructi<ms -^\^^^^ 
.i\\[v< ) Wc have iii> food : mv feet are alrea.ly fro/.en, and 1 am exliau^tui 
; ^ vj\.niV;tren^th to write a few wonls. I die in the ^^^ -;t Jesr^C^ , 
with •itVec-tiouite thouuhts ef mv family : my rememl.ranees to all. 3U cncci> 
:;i\n i^r ' he Hot^l Mont Blanc, and partly with me m tj- l><-tijmit.aux. 
simd them to the Hotel Sehweit/.erhof at Geneva ; pay my bill, at the hotel 
and heaven will reward your kindness. 



AikI lower down, in nearly ille-il>le writin- : — 



Morninjx. 
restless. 



Intense cold : much snow, which falls uninterruptedly ; ^niide.s 




:%■:, 



.«; •^ 



Ml the live corpses were hard fro/(Mi. Tl.ey Mere imt into sacks 

and dra-e.l down the j;;lavieis. It took thive days tu transport 

iheni to Cliainonix. The 

bodies of the six others have 

not been diseovere<l. Mr. 

McCorkindale was buried in 

the .maveyard of the Tarish 

(Minrch. and bits of heather 

lind their way from time to 

time to the tomb of a man 

who was ,ureatly beloved. i 

In referring" to this tra.uedy, 
Mr. Leslie Stephen remarked, 
•' With a really experienced 
-nide, I cann(»t bnt believe 
that the }»arty who were lost 
must have been able to lind 
tJM'ir way. They mi-ht have 
sntVcnMl frost-bites, (.r even lost 
the lives of some of the 
weaker members of the party; 
bnt that eleven men should 
he so bewildered as actually 
to be incapable of diseoverin- 
a route, implies a siiiLiular 
want of that instinct for 
which a -ood -nide is ^ener- 
jilly remarkable, and which 
jiU tolerable ,uuides ought to 
possess." While concurring' 
witii Mr. Steidien's remarks, 
I think it is not at all unlikely that the whole of the i.arty irnr 
badlv frost-bitten, and from that cause were ((H>i''Ir to proceed. 

The death of Professor Fedchenko by the side of the Glacier du 
Tacul in 1873, when upon an onlinary excursion to the Col du 

1 Mr \Wau is l.uricl near Mr. M.-Corkindale. The foUowin- insciipliou is over his 
-rave ■|anRs (1. P.ean of lUilt ::.M.l. f.S. <.t An.eri.u. Perished near the snimnit of Mount 
iu nc'ahout the 7tli of Septen.her, ls7o, a^.<l ^4.- <)n h.s l-'-" ;::^^. ••'^';^» -^ ^ 
and anion- the last words wliich lie iiencilktl to his uite were these. I die ni -oo<l 
faith in .lesus Crist and luipe we will meet in heaven." 












'.^^-^ ' '/^ 



Gli.WE OF KtV. GKOKCE M-^COKKINDAt-K, 



THE FATE OF FETlCIIEXKO. 



57 



CHAT. VI. 

V.hxut «a« a .U.,,la,able .K-<.,.rreiK-e, arisin- fr.-n; tlie tourist l-einj^ 

,. iV. t,. NvitLst, u,l l.aa >veathor, at a U.w level, even for a sm^le 

Hv \ ... lue .lisposition was shewn at tl,e tin.e to throw l.lan.e 

i ,n a Cha .,ix '..i.le an.l porter who --<;'"i;f''f ''";;.;, ^ • ■ ' 

clienko was a man of ini'MIe a-e, who lia.l heeu in Centia Asia, 
',4 a ,uire,l there some ex,>eiienee in ,n,.nntain. travel ; an.l he was 
• 1.^ " appearaiK-e, hnt he was evidently withont "'--'^t;;;;;" - 
The ^ni.le-Joseph I'ayot-was a y.xmy ".an between 2. a -4 
yearsl-f a^-e ; the p-.rter, his hrother Prosper, was hetween 22 aiul 2.i. 

' ->M. Fedchenko started Iron, O|a...o..i^^ at 'i -m. intond^^ 

,, a.;d remrn the sa.,.e even,,.g , , -\,^r p n^lsi. m' ^for which, 'with his 
he set lorth at » a- '. He '''V.^, .• "^v to.)k the ordinary route, and reache.1 

sei-ars; and it was neee..ai\ g arrived at the toot ot 

traveller, who "as not a hght .,uu B> the Ume ;he> a^ ^^^^^^^^^^^ , ^|^.^ 

the .<;.■.>.■» .t was nife'htfall-thc ''^J, J'^jJ,';'',/^ t„.„ p,„',„„ had to carry lii.ii 
which still gave the,« rock ..'■^tead o ^J'^^^^^^J^'^^ al „os a" exhaust'ed 

with clouds and had weather ,^^^'^:^ ^^^ ^::^^n:^:Ao„>: as he 
exhaustion became supreme. / ^^^^^ /,'^' ; .^^•^;v 'l" ^.^ ^leep of frozen exhaustion 

;--• .S St r'liS; 'VtXtL'^'^. condition. tho.„h 

. Takin,- lluir youth and UK-xiK-ricce iato account they .appear .o have hchavnl 
remarkahh well. 



58 



CHAMOXIX AND MOXT BLANC. 



THAP. VI. 



CHAP. VI. 



A MYSTERY. 



59 



still breathing:, and Prosper had already had to strike, kick, and shake his 
brother to })revent him also from falling: asleep, when the younger brother 
came to the conclusion that the only chance of saving any life besides his 
own — perhaps his own also— was to attempt to walk on. He gt)t his l>rother 
into motion with infinite dithculty, and with great ilithculty kept him fn»m 
falling-, till, little by little, circulation and warmth to some degree revived, 
and between 4 and ?> a.m. on the loth they both reached the Montanvert in 
a very exhausted and ]>itia])le condition. . . It is difficult to see what more 
the two men could have done after they once l>ecame involved in the diffi- 
culty, or of what avail it would have been t<i stay longer on the glacier than 
they did. It is true that the narrative comes from the men themselves ; but 
I see no reason to doubt it. The story was told me by Prosiier Payot simply, 
quietly, and modestly ; and there are many circumst^mces to bear it out. 
Aljtiue Joid'nnK vol. vi, pp. 308-9, (letter from Mr. Justice Wills). 

Mr. J. G. Marshall, and tlie guides Johann Fischer, of Zaun near 
>reyrin,uen. and Ulrich Aimer of (iriiidelwajd, while descend Iml;- the 
Brouillard Glacier by moonli^^ht on Sept. 1, 1874, broke tiinm^li a 
sno>y brid<^e near the e(l«::e of the jjjlacier, and fell into a erevasse. 
The two former Avere kiUed. Aimer escaped with sli^^dit injuries. 
Mr. Leslie Stephen, who examined the place with Melchior Anderejxji' 
shortly after tlie accident, said — 

"that the crevasse into which they fell was not five minutes' walk from the 
moraine. Fischer was leading, and Aimer was last, and just after a (piestion 
and the answer that it was almost midnight, a bridge of jim or nttu broke 
below their feet, and all three fell almost simultaneously into the schrund. 
The bridge must have been 20 feet wide, and presented no sign of its presence 
beyond a small hole by which Aimer afterwards escaped, and it wonld not 
suggest to them any (loubt of its stability. Mr. Marshall and Fischer fell 
alKiut 30 feet into the lower part of the crevasse, which may have been 
5 feet wide, and \\\)0\\ hard ice. Mr. Marshall's skull was fractured an<l his 
death instantaneous ; and Fischer's injuries were such that he covild not have 
lived many minutes. Aimer seems to have fallen a less distance upon a kind 
of bank or shelf, which made up the greater part of the profile of the schruiul 
and upon snow : possibly too his fall was }trt)ken by the fragments of the 
bridge which fell under him. Then he was probably dragged by the rope 
into the deeper part after the others." 

The next catastrophe also occurred on the south side of Mont 
IJlanc, in duly, 188*2. 

Prof. F. M. Balfour, of Camhridj^^e, when attemi)tinj: to climb the 
Ai-iiille IJlanche de l*euteret, was killed alonj;- with his j;uide Johann 
Petrus, of Stalden. The exact cause of the acci<lent was not ascer- 
tained. Mr. ('. D. Cunnin^^ham, who ^vas in the neighbourhood at 
the time, said that — 

'•On the 14th inst, Mr. Balfour crossed the (\)\ du ({cant, and in descend- 
ing the Italian side the idea first occurred to him of attempting the Aiguille 
Blanche de Peuteret. . . This peak, which had never been ascended, is a 
part of one of the buttresses t)f Mont Blanc, and is joined to the n/nsst'/ of 
the mountain l>y an extremely steep snow arete. My guide Emile Key had 
previously attempted the i)eak, and was able to give Mr. Balfour so many 
details as to the probable line of ascent that he proposed that we should 
both accompany him. This Emile strongly advised me not to do, as he con- 
sidered the snow to be in a tlangerous conditi«)n. Mr. Balfour, however, did 
not agree with him as to the state of the snow, and next morning starteil 



I 



with Petrus for the Aiguille, accompanied by a porter to carry blankets and 
wood as far as their sleeping place on the rocks. ,i;ffi,.„u 

-This was on Tuesday, the ISth, and as it was a new asc-ent and a difhcult 
one it was thought i.robable he might be absent two nights, and return to 
Courmayeur on Thursday afternoon. As he did not reappear it was supposed 

that he must have crossed Mont Blanc to ^^^""""^-^V^^''' ^™^ Jl^^^^^ti^^ 
ascent more difficult than he expected, gone down to the Chalets ^1^ \ isaille 
for more provisions. On Friday Mr. Bcrtolim and Mr W M Baker an 
Englishman who was staying in the hotel, became seriously alarmed linding 
on 'Saturday he had not'beSn heard of either at Thamonix or the Chale s de 
Visaille they sent out a search-party, accompanied by the honorary chaplain, 
the Rev H: S. Verschoyle, there being some hope ot the poor men being 
still aMxo. Early on Sunday morning, on reaching the rocks between the 
{ acier du Brouillard and the Glacier du Fresnay, they saw what appeared to 
be the bodies of Mr. Balfour and Petrus, both partially covered with snow. 
It is clear that Mr. Balfour's death was instantaneous. As there was a 
comparatively small .piantity of fresh s.iow about ^^e pace where they lay, 
we presume that it was not an avalanche which caused their death, ^>^it tl^xt 
one of them slipped, and the .)ther had not sufhcient strength to hold his 
c mi anion. As the provisions which they had left at the s eeping p ace were 
im uched, the accident must have taken place on Wednesday, the 19th, just 
a week ago. But it is not cert^iin whether they fell m the descent or ascent 
of the Aiguille." A/inite Journal, vol. xi, pp. 90-91. 

Tn a communication to the Alpine JonruaJ by Mr. Walter Leaf 
it was state.l that "Mr. Ualfours neck was broken and his skull 
fractured in three places. Petruss ri-ht arm was broken between 
the elbow and the shoulder, and so were his ribs on the ri-ht side ; 
a fracture of the skull was, in his case, probably received <luriii- the 
very ditlicult and dan-erous descent of the bodies to Conrmayeur 
lioth showe.1 some brnises and abrasions, but no other serious external 
wcmnd ; their hands were scratched only on the outside, so that they 
couM have made no ertbrt to save themselves by oraspino- anythin-. 
The clothes were torn, but not to any great extent ; nor was the 
r<»pe broken. These ai)pearances seein to point to a fall over rocks, 
but thnmgh a comparatively small height. ' 

M Guttinger, of (Jeneva, was killed by falling rocks on the 
Grandes Jorasses, on July 11, 1884. it is said that he starte. - troui 
Courmayeur accompanied by the guides J. M. Key an. dulien Proment 
to sleep at the hut on the (Iramles Jcmisses, intending to complete 
the ascent next day. About 4 p.m. the party came to a vnuhMr of 
alumt (;:> feet, which had to l»e ascended in order t.o gain the shelt 
on which stands the hut. . . The gnides resolve<l to go np by the 
rocks and to let down a rope by which the traveler coiild mount 
without touching the ice. They svarne.l M. (luttmger to shekel 
himself nnder an overhanging rock,"' lest stones might "fall upon 
him while they were clindmig up. M. (luttinger took tins advice, and 
Key, aided bV Proment, began to climb the rocks ; but seeing his 
traveller leaving his shelter to see how the obstacle was being over- 
come, Krou.ent called out to him to go back. The unfortunate tnu el ei 
is stated to have replied that he was too curions to see how tlje guides 
were getting cui to allow him to do so. Key went on c' imbmg up, 
whenTi stone be^.m to move, carried others with it, and all fell d,»wn 



60 



CHAMOXIX AXD MONT BLAXC. 



CHAP. VI. 



towards :SI. Cluttin-er, who, aespite the efforts of IV.iiient was not 
able to iret out of the way, and was struck hy liu-e hh)cks ou tlie 
head, shoulder, an<l ri-ht le-. His ouides uiana-ed to carry hini <U)Wii 
some way, and Key then went off to -et helj*. Proment reinamed 
with the injured man, wlio was ahle to converse, and who, thouy i 
very much iiurt, did not seem in immediate (hin-;er. But very sud- 
den'ly, al>out 9 p.m., he nuide an attempt to speak, and immediately 
breathed liis last.^'i Alpine Journal, vol. xii, pp. 108-9. 

The Abb^ Chifflet (Imrsar of tlie Carthusians at Lyons), who was 
killed on the eastern slopes of Les Courtes, in July, 1885, may like 
M (;uttin<^er, he said to have courted his fate. He left the Chalet ot 
L(M.nan on July 4, with two -uides, Joseph and Clement l)evouass<mx 
(father and son), to cross from the upper hasin of the Ai-entiere (, lacier 
to the (ilacier de Talefre. Their non-arrival either at the Montanvert 
or at Lo-nan raise.l douhts, an<l on July 8 a party of guides went 
in search, and discovered all three, lying dead upon the C.lacier 
d'\r<^entiere. "The Ahhe and the elder guide were still rope<l 
to<>-erher, though their hodies Avere much mutilated; the younger 
oul.le, with a fragment of rope still round him, lay alK)ut forty yards 
off." The evil character of the ridge they proposed to cross was well 
known. 

Gratien Brunod, a guide of Courmayeur, lost his life on Aug. 12, 
1890 at the top of the Col du Geant. He was accompanying tw<. 
members of the Italian Alpine Club across the pa.ss ; and, whilst 
thev were resting on the top, he went aside to get some water a 
few yards from the cabane, slipped and fell for about a tliousand 
feet down a couloir on to the CJlacier de Toule, and was killed on 
the spot. 

Count Umberto di Villanova, his gui<les Jean-Joseph Maquignaz 
and Antonio Castagneri, and two porters disappeared lu August, 1890, 
(ui tlie rid<-c which connects the Dome du Gouter with the AiguiUe 
de Bionnas'say. This party left the Clmlet of la Yisaille (near the 
foot of the Italian (Uacier de Miage) on August 18, intending, it is 
suiM)Osed, to ascend Mont Blanc by the Dome route. Since that 
time they have not been heard of. Shortly after they left, a furious 
storm broke on Mont Blanc, and blotted them (mt. For some days 
their disappearance was not noticed, and, as bad weather contmue.l, 
no search could be made for a long time. Then prolonged efiorts 
were made to ascertain their fate. Their tracks were .liscovere<l, 
and followed up to the ridge at the head of the (ilacier du Dome, 
which connects the Dome du (iofiter with the Aiguille de Bionnassay, 
and there they ceased. What happened there is unknown. I he 
ridt'e has exceedingly steep slopes upon each side. Anything falling 
down them would go a thousand feet at a stride, and impetus would 
perhaps carry it a thousan.l feet further. Some of the ^ al lour- 
nanche men who were in the searching parties thought that the 

1 It was stutcl i.i the Echo dex Alpes that M. Guttini^er was "tr6s fort, /rt's fyrine, 
intrepkle, a-ile sur le rcx^her, solide sur la nei-e et la glace, serieux, et mrtout prudent. 



CHAP. VI. DISAPPEAnAXCE OF COUNT VILLAXOVA. 61 

r<mnt must have slipped, ami others c.onsider it is -^^^y^^^ 
the whole were blown olV the ridge in a squall. Do^^n btlmN, on 

the Italian (ilacier de Miage, or upon the (.lacier de l>ionnassa>. 

Herr Rothe and Michel Simond killed on the Petit Plateau by an 

ice-avalanche (Aug. 21, 1891). 

-On August 20 a party consisting of Herr Rothc «f J?^"^f;T?^^'^j;^^t>rv) 
FavXMree guicJs, an\l two 1-^-; reached M^ 

-on the Bosses du Dronmdaire. ^^ ^.^^^^^^^^^^^^ afternoon of the 

allow them to complete the ascent '^yi^^^'^.f^^^^^^^ by four of 

21st they beg.m the downward jotirnej . ^j^^^^l f^ ;^^^^^^^^^ observat^.ry. As 
the men2 employed "V^"^)"^^^^? , ^^^^/.^vi*'"TvJit Phteau a mass of ice and 
they descended ^-^^^^'^^ ^r^tl/^^^e, which caught 

the ix>rter A-and Comte^^C^^^^^^^^^^ .ith serious 

&::i:;^^^e it^iJr^of'li^r^^ithe and S™.d were only recovered a few 
days later." A/piue Jovrmf, vol. xv, pp. o39-40. , , ,^. , 

*Tc.eaviHnches frequently fall fnnn the ice-clitfs of the Dome du 
(loate'i onZ he PeUt Plateau, but they seldom if ever M n^^ 
\;:^H Ind the proper course to a.h>pt, wlien ->-;^^f ^^^^ ^ 
Plateau, is to sweep r<mnd to the east and get a^ far as possible 
away from the Dome du (iodter. 

n>hJr,7toircMiliowloglquc du Mont }Ua,,c, 4to, 1 ans, 1893, v l-L 

attrilmtes liis .leatl. to Mai de Mo„tarjne> 

The death of Mr. Nettleship (1893).-Mr. Kichard Lewis Nett c- 
ine aeam lui Uxf.ml, left Clianioiux <m Au-ust 2.5, 

1^ tr the ct" b V.Stten.Un, 'to ascen.l Mont P-lan. % «ay 

i • l:e'Ai5^^ille a„ tiof.tor '.an,! the Bosses .In ^^^ ^^^t 

( 'ilftto; nntil 1 ,. m Tl..-^' the n,ornin« wa. fine, chnuls galherc. 
irr uJre* leri iu.li.ation: of had weather ';f - •..;- W^jV; ,,' - 

h ie\, ^trhen,, they ..eean,e hewil.Jered, -^''^'"^::::^ 
hours and at last stoppe,!, .lug a hole in the '""" ' /" . ,!.''""i'f; 
in it all ni^dit. Acci.rding to the statement of the guides, Mr. 

mon avis. La <liai-nose ,r,a„to,«.c »"''""«» ',(1 <rrrSa..,„,..tio,, d„ oerveau pour 

rs^:';,:if;et=iie?^r|^H^/ri:iat:";::^"s;H^^^ 

ITlf'fL^S't •irJS'nel';™ra^e:tut ^nk., antre.0. ,i robu»te. " 



02 



CHAMUXJX AM> MiL\T lll.AXC. 



CMAI'. \ I. 



Nettlesliip was in o-ood spirits, assistetl in (li^^^iii;^ tlie hole, ami 
even saii-- <lurin<i tlie iii-lit. Tliey luul sulliciciit food and wine. 
Imt no extra clothinu:. 

_*'Thc storm continued the whole of the night. On the niorniiifx of the 
•2'»th it was still snowing- hard, and all tracks were oliliterated. The guides 
advised Mr. Nettleship to remain where he was, on the chance of a change 
of weather, l)ut Mr. Nettleship urgeil that it was idle to remain there and 
die like cowanls, and that they must make an effort to get away. He there- 
fore started, the guides following liim. They proceeded some little dist^mce. 
when :Mr. Xettleshi}) stumbled and became unsteady. The guides offered him 
wine and brandy, which he refused. He then cried out and fell forward. 



.•.'^ 









If 









K-'i 








'<t.i«,«.ii r" » 



' a y; Jp jy ..»«-.,, 
v»'^Vi<P ■ — -- 



:' 5- -ifri'- ^,.i-# oc.'i... .,", r» -•''*'^%?!3S>. -^Ssi^* 

.^ -v • • , •-.-.. ...Six - '.^0^^^ ^^T'^'-b 



#^i':.'^«^ 






s>3*r 






MK. NETTLESHIP S GKAVE. 

uttering some words in English, after which he took eaxrh guide by the hand 
bade them good-liye. closed his eyes and expired. ' ' ' 

"The guides remained with him for a short time, and then i)lacing liis ice- 
axe ujiright in the snow to mark the i>lace where he lav, they left him. After 
a short time the weather cleared a little, the guides caught sight of the 
Vallot hut, made for it, and stayed there all the night of Thursday the 2.')th. 

"Friday the 26th was fine, and the guides returned to the Dome* where the 
body lay. They then descended to the (brands Mulcts, whence Alfred Comte 
brought the news to Chamonix, Simond remaining at the Grands Mulets." 

Twelve men were at once sent oft', tliey recovered the ImmIv, and 
it was interred in the Englisli riinrcliyanC <»n the south side Of tlie 



CllAT. \ I. 



TIU^: DEATH OF EMILE REY. 



iV.\ 






church. Mr. (\ E. Matliews, the writer of the letter in the J in^vs 
from which the al»ove (iUotati<m is made, remarked that "it was the 
extreme of imprudence for the guides to have left the hut (m the 
\i..uille du (Jouter in the face of the impending storm, ami it was a 
orave error in judgment that the party, when they encountered t le 
lonrmnifr on the Dome, did not instantly return to the Aiguille 
l,ef<»re the asceiidin- track had 1)een obliterated.' The Society of 
(luides did not, however, consider that any Idame attached to t omte 
and Simond, and their names are still retained on the Register. 

Signer Poggi killed by a falling stone (1893).— On August 27, 
ISMS Si-iKH' rogi;i was descemling the Aiguille Noire de Peteret, with 
Daviil Proment and one of the Fenoillets of Courmayeur ; and, when 
about two hours down, a stone fell near them and struck some loose 
stones which were ]»rojected amongst the climbers. 1 roment was 
hurt and had his axe broken. Sigiior Poggi was hit behind the ear 
and killed on the spot.^ 

Signor Cumani, an artist, attempted to ascend Mont Blanc alone, 
by way of the Urenva (ilacier, in September, 1893. He has not ])een 
heard'of since! Alpine Jonrtud, vol. xvii, p. 43. 

Dr Robert Schniirdrelier, of Prague, Michel Savoie (guide), and 
Laurent Bron (porter), of t\>urmayeur, were found close together m 
a rnnrssr, in August, 1895, all dead, but not much mutilated. It ap- 
pears that they ascended Mont lilanc on August 17, descended the same 
evenin- to the Refuge Vallot, and on the next morning returned towards 
Chaimmix Their absence was not remarked for some days, but when 
search was made they were sj.eedily discovered, about 80 feet down 
"in a lar-e crevasse, opposite to the (hands Mulets, and a little distance 
below tlie ordinary track. Frederic Payot, who was with the seaich 
i.'irtv ^ai<l that,' in consequence of the long continuance ot line 
weather, all the slopes of M(nit lilanc were more iced than usual, at 
the time this accident occurred ; and that he thought it was probahle 
they had commenced a glissade, had lost commaml of their moye- 
n.ei'its, and ba,l simply fallen hea<ll(mg into the crevasse. The position 
of the crevasse in which they were found is indicated l>y an asterisk 
on the view of Mont IJlanc from the IJrevent. 

Emile Key, of Courmayeur, lost his life on the Aiguille du G^ant, 
whilst descending, <m August 24, 1895. The following account is base.l 
chielly upon a description furnished to the Syndic of Courmayeur by 
Mr. Roberts, the only witness of the catastrophe. 

Mr. A. C. Roberts, an English climber, engaged Key for a few days and on 
August 23 the two climbed together the lower peak of the Aiguille du Dm 
sleeping that evening at the Couvercle. They stixrted next morning at 4 40 
andMched the summit of the Aig. du Geant at 2 V-^u ."^^^^J^; 
descent at 3.20 the base of the final peak was reached at 4.5. bhortl} after 
this, the weather looking bad, Key said that they would move ^lore cpnckly if 
unroped. They accordingly coiled up the rope and proceeded on the descent, 

1 Manv casualties of a more or less serious nature have occurred in the Alps from 
fulling "tones ; hut this is helie^ed to he the first instance of anyone hem- killed out- 
right^ on the spot. 



(ij 



( JLIM(L\L\' JX/f M(>\r IlLAM 



( II \i'. \ I. 



Nettloliij* was in .nund s)»iiiis, assisted in (Ii--iii- llu« li»»le, and 
oven sail- <luriii.u the iii-lit. Tliey liad sullicieiit food and wine. 
Imt no extra clotliiiiij-. 

"The storm ccnitinued tlio wliole ..f the ni<rlit. On the iiioniin^- i^^ the 
•J."'th it w;is still snowing'" hard, and all tracks were oMiterated. The ^nii<les 
a<lvised Mr. \ettlesln'i> to remain where he was. on the ehanee of a ehanL;-o 
of weather, l.ut .Mr. Xettlesliip nr<red that it was idle to remain there and 
die like eowards. and that they must make an effort to \xvX awa\. lie there- 
lore started, the ^niides lollow'injr him. They proreeded some little distaiK-e. 
when ^Ir. Xettleship stuml.led and l>eeame uiisteadv. The jruides offered him 
wme and l.randy, which he relnsed. He then erieil out and lell lorward. 










1/ ^ ■: r^ 






f^' 



^|:^^ 



;rl:->,*^ :' C •*'' 
















.M 



K, NKTTLtSHn-'s GKA\K. 

utterin;: some words in Kn^dish. alter which he took each ^niide l.y the hand. 
l»ade them pi(«l-l>ye. closed liis eyes and ex|iii-ed. 

'•The ^niides remained with him for a sh.irt time, and then ].lacin<,^ his ice- 
axe uj-i-iirht in the snow to mark the place where lie lay. thev left liim. After 
a short time the weather cleared a little, the g-uides cau^dit sioht ,,f tiie 
Vallot hut. made for it. and stayed there all tlie night of Thursdav the 2.")th. 

•• Friday the 2Hth was tine, and the guides returned to the Dome', where the 
l>ody lay. They then descended to the (;rands Mulets. whence Alfred ( 'omte 
iTought the news to C'hamonix, Siniond remaining at the (Jrands Mulcts." 

Twelve men were at onco sent off, they iecovere«I the 1>ody. ami 
it was interred in the i:n-li->Ii (■linicliyard! mi the sonth side of the 



CHAI'. VI. 



'/•///•; UKATll nV EMILE HKY 



(i.'i 



eliunli. ^\v. r. K. Mathews, the writer (»f tlie letter in the 'Joins 
from which the ahove (luotation is made, remarked that "it was the 
extreme of imprudenee for the -uides to have left the hut on the 
\i.-nille du (ioiiler in the face (»f the impendiii-- storm, and it ^^•as a 
orave error in judmnent that the party, Avhen they encountered t le 
"toHrnniitr on the Dome, did not instantly return to the Ai-uille 
l>ef<»re the aseeiidiim Iraek had 1)een obliterated."' The S«H-iety ..t 
(luides .lid not. h.mever, ecmsider that any hlame attached to (omte 
and Sim.nul, an<l their names are still retained on the Kegister. 

Signor Poggi killed by a falling stone (1893). On Au-ust -JT. 
ISMS Si<-nor IN»"<'i was deseen<lini:- the Ai-uille Ni.ire <le IVteret, with 
li-iviil IMoment' and (Mie of the Fen«»illets of (ourmayeur; and, when 
ah<uit two hours down, a stone fell near them and struck s(»me lo(»se 
stones which were ]»roiecte<l am(m-st the climhers. l>roment was 
hurt and had his axe hrokeii. Sigiu»r Po--i was hit l.ehind the ear 
and killed on the si»ot.i 

Signor Cumani, an artist, attempted to ascend Mont lUanc ahme, 
hy way (»f the Iheiiva (llacier, in Septemher, 1SM3. He has not heeii 
li'eanr«»f since! A//>lne Jouninl, vol. xvii, ]». 43. 

Dr Robert Schniirdrelier, of Pra-ue, Michel Savoie (.uuide), and 
Laurent Bron (p<»rter), of (Nmrmayeur, were foun.l close to.i;ether n, 
„ rrrnissr, in August, 1895, all dead, Imt m»t much mutilated. It ap- 
pears that they ascende<l Mont IManc on Au-ust 17. desceiKlecl the same 
ovenin." io the' IJefu-e Vall(»t, and on the next in<.rniii- returned towanls 
(MianKMiix. Their ahsence was not remarked for some days, Imt when 
search was made thev were spee.lily discovered, ahout SO feet down 
in a lai-c crevasse, oi»i.osile to the (Irands Mulcts, and a little distance 
helow tlie <mlinarv track. Frederic Fayot, wlu> was with the search 
pirtv ^ai.l that,' in c(.iise(iuenee of the Ion- continuance ot line 
weather, all the sh.j.es of M(mt lilanc were more ice<l than usual. Jit 
the time this a<-cident occurre<l ; and that he tlum-ht it was pnd.ihle 
thev had <(uumenced a -lissade, had lost comman.l oi their move- 
ments, and had simplv fallen hea.llon- into the crevasse. The position 
.,f the crevasse in wiiicdi they were fouii.l is indicated l>y an asterisk 
on the view of Mont iilanc from the lirevent. 

Emile Key, (»f Counnaveur. lost his life on the Aiguille du G^ant, 
whilst <leseendin-, on August 24, 1895. The followin- acc.mnt is hased 
chielly uiHMi a (leseriplion furnishe.l to the Syndic of Courmayeur l.y 
Mr. iioherts, the only witness of the catastroi.he. 

Mr \ ('. Roberts, an English climber, engaged Itey for a fe\y days, and on 
\ulnist' -r, the tw<. climbe<l together the lower peak of the Aigmllc <hi Dnu 
sleeping that evening at the Couvorele. They started next morning at 4 40 
.UK^-J:iehe<l the summit of the Aig. <lu (leant at 2 V'";* . V'^^^^^^'l^^iw 
descent at :J.20 the base of the final peak was reached at 4.... MioitK alter 
tliis, the weather loolcing bad. Ilcy said that they would move more .luickly if 
unropcd. They accordingly coiled up the rope and proceeded on the descent, 

1 Munv c-asualtics of a more or less serious nature have occurred in the A]p«/»-^"» 
falling stones ; hut this is helicNcd to he the fast instance of anyone hcu.;.; killed out- 
right, on the spot. 



64 



CHAMOMX AND MOXT BLANC. 



en XV. VI 



Kev leaihnjr, c-arryin^r a light sack and the rope. Alx.ut 4.:]0 thcv reached the 
top of the rocks which descend tc the lower inow-Helds. The c irnHnrhere s 

T-'l M "n'^^''^" *^^. ^^■^^^^'^^ "^ "^« o^ t^'o chimneys, ut the on ?5 me of 
which Mr. Roberts wa ted whilst Rev went down, face outwards. J:i<^e to the 
foot of this chimney Rey jumped, or dropped, on to a small shelf of wet rock 
.loi^ng s ightly outwards, and covered with small pebl>les. He slii.ped and f,.; 
a short distance slid over snow-covered ice. He tried to dij? his axe ]n 1 [ 

t^ mJ:\^': fT^' '""'^ ^" "'-^-^ precipitated in three^hounds on ?o the 
snov some bOO feet below and to the X. of the route to the hut. Mr Roberts 
cou d see the l^dv lying motionless on the snow. He attempted t . reach luth 
v^thhi • b^;; To(^ l^y/he snow which skirts them, but sueeeLied onlv in getting 
lelv Iv and .^i Uf- ""^ f^*-?^^'* repeatedly, but got no answer.* Snow feU 
lieavih,and a th ck fog made it imi>ossible to persevere in the attemT>t so at 

(,'Jai"' hu? rr:^ r^' -"V;^' ''V'l ^^ r^ ^^^^^ --^I--- -ached thlrol\h 
md .hortK nft. 'f • ^"""^ ^^ ^''""^^ *^'« ^^'^'^-^ climbers without guides, 
f L the^rJ^, rS^^^^^^ -^J"'^" ^'T'^' ''^P''^'^ gentlemen and ladies arrived 
n?,!h\ r 1 • \?^l ""''^^ ''''' ^'"''^^-^ •'^"^^ porters. Snow fell throughout the 
night, and all m the hut agreed that nothing could be done before the ni. r ling 

; e rvvan o'f tui;i'r "t ""'^^ '''' '^% ^'''^'^ ^''"-'y *« C'ourmaveur, whence 
a cara^an of guides and porters started at once to recover the* bod v which 

^L";^?lt t^ie;thT''".Y" '^r '^''^^^"^ ^^^'^^ ^^"^^^^ ''^- '^ ^^ - -ti;fac ::>n 

L,.ii 1 • ^ "Hist have been instantaneous, as fatal injuries to ])oth 

skull and spine were found. The funeral took place on the 27th when a Jre it 
procession, eoasisting of the Syndic and other loc.il authorities, ni urner^ gidde 
S -rt^Vr^ ^^'"k'^'1: *''""^^-«^ the flower-covered coffin fron the hainlet'^?,^ U 
Crnaveur ^"7;^ ^•^"/^•^' T^ f^ence to its resting-place in the eeme ery aJ 
».ourma\eur.— J/y>//^t' Jourjuil, vol. xvii, pp. .561-2. 

The news of tlie -leatl. of Eniile licy can.e as a jaeat an.l painful 
suiprise upon all who knew hiu,. He con,l.ine.l skill, oouraJe, an.l 
.lextenty. n hon tiie ,n.,st capable ^rui.les have lK.en aske,l \n late 
years who they, aui..n;:st tlien.selves, ,eek.me.l the hest nmuntaineers 
ot the tnne the na.ne of Eniile I!ey was always inclu.le.l in their 

are n,"f"-' f ',",' '"" ""'^' '"'"'"'''^ ""'' """' "'« '-<•'■'' mountaineers 
are not mtalliblc. 







E.MILE rev's boot (18Q4). 




DK. J. JANSSEN. 



CHAPTER VII. 

THE OBSERVATORIES UPON MONT BLANC. 

CAMPING ON THE SU>LM IT— UNHAPPY EXPERIENCES OF DR. TYNDALL 
—A CUP OF TEA PRODUCES A DISASTROUS EFFECT— HARD TERMS 
IMPOSED ON MONS. VALLOT— ERECTION OF THE VALLOT OBSERVA- 
TORY— DR. JANSSEN'S PROJECT — EIFFEL, OF TOWER FAME, CON- 
SULTED—DRIVING A TUNNEL UNDER THE SUMMIT— STRIKE OF THE 
WORKMEN— DISCOVERY OF A PRUNE-STONE \—'TOURMENTES' IMPEDE 
THE WORK— M. ROTHE AND HIS GUIDE KILLED BY AN AVALANCHE 
—SUDDEN DEATH OF DR. JACOTTET— NO ROCK IS FOUND, AND DR. 
JANSSEN DETERMINES TO BUILD ON SNOW— THE ' £DJC[7L/'J '—CON- 
STRUCTION OF THE OBSERVATORY— WINTER TEMPERATURES — THE 
HEIGHT OF MONT BLANC. 

THE establishment of two Observatories on Mont Blane, one between 
the Dome du Goftter and the Bosses du Dromadaire at the height ot 
14 320 feet, and the other upon the Summit, cannot be overlooked 
in 'the history of the mountain. The former of these enterprizes is 
due to a Parisian, Monsieur J. Vallot, and the latter to Dr. Janssen, 
Director of the Observatory at Meudon. M. Vallot is a mountain 
enthusiast, and in 1887 performed the unprecedented feat of camping 

F 



64 



r/fAMoxix jxn .ifoxr blaxc. 



v\\\\\ \\ 



Kcx !oM( ,nf2:, cMmin.i,^ a h^.ht sac-k and the n.pe. AlM.ut 4.;}0 thev rcadio.l the 
top ..f the rocks which . escend to the lower snow-Helds. The clindmlt here i^ 
easy hut involves the descent of one or two chimneys, at the t..p o^" ne of 
which Mr. Ko .erts waited whilst Key went <Iown, face outw.rds. 1 Jo the 
loot ot this chimney Key jumped, or dropped, on to a small shelf of wet roc-k 
sloping sh^htly outwanls. and covered with small peM.les. He slippL Ian f.,; 
I >hort . .stance s Id over sm.w-covered ice. He tried to dij,. his axe I ,[ 

1 slipped fmm his p-asp. ami he was precipitated in three^x.unds <m to he 

c u dT'ihn ^r\ •'"^"" '^'"^ V' '^'' ^- "^' '^' ^^^"^^ ^o '^^ hut. Mr. INllJrts 
l.v e ro.k nnl 'l '"?f "^^>t^«»lf.\on the snow. He attempted to reach it l...th 
h> the rock, and .y the snow which skirts them, but succeeded only in p-ettinc 

li; vnV ;;;;; ' -'r;- "^ r''-^^^^* repeatedly. l,ut ^ot no answ.;;.' Snow en 
Ic Y>. and a thick log: made it impossihle to persevere in the attempt, so. at 

md.htK ,!>''% ^"'"^^ ^'"^ ^"""'^ *'"'' ^^^'^^'^ climbers without ptiides. 
f 1 t I^ afterwards a larj^e party of Dutch gentlemen and ladies arrive 
fnmi the H-ench side with six guides and porters. Snow fell throuL^h<.ut the 

Ncw> ,,t the disaster was earned by the Dutch party t<, Courmnvenr whence 
lu'v 'V; 't^Y^''' '-^"^^ P^^^T ''''^'''^ -^^ ••"^•'' t.r recover the'Kdy k-h 

•know tint \i;?;hT-'";7" '^f '""^""^^ '^"^^'^ ^^"^"-^^ -^- ^^ '-^ -^ ^^^^^^^^- •' 

Inii 1 • ^^ ""i-^t have been instantancoii.s, as fatal injuries to both 
.kull and spine were fouml. The funeral took place on the 27th when V Jre , 
procession, coasistingr of the Syndic and other loc.tl authoritiesrm u er ^idde 
u b.,ys. and tonnst.«. followed the Hower-covered coffin fron the h n ilet^of La 

rCm-^-e" ^'^'Vr^^-.h^-h- ''-' thence to its resting-place in the cemetery a 
^.ourma^eur. — Aijmw Ju>i,-,nil, vol. xvii, i»p. .561-2. 

Tho Tunvs of the deatli of En.ile K'ey oan.e as a oreat and painful 
snipuse niMm all w^ho kne^y Imn. He eon.bine.l skill, courage, and 
dexterity. ^M,en the nu.st cajKible .^nides have been asked m late 
years av.o they, annm-st theM,s(dyes, reckoned the best n.onntaineers 
ot the time ti.e name of Kniile lley was ahvays i„<.l„ded in their 

ii^e'ilrinfaliiMe"" "'^' ^""'^'^ '''''' ^^'^^ ^'^^ '^^^ mountaineers 




EMILE KEYS liOOT (1894). 




DR. J. JANSSEN. 



CHAPTER VII. 

THE OBSERVATORIES UPON MONT BLANC. 

CAMPING ON THE SU>LMIT— UNHAPPY EXPERIENCES OF DB. TYNDALL 
—A CUP OF TEA PRODUCES A DISASTROUS EFFECT— HARD TERMS 
IMPOSED ON MONS. VALLOT— ERECTION OF THE VALLOT ORSERYA- 
TORY — DR. JANSSEN'S PROJECT — EIFFEL, OF TOWER FAME, CON- 
SULTED— DRIYING A TUNNEL UNDER THE SUMMIT— STRIKE OF THE 
WORKMEN— DISCOVERY OF A PRUNE-STONE ]—' TOURMENTES' IMPEDE 
THE WORK— M. ROTHE AND HIS GUIDE KILLED RY AN AYALANCHE 
—SUDDEN DEATH OF DR. JACOTTET— NO ROCK IS FOUND, AND DR. 
JANSSEN DETERMINES TO BUILD ON SNOW— THE ' EDJCf/L A —CON- 
STRUCTION OF THE OBSERYATORY— WINTER TEMPERATURES — THE 
HEIGHT OF MONT BLANC. 

The establislinient of two Observatories on Mont Blanc, one between 
the Dome du Go(\ter and the Bosses du Dromadaire at the height ot 
14 320 feet, and the other upon the Summit, cannot be oyerlooked 
in 'the history of tlie mountain. The former of these enterprizes is 
due to a Parisian, Monsieur J. Vallot, an.l the latter to Dr. Janssen, 
Director of the Observatorv at Meudon. M. Vallot is a mountain 
entliusiast, an.l in 1887 performed the unprecedented feat of camping 

F 



66 



CHAM OX IX AXD MO XT BLAXC. 



CHAP. VII. 



under canvas on the suniniit for three days and nij-lits. L'ntil he 
did so, only one j»erson had eneani])ed there before, namely Dr. John 
Tyndall, in 1859 ; and his experiences were particularly unhajtpy. 
Both he and the whole of his guides were incapacitate*! by mountain- 
sickness, and they came down the next morning in a forlorn state. i 
This occasion is well remembered at Chamonix, and M. A'allot found 
dilticulty in persuading anyone to go with him. When they at last 
started he was accompanied by M. Richard and a caravan of guides 
and porters — in all, nineteen i)ersons. So far as the commencement 
of the ridge of the Bosses du Dromadaire (that is, to alnnit the height 
of 14,000 feet) they got along all right; but then M. Ivichard, who 
was not accustomed to numntain-walking, began to tloundcr. A little 
higher u]» ime of the ]M>rters became inca}>able, and by the time the 
summit was reached M. Vallot himself was seized with vomiting and 
was obliged to lie down on the snow, exhausted. The porters, after 
having dejmsited their loads on the summit, were sent back to 
Cliamonix, while MM. Vallot an<l Richard, with two guides, remained 
on the top during three days occupied in meteorological and other 
observations. Their experiences, which were detailed at length in the 
Aiiiiindre of the French Alpine (Mub, were very curious. They found 
tliemselves entirely without appetite, and unable to eat. Even a cup 
(»f tea "pro<luced a disastrous etiect." On the third night, one of the 
guides went out of the tent for a moment, and returne<l in a great 
state of alarm, saying that the air was fnll of electricity. Fallot went 
out to see, and says that from the tent, from the erection sheltering the 
instruments, and from himself, "a harsh rustling ]»roceeded, caused 
by thousands of s]»arks. My hairs stood on end, and each individual 
one seemed to be drawn away from me sejjarately. The spjirks were 
felt all over the body: one couldn't remain outside without sn tiering ; 
we were literally bathed in electricity." 

The foundation of the YaWot Observatory was a result of this 
journey. At first, M. Vallot thought of having a cavern excavated 
in some of the highest rocks ; but he abandoned this idea, and de- 
cided to put up a wooden chalet a little below the lower of the two 
snowy humps which are called the liosses du Dromadaire, at the height 
of 14,32n feet above the sea. Difliculties arose at the (Hitset, for the 
Commune of Chamonix lays claim to the French side of Mont Blanc, 
and no buildings can be erecte<l without consent. Permission was ulti- 
mately granted on rather harsh conditions. The Chamoniards appre- 

1 "Wishin^^ to eominence the observations at davbreak, I had canitHl a tent to the 
summit, where I proposed to spend the nijflit. The tent was ten feet in (Uanieter, and 
into It the whole eleven of us were i>acked. . . Throuj^^hoiit tlie nijrht we did not -suffer 
at all from cold, thou^rh we had no fire, and the adjacent snow was I.t Cent or -'7 
Fahr., below the freezinj,'--i.oint of water. We were all however indisjiosed. ' I w"as 
indeed very unwell when 1 (piitted Chamouni ; . . . inv illness was more deep-seated 
than ordinary, and it augmented durinjr the entire perio<l of the ascent. Towards 
morninj,', however, I became stron<,'er, while witli some of mv comi. anions the reverse 
was the case. . . About twent\ liours were s]»ent ujion the toi> of Mont Blanc on this 
oc-casion. Hiwl I been better satisfied with the conduct of the guides, it would have 
jriven me pleasure at the time to dwell upon this out-of-the-wav ei>isofle in mountain 
life. But a temper, new to me, and which I thoiijfht looked veiv like mutinv ><howefl 
itself on the part of some of my men.' Hourx of Kxercixe in tht- AIuk, b\ .lohii Tvndall • 
London, 1871, pi>. r>4-r.7. -^ ' . . . 




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CHAM ox IX AXJJ MO XT BLAXC 



(HA I'. VII. 



iiiKler canvas on the suiinnit for tliree days and nijjlits. Until lie 
di<l so, oidy one jterson had en('ainj)e<l there before, namely Dr. John 
Tvn«hill, in ISoO : and his experiences were partienlarly nnlia]>]>y. 
lioth he and the whole of his gnides were incapacitated 1>y nionntain- 
siekness, and they came down the next morniiiLi in a forlorn state.' 
This occasion is well rememhered at Chamonix. an<l M. N'allot f(>nnd 
ditlicnlty in persnadin^ anyone to ^o with him. When they at last 
started he was accompanied hy M. Ivichaid and a cara\an of unides 
and porters — in all, nineteen ]>ersoiis. So far as the commencement 
of the rid«;e of the Bosses dn Dromadaire (that is, to ahont the height 
of 14,00(> feet) they ^ot aloni^' all ri.ulil : Init then M. liichard, who 
was not accnstonied to nionntain-walkin^. he^an t(t llounder. A litth' 
higher nj> (me of the porters hecame incapable, and l»y th<> time the 
snmmit was reached M. Vallot himself was seized with vomitinji and 
was ohliued to lie down on the snow, exhansted. The ]»orters. after 
liavinn deposited their loads <ni the snmmit. were sent hack to 
('haimmix. while MM. A'allot and liichard, with two <^iiides, rcinaiiied 
on the top dnrin^u" three days occnpied in met(M)r(do^ical and other 
observations. Their experien("es, which were detaih^d at len;:th in \\\v 
AimH((ur of the French Aljdne Clnb, were very cnrions. They f(Mind 
tliemselves entirely withont ajipetite. and nnable to eat. Kven a cnp 
of tea '-jtHHlnced a disastrons ettect." On the third ni-ht. one of the 
jjinides went ont of the tent for a moment, and retnrned in a un^at 
state of alarm, saying that the air was full of electricity. \'allot went 
ont to see. and says that from the tent, from the erection sheltering; the 
instruments, and from himself, --a harsh rustling ]»rocee<led, caused 
by thonsands of sparks. My hairs stood on end, and each individual 
one seemed to be drawn away from me sejjarately. The s|»aiks were 
felt all over the body: one couldn't remain outside withont suffering: 
we were literally bathed in electrieity." 

The foundation of the Vallot Oliservatory was a result of this 
j(mrn(n". At first, M. Vallot thou<;ht of having' a cav(M-n excavatetl 
in some of the hi<;hest rocks : but he al»andoned this idea, and de- 
ei«led to put up a wo<Mlen chalet a little bel<»w the lower of the two 
snowy liumjts which are called the llosses du Dromadaire, at the heij;ht 
of 14.82n feet above the sea. Difhculties arose at the outset, for the 
Commune of ('hamonix lays claim to the Trench side of Mont Jilanc, 
and no buildings can be erected without consent. IVrmission was ulti- 
mately urante*! (m rather harsh conditions. The ChauKniiards a]>pre- 

1 " Wisliiiiir to coninuiKe tlie ol)servations at daybmik, I lia«l carried a tent to the 
suinnut, where I projxjsed to s]>eiid the iiiirht. The tent was ten feet in chanieter and 
into It the whole eleven of us were jiacked. . . Thronirhout tlie niulit we «hd nut suffer 
at all from cold, thoimli we had n.. fire, and tlie adjacent snow was i:. Cent., <.r •'? 
Fahr., l>elow the tree/.inu-j.uinr of water. We were all h(>we\er indisposed. ' I \viis 
HHlced very unwell wlien I (|uitted Chaniouni ; . . . niv illness was more <leei)-scattHl 
than ordiTiary. and it aui;mented dnrin-.; the entire nericwl of the ascent. Towards 
monnny, however, I herame stron-tr, wliile with some of my companions the reverse 
was the case. . . Ahout twenty hours were spent upon the top of Mont Blanc on this 
occasion. Had 1 heen hetter satisfied with the conduct of the liuides, it would h-tve 
•,^iven me pleasure at the time to dwell ujion this out-of-the-wav ej.is^^Mle in mountain 
life. But a tem].er. new to me, and whidi I tlioui:ht looked verv like miitiiiv showed 
Itself on the jvart of some of my men." Hours ,,j Hx'-r.-lsr In t/ir Alpx, hv .Fohti Tvn.lall • 
London. Is71, ]>]>. .'>4-.'>7. ^ ' . . . 




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68 CHAMONIX AND MONT BLANC. chap. vii. 

hended that M. Vallot might turn his establishment into a sort of 
auberqr, which would l»e detrimental to their interests in the inn on 
the Grands Mulets, and stipulated that he should erect a ' Ketiige 
as an adjunct to his observatory, at his own expense. This was to 
become their property, and they were to have the right of taxing all 
persons ten francs who stopped there for a night, half of the receipts 
bein<«- destined to pay for the maintenance of the Refuge, and half were 
to o-S to their lessee at the Grands Mulets for the injury which it was 
supposed mi-ht be done him. On these terms M. Vallot was allowed 



CHAP. VTI. 



THE VALLOT OBSERVATORY. 



69 






H: . ir-. 



.^^. 




*,»" ^ # 
.* *" 



*»«■'■ 




■>y-it r^f/ojf^" 



THE REFUGE VALLOT. 

to erect his observatory. He establishe«l a Kefuge to conciliate the 
Commune, and the Com'mune finds it very difficult to collect the tax.* 
The materials of the Imilding were ready at Cliamonix by the 
beginning of .lune, 1890, and then the more serious task had to be 
undertaken of their transportation to the height of 14,300 feet, for 
the larger part of the way over snow or ice, on men's backs. One 
hundred and ten of the guides and porters had agreed to carry a 
load apiece up to the selected spot ; but when all was ready the 
weather went to the bad, and rendered a start impossible ; and when 
it improved the guides became occuided in conducting tourists. Still, 
hv the end of July, the building was erected on the position which 
had been chosen for it, on solid rock. At first it was a very small 
affair, measuring alnnit 16 x 12 feet, and 10 feet high, a portion of 
which was 'observatory' and the rest 'refuge'; but it has grown to 

1 In the first instance, the 'Refu},'e' was a portion of the obser\atory building^s. 
Subsecjuently a separate hut was erected as a Refuge a few Juuidred yards away from 
the observatory. 



the i,roi)ortions shewn on the annexed plan. The transport of the 
materials and their erection on the spot were far more onerous than the 



\ 




PLAN OF THE VALLOT OBSERVATORY. 

actual construction of the building in the first instance Chamoniards 
consider 35 lbs. the maximum load for a man on Mont l>lanc, and 
in all the details attention had to be given to tliat point, ^o larg^ 
timbers or heavy weights could be carried up. During the week 
which was occupied in the erection everyone had to camp out on 
snow. Temperature descended to 15^ or 16^ below freezing-pwnt in 
the tents, and there were the usual bothers with bad weather and 
mountain -sickness, which we pass over now, as they will presently 
recur when speaking about the Janssen Observatory on the summit. 
Dr J. Janssen, the present President of the French Academy of 
Sciences, and Director of the Observatory at Meudon near 1 aris, 
visited the Vallot Observatory a few weeks after it was put up, to 
carry on spectroscopic observations. He was detained there several 
days ])y violent storms, but he ultimately ascended to the summit 
of Mont Blanc, and got back to Chamonix in safety. The .louruey 
occupied him from August 17 to August 23. He was struck with 
the advantages to science which might be expected from workmg in a 
pure atmosphere, and on his return to Paris communicated an account 
of his journey to the Academy of Sciences, at the meeting on Sep- 
teml>er 22, 1890. He concluded by saying, -I think it will be of 
the first importance for astronomy, for physics, and for meteorology 
that an observatory should be erected on the summit, or at least 
quite close to the summit, of Mout lilanc. I know that objections 
will be brought forward as to the dirticulty of erecting such a building 



68 CHAMOXIX AXD MONT BLANC. chap, vii- 

lien.le.l tliat M. Vallot iiii-ht turn his establishinent into a sort of 
<n(htn/r. whieli would l>e aetrimental to their interests in the inn on 
the (iran.ls Mulcts, and stipulated that he should erect a ' Ketuge 
as an adjunct to his observatory, at his own expense. This was to 
become their property, and they were to have the right of taxing all 
perscms ten francs who stopped there for a night, half of the receipts 
bein- destined to i)av for the maintenance of the Hefuge, and half were 
to <>Z to their lessee at the Grands Mulcts for the injury which it was 
supposed nii<dit be d«me him. (Mi tliese terms M. \ allot was allowed 



THE VALLOT OBSERVATORY 




Q 






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THE REFUGE VALLOT. 

to erect his ol>servatory. He establishe.l a Kefuge to conciliate the 

(^ommuiie. an<l the (Vun'mune tinds it very ditlicult to collect the tax.^ 

The materials of the laiilding were ready at ChaiiMniix by the 

beginning of dune. ISOO, ami then the more serious t;isk had iu be 

uuTlertalTen of their tiansportati«»n to the height of 14,300 feet, for 

the laruer i»art of the way over snow or ice, on men's backs. One 

hundred and ten of the guides and i>orters had agreed to carry a 

load apiece up to the selected spot : but when all was ready the 

weather went to the bad, and rendered a start impossible ; and when 

it imjnoved the gui<les became occupieil in conducting tourists. Still. 

bv the end of July, the building was erecte«l on the position which 

h'ad been chosen for it, on solid rock. At first it was a very small 

artair. measnrino- alxmt 10x12 feet, and 10 feet higji, a jMution of 

which was 



observatory" and the rest 'refuge'; but it has grown to 



I In the first instiincf, the 'Hefu-^-e' was a portion of the observatory buildings. 
Subst(niently a sej.arate Imt was erected as a Refuge a few hniuUed yards away from 
the ob!>ervatory. 



fH \r yii. . " " ........ .................... oa 

the proportions shewn on the annexed plan. The transport of the 
materials and their erection on the spot were far more onerous than tne 



\ 




i'LAN OF THE VALLOT OBSERVATORY. 

actual construction of the building in the first instance. Chainoniards 
consider 35 lbs. the maximum load for a man on Mont l>lanc, and 
in all the details attention had to be given to that inniit. No larg^e 
timbers or heavy weights could be carrie<l up. During the week 
which was occupied in the erection everyone had to cam]) out on 
.now Temi)erature desceii.led to \y or \i\' below freezing -iK>i"t in 
the tents, and there were the usual l)others with bad weather ami 
mountain -sickness, ^vllich we pass over now, as they will presently 
recur when speaking about the Janssen t)l>servatory on the summit. 
1)1- .1. daussen, the present President of the French Academy of 
Sciences, an<l Director of the Observatory at Meudoii near I aris, 
visited the Vallot Observatory a few weeks after it ^yas put up, to 
carry on si»ectroscopic observations. He was detained there several 
,lays by violent storms, but he ultimately ascende.l to the summit 
of\Mont Diane, and got back to Cham<Hiix in safety. Ihe .louriiey 
occupie.1 him from August 17 to August 23. He was struck with 
the a<lvaiitages to science which might be expected from workmg in a 
pure atmosi.here, and on his return to Paris communicated an account 
of his jcmrney to the Academy of Sciences, at the meeting on Sep- 
tember" 22, ISDO. He c(mcluded by saying, "I think it will be of 
the first importance for astronomy, for physics, and tor meteorolo-y 
that an observatory should be erected on the summit, or at east 
quite close to the 'summit, of M<»nt IJlauc. I know that objections 
will be brought forward as to the ditliculty of erecting such a building 



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CUAl'. VII. 



EIFFEL, OF TOWER FAME. 



71 



upon so hi-li a spot, which one can only reach with inuch trouble, 
an.l which is often visite<l hy tempests. These dithciilties are real, 
hut they are not insurniountahle. I cannot enter deeply nito the 
matter now, and content myself with saying that with the means 
our engineers can put at our disposal, and with such mountamee s 
as we possess at Chamonix an<l in the neighbounng valleys, the i.rob- 
lem wilf be solved whenever we wish."' From that tinie unti now 
Dr. .lanssen has been more or less occupied in solving the problem. 

In a very short time the necessary funds were sul>scribed by some 
of his wealthy and intluential friends. Amongst his supporters were 
Prince P.oland Bonaparte, M. Bischoffheim an<l Banni Adolphe de 
Rothschild, \r. Leon Say and the late President of the KeH^hc. 
The execution of the project was a work of much greater ditticult> 
There is no visible rock at the immediate top, and it was proposed 
to buihi upon the snow. This idea was received witb almost universal 
incre.lulitv. The general opinion was distinctly unfavourable. 1 he 
persons,- 'said Dr. Janssen, " who were best acquainted with the 
!.laciers of this great mountain consi<lered that it was quite impossible 
t;> establish a l»uilding on the summit, such as would serve for obser- 
vation and residence. They said, an.l with appare.itly much orce 
that the thickness of the snowy crust would prevent foundations >eing 
,>btained in solid rock, and they would not adnut IVp^^i;:;^^^ 
of establishing the building on snow. Mons. Lilel, of To^^el fa e 
was taken into c-onsultation, and declared himself ready to eoiistnut 
an observatory on the very top of Mont Blanc, it a rock foundation 
could be found not more than fifty feet below the surface of the 
snow, a.Kl expresse<l his willingness to bear the cost of the pieliminaiy 
operations. It so happens that rocks peep through the snow on t h lee 
ditlerent sides of the summit, no great distance >^l7 ^//^ "^"^^^^ 
patches, scarcely visible from below. One, called a Tournette is 
iout one incli and a half to the ./,//./ of the summit m the folding 
on<.ravin.' of Mont Blanc from the lirevent. Another, named les 
iVtits M^ulets, is about half an inch hdow the summit in the same 
illustration. The thinl, called la Tourette, is on the opposite side 
of the mountain, ami cannot be seen. These rocks which peep through 
the snow are either summits of Aiguilles, or ijoin s on ridges o 
Viouilles. But it is exceedingly unlikely that Wxii Inphct points of 
the: Aiguilles are exposed. Tliey are, in all probability, somewhere 
underneath the summit-ridge, which appears ^o />e placed a^^^^^^^ 
junction of three or ...ore rocky ridges; and as the l^tt^e pa eh^ of 
•ock which do appear on the three sides are only 4ob feet (la lou.nette) 
•m feet (Petits Mulcts), and 171 feet (la Tourette) below the extreme 
U^ of Mont P.lane, there was at least a possibility that rock might 

^"^ M'^'Eiflcl committed the .lirection of this atlair on the spot to 
M X I.ufehl, a Swiss, who is well known as a survt«yor. A more 
competeut ...an for the purpose could scarcely have been ^ ^und Imfe^^^ 
had a horizontal gallery driven into the snow, forty-nine feet below 
the summit, on the French side (the side represente<l -^ ^^^^^ 
of Mont Blanc from the Brevent), and employed as diiectoi ot the 
















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CllAI'. VIF. 



EIFFEL. OF TOWER FAME. 



71 



u,M,.i >o l.i^li -A spot, Nvl.icli one can only lea.h nv. h nmel. tnmbl. 
•L\ wlm-h is often visitLMl hy tempests. Tl.ese ailluulties are real. 
Imt tliev ar.' net insnrn.ountable. I cannot enter .leeply into tlie 
u.atter now, and content myself with saying that with the means 
our engineers can pnt at onr disposal, and with ^"-V"''h I'voJ^ 
as we possess at (Miamonix and in the neighbouring valleys, the pioh- 
hMu will be solved whenever we wish." From that ti.ne unti now 
l)r .lanssen has been more or less occnpied in solving the problem. 

"in a verv short time the necessary funds were subscribed by some 
of his wcal'thv and intluential friends. Amongst his supporters were 
IVmce Roland l)<maparte, M. liischotriieim an<l hainm Adolphe dt 
Rothschild, M. Leon Say an<l the late President ot the Uqml .^^ 
Tiie execnti<m of the project was a work ot nui<-h greater dilhcultN 
There' is no visible rock at the immediate top, and it was proposed 
t<, build upon the s^^u,: This idea was received with aln.ost universal 
hu-redulitv. The general oimiion was distinctly ^^^^''.;. ^ I); 
oers,ms"'sai.l Dr. danssen, -who were best aciuamted NMth the 
Maciers <,f this great monntain coiisi.lered that it was ,pute impossible 
To establish a building on the summit, such as wouM serve tor obser- 
vation an.l resi<lence. They said, and with apparently imich bnce, 
that the thickness of the snowy mist w<mld inevent fy'»;;'^^^tRms bemg 
obtained in solid ro<d<, and they would not admit he V-^f^ 
of establishinu- the building on snow. Mons. Kijlel, ot Touei tame 
was taken into consultation, and <leclare<l himselt ready to cmistrnc 
.u observatory on the very top of Mont IJlanc it a rock toundat o 
eould be fouiid not nnne than tifty teet below the surtace ot the 
sn<»w. and expressed his willingness to bear the cost o the l>ieliminar> 
operations. It so happens that rocks peep tlnough the suow on t h ee 
d llerent sides of the summit, no great distance below it-smal 
patches, scarcely visible from below. One, called a Toi rnette i. 
Jlout <me inch 'and a half to the n,hi of the suninnt in the holding 
eiK-ravino- of M<uit lilanc from the Urevent. Another, named les 
IVnits Ahilets, is ab(mt half an inch Uch.r the summit m the saine 
illustration. The third, calle<l la T<»urette, is on the oppos, e si.le 
;|f Uii mmmtain, and cannot be seen. These rocks whu-h peep through 
the snow are either summits of Aiguilles, or ijoin s on ri.lges ot 
\iouilles. Ihit it is exceedingly unlikely that the /.^.r-v^ points of 
tl.; Aiguilles are exp<.se,l. They are, in all probability, so».ewhere 
underneath the sunonit -ridge, which appears t«. ^^VtH^ ,t. hes of 
ju„,.ti<Mi of three or nun-e rocky ridges; and as the little patches t 
lock which do appear on the three sides are only 4r>(> eet (la lournette) 
< 4 feet (l>etits\{lulets), and 171 feet (la Tourette) below the extreme 
top of Mont lilanc, there was at least a possibility that rock might 

^*^ M'''Kitb.l <uH.milted the dire<-tiou of this allair on the spot to 
M. X. Imleld, a Swis>, who is well k.K.wn as a surveyor. A nmnj 
competent man for the purpose could scarcely have been ^'^^y^"^ / ^^^^ 
had .1 horizontal gallery driven into the sm,w. ^^'l^^'^^^J^^^ 
the summit, on the French side (the side represented '«' the e gi.m ig 
of MuMt Blauc from the Ihevent), and employe.l as directoi ot the 



72 



CHAMONIX AND MONT BLANC. 



CHAP. VII. 



workmen Frederic Payot, who is one of the most able and experienced 
of the Chanionix guides, and has ascended the mountain more than a 
hundred times. The report rendered by Imfekl to M. Eiffel gives a 
lively idea of the diiticulties of the undertaking. "A wooden hut,"' 
he says, "which could be taken to pieces, and transported easily, was 
made at Chanionix, to form the entrance to the tunnel, and was 
intended to serve as protection to the workmen. It was divided up 
into loads, numbered and weighed. From the 10th to the loth of 
August was occui)ied in arranging its transport uj) to the Yallot 
Observatory,' which place was made the base of operations. 

August 13, 1891.— A first airavane started with part of the hut and provi- 
sions for the Rochers des Bosses. 

August 14.— I went with Fred. Payot and the rest of the porters as far as 
the Grands Mulcts. 

August 15. — We reached the Vallot Observatory at 9 a.m., and the summit 
at mid-day. I settled the position for the mouth of the tunnel, the direction 
of its axis ; and with six workmen arranged the clearing away of the snow, to 
place the hut. 

August 16.— On account of a ' tourmente' of snow, no one could leave the 
Observatory. 

August 17.— The work done on the 15th of August was partly buried under 
the snow. It was restored by six workmen, and the timnel was commenced. 
Advanced 5 metres. In the evening, one of the workmen (Jos. Simond) came 
back ill from the summit. He had a frost-bitten foot, and several toes were 
without sensibility when pricked with needles. Our doctor. Dr. Egli, of 
Ziu-ich. gave him the necessary care. Fearing consequences, he wouldn't 
entertain my suggestion that the man should be sent down to Chanionix. 

Avgust 18.— The workmen, discouraged by the illness of their comrade, and 
by want of space and coverings in the Vallot cabane, and bored by numerous 
visits of tourists, demanded a rise in their daily wa^es from 16 to 30 francs. 
After a long discussion, I offered 20 francs, conditionally on confirmation. 
One man stuck to his demand and was dismissed. The others remained and 
continued work in the tunnel. Advanced 5 metres. At the distance of 16 
metres from the stake (at the mouth), a prune-stone was found. 

August 19. — Very high wind. All the workmen went down to the Grands 
Mulets, to fetch portions of the hut which had been left behind by the con- 
tractors, and for wood to bum, and provisions. 

August 20.— The workmen were driven back on the Grande Bosse by a very 
strong north wind, and could not reach the tunnel. 

August 21. — Very great Uourmentt' of snow. ImpossiV)le to get to the 
summit. The porters don't come up. Five workmen decide to go down to 
the Grands Mulets, to get food. Along with them went a tourist (M. Rothe) 
with his guide, and tie on to the rope of the workmen. Upon the Petit 
Plateau, an ice -avalanche fell from the top of the Dome du Goiter on to the 
party, and killed the tourist and his guide. My workmen escaped with slight 
bruises, and went on the same evening to Chanionix. 

Augmt 22.— Violent storm. Could not leave the Observatory. The porters 
don't come up. 

August 23.— Snow falling. At 2 p.m. arrival of Fred. Payot and five 
porters, laden with food and wood. They bring the first news about the 
accident on the 21st, and the information that the workmen are discontented, 
and have gone down to Chamonix, and won't come uj) again. As the porters 
who had arrived were not engaged as workmen, 1 directed Fr^d. Payot to 
go down to Chamonix to prociu-e fresh workmen. He left the observatory, 
accompanied by Dr. Egli and a porter, but they came back in half an hour 
on account of the violence of the fourmente.' 

August 24. — Much new snow. Wind cold. In the afternoon I decided to 



CHAP. VII. 



DRIVING THE GALLERY. 



try to get to Chamonix, along with Dr. Egli, Payot, and a porter. Got the 
same evening to the Grands Mulets. n ^v. j 

August 25.— Arrived at Chamonix at 10 a.m. In the course of the day 
eneraeed six workmen. ,, ^ i nr i x 

A%just 26.-The workmen went up with Fr^d. Payot to the Grands Mulets. 

Augiist 27.— Fr^d. Payot and the workmen, carrying provisions, went trom 
the Grands Mulets to the Rocher des Bosses. . 

Au^fU'^f 28.— Bad weather. The workmen couldn't get to the summit. 1 
start in the afternoon with Dr. Jacottet, of Chamonix, who wished to ma;ke 
an ascent of Mont Blanc, on which he had failed twice, and he offered to give 
his services gratuitously, in case of need, during the time he remained at the 

Vallot cabane. . , , i r o ^i. r\ 

Am/ust 29.— The workmen reached the summit. Advanced 5-3 metres. One 
man was sent down to Chamonix ill from mountain-sickness, and another came 
back with a slightlv frost-bitten foot. , *j 

August 30. -Fred. Payot and four workmen continue the tunnel. Advance 

Auaust 31.— Snow-storm. The summit is impracticable. 

September l.-Fine weather. Along with Dr. Jacottet, at 9 a.m. we were 
on the sunmiit. Photographed the panorama. Probed the rock of la lourette, 
and also the Petits Mulets, and Rochers Rouges. Advance 1-8 metres. One 
workman (Jules Simond) had his fingers frost-bitten. , t i o- j 

September 2.— Karlv in day it was found that Jos. feimond, Jules Simond 
and Jos. Charlet were unable to work (from frost-bitten fingers and feet, and 
mountain -sickness). Thev were sent down to Chamonix. 

Dr Jacottet unwell (inflammation of the lungs and brain), and I remained 
at the Observatorv to look after him, while Fred. Payot and all the rest went 
to the summit, to'fix up the hut at the entrance to the tunnel. About 4 p.m. 
the condition of Dr. Jacottet got worse (delirium). At 5.30 p.m. he lost con- 
sciousness, and he died in the course of the night, at 2.30 a.m. 

."September 3.— Conveval of the corpse of Dr. Jacottet to Chamonix. Con- 
sultation with M. Janssen upon the information obtained by probing (sound- 
ing), and continuation of the same. . ^ x- ^ a 

.September 4.— By telegram to-day, you announce your intention ot suspend- 

iner the work. . ^ • i i u 

September 4-8.— Examination of accounts, paying off guides, porters, work- 
men, etc. 

The net result was that a gallery 9(5 feet long was driven, and in 
the whole course nothing more rocky was found than a prune-stone ! 
M. Eiflel retired from the undertaking, but Dr. Janssen had the 
gallery carried on by Payot 75 feet farther, at an angle of forty-hve 
degrees to its former course, still without linding rock, and he then 
decided to erect his observatory on snow, and on the highest point 

of the summit-ridge. ^ r u *. \ 

Two important questions, he admitted, required hrst of all to be 
elucidated. One was, Will the observatory, if placed on the summit 
snow, sink or swim? The other was, What movements are there to 
dread in this snowy cap? To ol>tain an answer to the first question 
an experiment was carried out at Meiidon. A column of lead weighing 
792 lbs., but only one foot in diameter, was placed on i)iled-up snow, 
brcni'dit to the density of that at the summit. The lead is said to 
have sunk in less than an inch, and Dr. Janssen considered this 
result encouraging. "As to the question of the movements, he 
said, "it was studied and determined by the installation in 1891 of 
a wooden edifice, which has now been two years on the spot." This 



74 



CHAMOMX AND MONT BLANC. 



CHAl'. VII. 



etliliee, which they term " the edicule,'' has now been in posiition for 
tive years, but I do not feel that it has yet settled the 'question.' 
Tlie little building is al>out six feet high from Hoor to roof, and a 
post at each corner is carried down six feet more. To install it, in 
1891, a hole was dug; the level of the Moor was made to coincide 
with the level of the summit, and the snow was then hlled in again. 
Its appearance then was tliat of vie. 1 in tlio annexed diagram. In 






FIG. I (l8oi ). 



FIC. 2 ( 1892 ). 



Fit-.. 3 (1893). 



1892 it was noticed that tlie Hoor was beneath the general level of 
the summit, and that on one side the snow rose in a sort of bank 
to nearly half the height of the hut (see FIG. 2). On August 8, 1893, 
I visited it, and found that onlv 2 ft. 3 in. rose alM)ve the summit 
of [Nlont Blanc (see FIG. 3). In July, 1894, I visited it again, and 
found it in mucii the same c<mdition ; but the snow had been recently 
trampled down, and, I imagine, a good deal ha<i been cleared away. 
The level of the gallery is already more than 49 feet below the 
summit, and this is a signiHcant fact, atlbrding a practical demon- 
stration that the snows at tlie top of Mont lJh\nc are constantly 
descemling to feed and maintain the glaciers below. The summit in 
1891 was not the summit in 1892, nor will that of 1895 be the 
summit of 1890. The height of the mountain, nevertheless, remains 
nearly constant by the accession of fresh snow. It is not the liability 
of sinking into the snow, but the strong i>robai>i]ity that any building 
erected on the top will sink tritk the snow, wjiich gives rise to 
apprehensi(jn about the stability and maintenance of Dr. Janssen's 
()l)servatory. 

He is not, however, dismayed by this prospect, an<l has c<mstantly 
])ressed forwanl the building to completion. In the winter of 1891-92 
the Oljservatory (partly of iron and partly of wood) was constructed 
at Meudon, was taken to j)ieces ami forwarded to Chamonix, and in 
the course of the latter year was transported up the mountain, under 
the management of Frederic Payot. By tlie end of the season about 
one quarter of the nuiterials had l>een advanced to a little patch of 
rocks (the Petits B(K*hers Bouges) 750 feet below the summit, and 
the rest so far as the Grands Mulets, There they lemained for the 
winter. The early part of 1893 was occupied in recovering the depot 
at the Petits Hochers Rouges, which was buried under 25 feet of snow, 
and in bringing up the remainder of the materials. By the end <>f 



CH. VII. DR. JANSSEN'S OBSERVATORY ESTABLISHED. 75 

1893, the building was erected on the summit, its heavier portions 
having been hauled up the terminal slope of snow, called the Calotte, 
by means of little windlasses, such as Payot is holding in the acconi- 
panying engraving. The building, however, was not completed until 




FKEUEKIC I'AVOT AT 1 HK KOCHEkS KOLGES. 

the end of 1894. When I visited it in July of that year it was 
more than half iilled with snow, and two days of hard work were 
employed before it became tenantable. At that time no instruments 
had been sent up. 

Dr. Janssen has shown an energy, courage, and tenacity in the 
prosecution of his undertaking which would be remarkable in anyone, 
and are doubly so in a man of threescore and ten, who is una1)le to 
climl) a yard, an<l who is so badly lame as to Malk with ditticulty 
even on level ground. Three times already he has had himself dragged 
to the summit in sledge. On the second occasion the strength of his 
men was economised on steep places by using the windlasses which 
had already been employed to haul the materials. 






74 



CHAMO\/X AX/f MOXT BLAXC 



(HAP. VII. 



eililice, wliit-li thev term •• the rdicule," has now l»een in [»usitiuii for 
live yeais, Imt I do iu»t feel that it lias yet settled the ' question. ' 
The little luiihliu^ is ahout six feet high from floor to roof, and a 
post at each corner is carried down six feet more. To install it, in 
1891. a hole was dug: the level of the lloor was made to coincide 
with the level of the summit, and the ?>now was then tilled in again. 
Its appearance then was that of FUJ. I in the annexed diagiam. In 




J 




FIG. I (1801 ). 



Fp;. 2 ( 1S92 ). 



Fn;. 3 (1893). 



1892 it was noticed that the Moor was heneatli the ucneral level of 
the summit, and that on one side the snow rose in a sort «>f hank 
to nearly half the heiuht of the hut (see Fl<;. 2). On .Vugust S, 18*)o, 
I visited it, and found that only *2 ft. 3 in. rose ahove the summit 
of Mont lilanc (see fk;. H), In duly, 1894, I visited it again, and 
foun<l it in much the same condition ; hut the snow jiad heen recenllv 

t 

tranqded d<»wn, and. 1 imagine, a good deal ha<l l»een (deared away. 
The level of the gallery is already more than 49 feet Itelow the 
summit, and this is a signilieant fact, attoriling a j»racti<-al demon- 
stration that the snows at tiie top of Mont IJlanc are constantly 
descending to feed and maintain the glaciers helow. The snmmit in 
1891 was not the summit in 1892, nor will that of 189.") he the 
summit of 189(>. The height of the mountain, nevertheless, remains 
nearly constant hy the accession of fresh snow. It is not the lialiility 
of sinking info the snow, but the strong prohahility that any huilding 
erected on the top will sink irifh. the snow. whi<h gi\es rise to 
ap[»rehensi(Mi ahout the stahility and maintenance of Dr. Jans.sens 
( )hser\atory. 

He is not, however, dismaye<l hy this prospect, and has constantly 
]>ressed forwanl the huilding to com|>letion. In the winter of 1891-92 
the ()l)servatory (partly of iron and [tartly of wood) was constructed 
at Meudon, was taken to i>ieces and forwarded to Chanionix, and in 
the course of the latter year was transjiorted up the numntain, under 
the management of Freileric Payot. I>y the end of the season ahout 
one quarter of the materials had heen advanced to a little patch of 
rocks (the IVtits Kochers Rouges) 7')0 feet helow the summit, and 
the rest so far as the (iramls Mulcts. There they remained for the 
winter. The early })art of 1893 was oecu[»ied in recovering the de[»ot 
at the Petits IJochers Uouges, which was buried under 2.') feet of .snow, 
an<l in bringing up the remainder of the materials. l>y the end of 



CH. VII. DR. JAXSSEN'S OBSERVATORY ESTABLISHED. To 

1893, the building was erected on the summit, its heavier portions 
having been iiauled up the termimd sloi)e of snow, called the Calotte, 
by means of little windlasses, such as Payot is holding in the acconi- 
panying engraving. The building, however, was not completed until 




FKJiDKKlC I'.VVeir XV IHF; KOCHliK-S KULCF.S. 



the end of 1894. When I visited it in duly of that year it was 
more than half Idled with snow, and two days of hard work were 
employed before it became tenantalde. At that time no instruments 

had been sent up. 

Dr. Janssen has shown an energy, courage, and tenacity in the 
prosecution of his undertaking which would be remarkable in anyone, 
and are doubly so in a man of threescore and ten, who is unable to 
climb a yard, and who is so badly lame as to walk with ditiiculty 
even on level ground. Three times already he has had himself dragged 
to the summit in sledge. On the second occasion the strength of his 
men Avas econoniised on steep places by using the windlasses which 
ha«l already been employed to haul the materials. 




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CHAP. VII. 



rjy^ M^T^OROGRAPHE. 



77 



The time has now arrived for the installation of the instruments. 
The principal one that is destined for the Observatory is termed a 
Mdteorugraphf, and has been constructed by Richard of Pans, at a 
cost of £750. It registers barometric pressure, maximum and minimum 
temperatures, the <lirection and force of the wind, etc., etc. It is put 
in luovement by a wei-ht of 200 lbs., which descends about 20 feet 
and is calculated to keep everything going for eight months — the 




DR. JANSSEN'S observatory 

len-th of time during which it is contemplated it may sometimes be 
left' to itself. In introducing his huge instrument to the Academy of 
Sciences on August 13, 1804, Dr. Janssen said, " I do not conceal from 
myself that, notwithstanding the minute precautions which have been 
taken, there must be some degiee of uncertainty about the result. 
One possibility need only be mentioned. The barometer that will be 
employed will be a mercurial one of the Gay-Lussac i)attern. I ntil 
now, the minimum temi)erature that occurs on the summit of Mont 
Blanc duriiiir winter has l>een unknown, la the winter of 1894-0, 
however, thermometers were placed in the interior and on the exterior 
of the Observatory, and it was found that the former registered -35 '2 



lili 1 ^ 





1 1 


^^S 


! 


P %| 


6?- . ;■ ■-. ^>Y-'*t 





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CHAP. VII. 



THE MJ^TJ^OROGRAPHE. 



ii 



The time has now arrived for the instalUition of the instruments. 
The principal one that is destinecl for the Observatory is termed a 
Mctcornqruphr, and has been constructed by Richard of Pans, at a 
cost of t'T.lO. It rej^asters barometric pressure, maximum and mnnmum 
temi)eratures. the <lirection and torce of the wind, etc., etc. It is put 
in movement by a wei-ht of 200 lbs., nn hich descends aljout 20 feet 
and is cahuhited to keep everything going for eight months — the 








OR. janssen's observatory 

len<.th of time (hiring whicli it is contemplate.l it may sometimes be 
left^'to itself. In introducing his huge instrument to the Academy of 
Sciences on August KS, 1804, Dr. Janssen said. •• I do not conceal from 
invself that, notwithstanding the minute precautions which have been 
taken, there must be some degree of uncertainty about the result. 
One liossibilitv need only be mentioned. The barometer that will be 
employed will be a mercurial one of the (Jay-Lussae i.attern. I ntil 
now, the minimum temperature that occurs on the summit of Mont 
rdaiic duriiiir winter has been unknown. In the winter of 1804-.>, 
however, thermometers were placed in the interior and on the exterior 
of the Observatcny, and it was found that the former registered - 3o "1 



78 



CH AMOK IX AND MOXT BLANC. 



CHAP. VII. 



Centigrade and the latter -43'^ C, as the greatest degrees of cold. 
These temperatures are respectively equal to -31' -.36 and -45' -4 
Faht. The former (the inside temperature) is dangerously near to the 
freezing-i>oint of mercury ( -40' F.), and if temperature iii tiie interior 
of the C)l>servatorv should on some future occasion fall a little lower 
the bartuneter will cease to act just at a time when it would he i)ar- 
ticularly interesting to have it in operation. The installation of this 
instrument was amongst the most imi>ortant }»ieces of work which 
were undertaken at the Mont Blanc Observatory in ISDo, but it was 
not in thorough working order at the end of the season. 

Amongst the many things which one may ex])ect to see accomi»lished, 
sooner or later, by means of Dr. Janssen's Observatory, will be the 
more accurate determination of the height of Mont IJlanc ; though, 
from the close accordance between the most authoritative of recent 
determinati(ms,i it does not seem likely that a fresh one will necessi- 
tate any material alteration in the accejjted altitude. 

The first careful measurement'^ of ]\Iont Blanc was made by 8ir 
George Shuckburgh, Bart., in 177o.-' From eighteen observations of 
mercurial barometer he found that the level of the Lake of Geneva 
was 1228 feet above the sea ; and, by triangulation, that the oppnrcni^ 
summit of Mont Blanc was 14.432 feet above the Lake of (Jeneva, or 
15,660 feet above the sea. The next measurement was made by De 
Saussure, in 1787, by means of the mercurial barometer, which he 
observed during his four and a half hours' stay on the summit. He 
calculated his ol>servations in several «lifferent ways, and his ultimate 
determination from the mean of his means was that the summit of 
Mont Blanc was elevated 15,667 feet (2450 toises) above the level of 
the sea. These two determinations closely a])i>ro\imate to the eleva- 
tion which is adopted for Mont Blanc upon tlie current Official ^Laps 
of France, Switzerland, and Italy, 



1 See the Table of Hei<,'hts in the Appendix. 

- Earlier measurements were very wide of the tnith. Peter Martel thou^dit he 
measured the heij;ht of Mont Blanr. " He says (at p. 28), "we found . . . the heij^ht of 
the hi<j:hest mountain" was 2076 toises above the Lake of Geneva. This would make 
the heijrht of ' the liij,'hest mountain ' 14,503 En<,dish feet above the ftea. FVom a mistake 
in his identification of Mont P.lano in Plate A at the end of his pamphlet, I think it 
likely that Martel was deceived in supposinj,' that he measured Mont Blanc. 

'•' See the Pfiil(»io}>fiical T ran unctions of the Rotial Societii of Londmi, vol. Ixvii. i^art 
ii, pp. 513-.')97. 

■* I say 'apparent summit' for this reason. The rid<,'e at the summit of Mont Blanc, 
thou<j:h nearly level, is slijrhtly hijfher at its eastern than at its western end ; and it is 
possible that Sir (ieor*re Shuckburifh did not see (or did not identify) the very hijrhest 
point from the Sal^ve and the Mole, his places of obser\ation. This may ] tartly account 
for his determination beinj,' sli;L,ditly beneath the reality. Further, it is possible that the. 
ele^•ation of Mont Blanc may have slit^htly increased since his time, thoug^h it does not 
ap]>ear to have changed sensibly in the course of the last half-century. 

Some of Sir George Shuckl>ur<,'h's other determinations come \ery dose to the heisjfhts 
now accepted. 

Sir G. Shuckburgh. Etat Major Franyais. 

Bonneville . . 1475 feet 1476 feet 

Chamonix . . 3365 „ 3445 ., 

The Montanvert . 6231 „ 6303 ,, 

Summit of the Mole 6113 ., 6132 ,, 

do. Buet . 10,124 ,. 10,200 ,, 



CHAPTER VIII. 



HOW TO GET TO CHAMONIX. 

ROUTE TO TAKE— now TO PRONOUNCE CHAMONIX— TIMES, DISTANCES, 
AND FARES- PARIS TO CLUSES — GENEVA — ROAD FROM GENEVA 
TO CHAMONIX— ANNEMASSE— BONNEVILLE— THE MOLE— CLUSES— 
SALLANCHES— LE FAVET— CHATELARD— LES MONT^.ES— CHAMONIX. 

It may be taken for j^Tanted that everyone who wishes to get to 
Chamonix will want to go by the most direct way, and as quickly 
as possible. The most «lirect and the quickest way is through ]>}iris, 
and by the I'aris, Lyons and Mediterranean Hallway, ria Macon, 
Culoz.' IJelleuarde, Annemasse, and la Hoche to Cliises. But, before 
starting for "the place, a word ought to l>e said about the spelling 
and jnonunciation of its name. 

Hi the course of reading 1 have found the following ways of spelling 

the name : — 

Chamounix. Chammonis. Chamougnv. Chamounis. 

Chamounv. Chamunix. Chamoignv. Chammunv. 

Chamguni. Chamonv. Chamonis. Chamunis. 

1 reject the whole of them and adopt Chamonix, because this apjtears 
to be the correct form. It is almost the only form I have found, 
when searching the Archives, in documents dating back for several 
centuries.^ T am told by M. le Maire that it is the only form he 
can recognize ; an<l it is *emi>loyed uiK)n the Official Maps of France, 
S\vitzerlan<l an<l Italy. In regard to ].ronunciation I am less clear. 
The second syllable is neither moon nor moan, but sometliing l)etween 
the two ; ami, after having made many Cliamoniards pronounce the 
name hundreds of times, it ai>pears to me that ^ham-moon-nee is 
about the closest one can get to it, in i>honetic Englisli. Upon no 
account pronounce the x.'- 

1 \ lar"-e i)roporti«)n of the names of villages, mountains, etc., in the Mont Blanc 
district are spelt in two or more wavs ; and, l>esides difficulties which may be experienced 
on this account the tourist will i)erhaps feel others arising from the duplication of 
name^ or from closeh similar names. There are, for example, two Tetes Noire,— one 
is a carria<a'-road leading from Chamonix to Trient, and the other is a mountain between 
Servoz and St Gervais. A i>ortion of the road from Chamonix to Sallanches is called 
les Montees, and a little above the village of Argentiere tliere is a Col des Montets. 
There are two i)laces, each onlv a few miles from Chamonix, called C hat elard ; two Cols 
called Col de la Forc'laz ; and two eminences called l"Aiguillette. In the basin of the 
Mer de Glace there are two pinnacles called le Capuciii. There is an Italian and a Swiss 
Val Ferret and an Italian and a French Glacier de Miage. There are mountains called 
the Darrei and the l)arre\ , the Chatelet and the Chatelet. The valley of Chamonix has its 
Aiguilles Rouges, and the Italian \a\ Ferret, and the Val V6ni have a Mont Rouge apiece. 

- " La lettre x (lui termiiie le mot, ne parait avoir d'autre valeur que celle d'une ortho- 
u-raphe ou d'un accent local, comme dans Fernex, Gex, Bex, pour Ferney, etc., et la 
Tettre z dans le Forclaz, les Praz, Servoz, etc." Durier's Mont Blanc, chap. iii. 



80 



CHAMONIX AND MONT BLANC. 



CHAP. VIII. 



Leaving London by one of the morning expresses wliich arrive at 
Paris in the afternoon, there is suftteient time to dine comfortably 
before leaving by the evening express for Cluses, which is the best 
train to take, during the season. This train is in the (Jare de Lyon 
well before the hour for starting, and places can be secured. The 
correct course is to select and secure a place in good time, and then 
to dine leisurely at the Butiet, on the side of the pfaffonn. 




PARIS Tc* CLLSts. 



Before the opening of the railway between Bellegarde and Cluses, 
the gi'cater part of persons going from Paris to C'liamonix used to 
pass through (ieneva ; \mt as the new line keeps entiirbj upon French 
tcrritorji, and by going that way one escapes the vexatious exactions 
to which one is liable upon entry into Switzerland,^ many persons 

1 Duties are now leviefl at some of the Swiss Custom Houses on such articles, and 
such triflin^^ quantities, as Alpine rope, or 4 ozs. of Liehijr's Extract, or even upon 2 ozs. 
of Black Currant Lozenges I 






CHAi'. VIII. DISTANCES, TIMES AND FARES. SI 

now (troid (Jcneva. It is to be hoped that the Swiss authorities will 
<lisc(>ver that tlieir country loses mon; tlian it gains l>y these petty 
imposts, and will revert to the civili/cd habit of passing arti<'les 
which (though, iKMhai»s strictly speaking, liable to duty) are obviously 
intended for use by the traveller. 

The 7.2.') p.m. train to Cluses is 1st and 2nd class as far as lielle- 
garde, and only stops at Laroche, Dijon, Macon, liourg, Amberieu, 
and Culoz. After Bellegarde it takes 3rd class, and stoi»s at all stations. 



|tisi;inrc in 
kilometres. 

1 5;') 

110 

478 

rm 

592 

«•>().'» 
till 
(ib) 
()ij) 

024 
0:jl 

634 
()40 
t)4:i 

647 
6r)4 

6r)8 
6t)r) 

672 



Paris 

Ijjirocho 

Dijon 

Macon 

Boiirg 

Ainboriou . 

( 'ulo/- . 

Bellegarde 

V.-illciry . 

N'iry . 

St. .hilieii . 

Arcliiunps . 

Hossov-Vc'vriui' 

Annemasse 

ISlonnoticr . 
Ueguior 

Pers-.lussy 

La Roche . 

St. Pierre . 

IJonncville . 
Marifi:iiior . 
be Nauty . 

Cluses 



(IJ). (lop. 
(B). arr. 
dcp. 

(B). arr. 
dep. 

(B). arr. 

dep. 
(B). nrr. 

dcp. 
(B). arr. 

dep. 

(B). arr. 
dep. 

(B). arr. 
dc}>. 



(B). arr. 
dep. 



arr. 
dep. 



(H) 



714-7 Chamonix 



arr. 

de[). 

arr. 



7.2.'» p.m 
9.4n ,. 
9.50 „ 

12. 8 a.ni 
12.13 

1..59 
2. 2 

2.38 
2.39 
.3.10 
3.16 

4.10 
4.20 

4.59 
5.19 

5.38 
5.46 
5.54 
6. 1 
6.10 

6.23 

7.17 
7.30 
7.40 
7.47 
7.53 
8. 6 

8.17 
8.26 
8.38 
8.45 

8.. 52 
9. 



J? 

5 > 

5) 
») 

r > 
J' 

/ 1 

5? 

,5 



frs. c. 
17 35 
35 30 
49 30 



53 55 



57 



05 



62 65 
GG 30 



Fares, 
frs. c. 

11 70 



23 80 



'JO Z't 



36 10 



45 



42 25 
44 75 



irs. c. 
7 65 
15 50 
21 70 



23 '■ 



K> 



'lii 10 



27 



55 



29 20 



70 65 47 70 31 lU 



72 55 49 00 31 95 



5 



2.35 p.m. 
(B) sijjcnifies Buffet. 



75 35 50 90 33 15 
from Cluses, 8 francs. 



A good dinner before starting (mght to enable one to sleep through 
the^ni-ht. Awake at Amberieu to ailmire the rising sun and t<» 
b»(dv at the scenery. Take collee at Bellegarde. Shortly after leav- 
inu- that place the railway crosses the B. IHione, an<l, rising to a 
considerable beiubt, gives niany views over very i»ictures<[ue country. 
At St. Julien (15 nliles from P.ellegarde), the line approaches Mont 
Salcve, and for the next 5 or G miles skirts the western base of that 

G 



82 



CHAMONIX AND MUNT BLANC. 



CHAP. Mil. 



iiiuuiitaiii. Just l»efoie arriving at Aimuniasse, the K. Arve {coming 
from C'hamonix) is crossed at tlie Pont d'Etremhicres. 

Annemasse (43(3 metres), 39 kilometres from IJellegarde, is a Imsy 
junction, witli lines radiating to Geneva (Eaux-Vives Stn.), Bouveret 
and La Koche. Buffet good, prices fair. The o]ii)ortunity to break- 
fast here will not he overlooked hy persons of discretion. liton 
leaving Annemasse, the train recrosses the 3>ri<lge of Etreml)ieres, 
and for a few miles the line Minds round the ca,stcrn base of Mont 
Salcve. A succession of charming prospects <leliglit the eye on every 
hand. At La Roche (an unspoiled Erench village rarely visited by 
tourists) t((Le care tltat you are rujht fur Ciiises, and do not go away 
to Annecy and Aix-les-Bains. The line divitles here. The Cluses 
branch goes away to the left, and sweeps round to cross the Arve. 
The Annecy line turns to the right, and nuxkes a great ])end to 
climb the hills. In approaching Bonneville the conical mountain 
called the Mole is seen right in front. The line now crosses to the 
right bank, and keeps on that side, near the Arve, for the rest of 
the way. Erom the next station (Marignier, Hotel de la Gare, 
small, close to the Station) a tramway leads to St. Jeoire, and runs 
in corres2)ondence with the railway. In a (quarter of an hour more 
you are at Cluses, where the Diligences are drawn up in readiness 
in the Station yard. The trains are generally behindhand, an<l the 
Diligences leave punctually, so there is little time for refreshment ; 
which is scarcely to be regretted as the liullet here is not to be 
recommended. It is better to lay in at Annenuisse something to 
consume on the road. Before leaving Cluses nuike sure that your 
luggage has been i»ut into the Diligence, atid has not been taken out 
ofjain. This sometimes happens, and the luggage is left behind. 
One meets at Cluses the old road from Geneva, and follows it the rest 
of the way to Chamonix. 

Geneva. — (374: metres). Pop. according to the Census of 1888, 52,829, 
is considerably more now. In consecjuence of the transference of 
trattic through Geneva to the line Bellegarde — Annemasse — Cluses, 
the road from Geneva to Cluses through Bonneville, which used to 
be a busy one, is now almost deserted. Instead of seeing clouds of 
<lust raised as milords rolled past in their chariots, and by the 
diligences conveying Tom, Dick and Harry, Jules and Jean, one can 
now look along vistas of a mile or more without perceiving a single 
individual. Geneva should be visited, either going or returning. 
The ex])ress that left us at Bellegarde arrived at Geneva (Cornavin 
Stn.) at 5.49 a.m. Cornavin is the Station, the most important onc,^ 
at Geneva, and formerly was the o)dy one. Now, there is another 
at Eaux-Vives, the Terminus of a short line which runs to Anne- 
nuisse. See annexed Plan. Erom Cornavin Stn. one might have 
walked to Eaux-Vives Stn. (or taken a tram which runs from one 
to the other) and caught a train at 6.54 a.m. which arrives at 
Annenuisse at 7.9 a.m., and there have passed over to the train in 

1 The line which runs round the northern side of the Lake of Gene\a (or right bank 
as it is termed) has its terminus at Cornavin. From this Station one can go to any 
part of Switzerland. 



CHAP. VIII. 



GENEVA. 



83 



winch we came from Bellegarde. But as this involves changing 
carriages at (^eneva, and again at Annenuisse, it is a more troulde- 
some route than the other, especially for ]>eople with l)aggage. 

There are many inducements to visit the old City of (Jeneva. The 
su]>erb views of Abrnt Blanc which may be had from the shores of 
the Lake, and even in the streets, the l>eauty of the Lake itself, the 
admirable quays ami pretty gardens, the monuments and public buihl- 
ings, antiquities and museums, all combine to make it attractive.* It 
is well provided with Hotels. Erom the Table given on page 84, which 

TO LAUSANNE 




SCALE OF MILES 



u 
O 

a. 

< 

o 



z 
z 
o 
a 

o 



TO BELLEGARDE TO CLUSES 

I'LAN OF GENEVA, SHEWING THE POSITION OF THE RAILWAY STATIONS. 

includes the principal ones, it will be seen that there are hotels to 
suit all pockets. The largest and finest, the National, though 
beautifully situated, is a consideral)le distance from both railway 
stations. Amongst the better and tnost central ones may be mentioned 
the HoTKL i)K LA PosTE (in the middle of the City), the Hotel Suisse 
and Hotel Terminus and Baur (Imth close to Cornavin). 

The road from Geneva to Chamonix passes through Cheno, Anne- 
masse, Bonneville, Cluses, Sallaiiches, an<l the distances are — 

Geneva t<i Annemasse ..... 8 kilometres 

Annemasse to Bonneville .... 20 

Bonneville to Cluses 14 

Cluses to Sallanches ..... 16'7 

Sallanches to Chamonix ..... 26 ,, 

Total 84-7 kilometres 
or about 58 English Miles. 

1 See Plan de la Ville de Geneve et de sa hanlleue, par L. Roget et H. Amend, Geneve 
(Librairie Georg). 






> 

ill 

z 

UJ 

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rrN m C+_ _H 



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o o o o o ri o o o o o o o o i."^ o o o i."i o '-': o 
•-C v.' -r 7-j > ~ "M o >• » CO X' 1— 1 ji X' i^ i^ -^ C". CO :o '^r c^ 

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CH.viir. ANNEMASSE. BONNEVILLE AND THE MOLE. 



85 



Annemasse (48() metros) is a larj^e village, on fiat jj^ronnd, a little 
al»ov(» till' K. Arvo. Soon aftor juissini;- it, tliore are admiraltle views 
of Mont lilanc on tlie roa<l, wliicli is wfll k<»])t up, and a ^ood ioa<l 
f(»r ]»e<lostrians as well as an excellent one for eyelists.^ The entire 
rise from (Jenev.a to C'haiuonix is only 2217 feet (distrilnited over 53 
miles), a «;reat i>art of which oeenrs between le Fayet and les H (niches. 
Four kils. from Annemasse the road crosses the ]Meno<:;e Torrent hy 
a fine stone Inid.ue of 3 arches, and then turns sharply to the rv^ht 
(south). A ]>edestrian can save time liere l>y taking' an old road 
which leads away cm the left and cuts the curve made by the ]>resent 
route. Three kils. from the brid<^e one comes to the villa<;e of Nangy 
(478 metres), Hotel dk i/Ect' de (JExftvE; and in 4), kils. more 
passes throujih Contamine sur Arve (458 metres), wliere there is a 
small inn. The road continues close to the Arve all the way to 
Uonneville, which is 8 kils. f.-irther ow. 

Bonneville (450 metres), <>n the ri<;ht bank <>f the Arve, which just 
below the town is joined by the liorne Torrent (both streams em- 
banked), has 2271 inliabitants, wide streets, and a lar^e I*Inc(\ ]danted 
with trees. IbnKi, de \.\ I^aeance (cm the iV<^/r), lIoTEE Dr Soeeil. 
Numerous j^ood sho|>s. IMiere is a ste.'im tramway from lionneville 
to Annemasse, with trains running three tinjes a day each way, corre- 
sptmdin;; with others at Annemasse for Eaux-A'ives. Fare 1 fr. 10 
cents. The road to Chamonix crosses the Arve by a stone bridjie of 
4 arches at the S. end of the town. ( )n the near side of the brid«jfe 
there is an Obelisk erecte<l in memory of the soldiers of Haute Savoie 
who fell in tln» war of 1870-71 ; and on the o]»]>osite side of the biidoe 
there is a lofty stone column in honour of Kin<j: Charles Felix. Post 
and tele,ura]>h oflice is against the bridj;(\ ami in the same buildinu 
is the seat of the French Al]»ine Club, section du Mont IJlanc, founded 
May, 1877. 

The summit of the Mole (1809 metres, 0132 feet), to the N.F. of 
Bonneville, is a renowned /tu'nitr dc ru(\ which is often ascended to 
see the IJanjie of Mont lilanc.- Ileinu (piite isolated, it has an un 
interrupted panorami<* view all around. It should be noted, however, 
that the summit of M<mt lilanc itself bears S.E. of the Mole, and 
the sun is too much in fiont of the sjtectator ht fJir moriuittf to let 
the mountain be s(>en to advantage. The afternoon and evening light 
are far l)etter for it, though the morning is the b<vst time for viewing 
the rest of the ]>anorama. From lionneville t<» the top of the Mole 
occupies 3 h. 40 min. to 4 hours ; the descent can be ma<le in 1 h. 
45 min. or less. (Juide 10 francs. The i»ath commences at Bonne- 

1 In the little ]>;xiii|)lik't CTititlod Ifim'rairrs th' Co>trfir.^i pour Ci/cfisffs dans Ifn Enrironx 
<h' (iviiiir, ]uir Ch. liastard, (k-neve, 1S!>4, from C!t'ne\a to C'hamonix and back is incliulHl 
(l». 21) aino?i«fst the excursions for one day and a half,— seven and a half hours jroinjr, 
and five hours returninl,^ 

- The M«'»h' was ascended by W. Windham (1741) and by Peter Martel (1742). The 
former says, "we fancied that after the tffacii'i'Oi every niountain would be easy to us, 
however it took us more thaJi fixe Hours hard labour in i;ettin<jr u]>."' The latter annears 
to have (wctijiiiMl six hours on the ascent. 1 look ui«>n the Maule, he siiid, "to be 
sonu'what hii,dur than Montonrer, because we were h.alf an Hour lon<rer in j,'oin«>- uj* it. 
althoujrh the Ko:id is very even, as well as steeper." 



J 



CHAP. virr. 



BONNF.VILLE TO CLUSES. 



87 



ANOIiaVW V ZVAVNb3A 
'3aiON 313± 3H1 01 




I _J wJ \_/ J 



CO 

III 
z 

< 

z 
o 
o 

o 

I- 



z 
o 

< 

I 
o 

o 

h 

< 
> 

UJ 

z 

LU 
O 



ville C'hurcli, ami leads past les Tours and Aise. At the l)e«,dnnins;- 
it «;oes tlirou<;li woods, but tlie upper j>art is unshade<l, in places is 
steep, and sometimes is very hot. Ahout 1000 feet below the summit, 
on the Honneville side, there is a chalet (put up in August 1891), with 
beds, belonging to the Section du Mont lilanc of the French Alpine 
Club, where tourists can olitain food and lodging at moderate ju'ices, 
if the f/uardian u there. It occasionally happens that the guardian 
locks the place up and goes off with the key, and the tourists sit out- 
side and anathematize him. Hence to the top is | h. over grass 
slopes. The view from the summit is very extensive and l)eautiful. 
At the foot of the mountain on the north there is the village of 
St. Jeoire, and eastwards an unimpeded view over Tanninges and 
Samoens, with the Buet in the background (more than 30 miles 
away). To the right of tlie Buet, the range of Mont lilanc can l)e 
seen almost from one end to the other ; and, down below, C'luses with 
glimi»ses of the Valley of the Arve beyond. The country round La 
lioche and for many miles farther away occupies the southern section 
of the panorama, an<l in the west one looks over Geneva and the 
Lake to the long ridges of the Jura. Though the nortliern side of 
the Mole is precii)itous, it may be ascended from St. Jeoire in about 
the same time as from Honneville. Mules (vm go to the top, but they 
.are sehlom taken there. 

On leaving I>(mneville observe that the road leading straight away 
from the bri<lge goes to La Roche, while that for (luses turns sharply 
to the left. No part of the range of Mont Blanc can 1>e seen from 
lionneville,^ nor between that town and Cluses. For the first 5 kils. 
the road is nearly level and ])erfectly straight. At 6| kils. from 
Bonneville it passes through Vougy, with the HoTf:L de" LA Pomme 
d'Or ; and 3J kils. farther on is the village of Marnaz, where there 
are only cafis. Thence to Cluses is little more than 4 kils. On 
arriving at the main street, turn to the right if you intend to con- 
tinue <m the road ; an<l to the left if you want to go to the raihray. 

Cluses, on the Arve (485 metres), 1915 inhabitants, is at j)resent 
the terminus of the railway which it is intended in course of time 
to extend to Chamonix, and thence to Vernayaz (in Switzerland). 
It is a watchmaking town, with very wide streets, and open spaces. 
The Watchmaking School is at the northern end. There is a new 
Hotel (not recommended) outside the town and close to the Station, 
Hotel National, and the Hotel Kevuz (in the town). The distance 
from Cluses to Chamonix is 42-7 kilometres, and the Diligences 
usually take 4J to 5^ hours, that is to say, they travel at an average 
rate of scarcely more than 5 miles an hour. They stop at Magland, 

1 Baedeker's Gukle (15th ed. pp. 259-60) in speaking of Bonneville says "to the 
ri<,Mit we obtain a superb view of Mont Blano, whose dazzling peaks towering majestic- 
ally at the head of the valley seem to annihilate the intervening distance of nearly 
.30* M. The Aiguille du CJouter appears first; then, from right to left, the Dome du 
Oofiter, Mont Blano itself, the Mont Maudit, Mont Blanc du Tacul, the Aiguille du 
Midi, and the Aiguille Verte." Readers of Bae<ieker are warned that not one of these 
peaks can be seen from Bonneville, and that they do not 'tower at the head of the 
valley.' Mont Blanc an<l its Aiguilles begin to be seen when one is about 1000 feet up 
the M«Me. The passage is perhaps iiiten/led to describe the view from the summit. 



88 



CIIAMOXrX AND MOXT BLANC. 



CHAP. VIII. 



Sallanclies, Ir Fayot, (MiAtelard. ami les Moiitees. The iiiterine<liate 
ilistaiu*es are — 



Chises to Magland 
MafjlMiul to Snllanches 
Sallanches to le Fayet 
le Fayet to Chatelanl 
Chatolard to les Montres . 
les Montt'es to les Houchcs 
les Houches to les Bossons 
les Bossons to Chamonix . 



6'a kilometres 
10-2 

c-o 

2-0 
3-5 
4-0 
3-0 






or about 2fi§ Enj^lish IMilcs. 



42*7 kilometres 



The road at lirst kee])s to the riiiht l»:uik of the Arve, and rises 
very sli^litlv. Five kils. from Sallaiiches it crosses to the left hank, 
and Mont JMane apjtears soon afterwards, directly in front. In 1 h. 
3o iniji. (hy dil.) one (MMiies to 

Sallanches (r)4n metres), 2004 inhahitants. Hotki. oks Mkssa(;kkiks ; 
HoTKL Dl' M(»\T IIlanc From this ] dace, or anywhere in its Tiei^h- 
honrhood for several miles lonnd in all directions, one has the liiiest 
]»ossihle views of Mont IManc that can he had from a low level. The 
snmmit is distant V^\ miles as the crow Hies, and it rises 14,(MM» feet 
ahove the spectator, it continnes visible dnrinj;- part <tf the way t(» 
lc Fayet. hnt at last the Ai,i;nille de IJionnassay shuts it out, and 
Itecomes the dominating- feature of the landscape. Notice also the 
towerin*;' Aiguille de Varens (8007 feet) to the left, on the northern 
side of the Arve. In "2 h. 10 min. from Cluses the dili«.jence arrives at 
the small ^^ronp of houses called 

le Fayet. Hotel i>r Pont dk Bon Nant ; Hotel i>e Paix : 
Hotel 1>E.s Altes. This is a stoppinn-jdace of the dilij;en<*es for the 
liaths and Villa^jje of St. (lerv.ais (see cliaji. xiv, The Toui- of Mont 
lUanc, iuv IMan). The new (Na]»oleon III) load, which has suj»erseded 
the old route to Chamonix via Servoz, commences at le Fayet, and 
it is to this jdace the extension of the railway fiom <'lus(»s (which is 
n»»w undei" <M»nstruction) is to he carried. The road continues to rise 
l»ut sliohtlv for two kilometres heyond le Fayet, hut then the madicnts 
increase, and the dilijirences «jfo at a walking; pace for a lon;^ distance. 
A ^-ooil pedestrian ^ettini;- down here can arrive at (Miamonix on his 
leiis almost as soon as the dilij^enee. 

The road, .S to 4 kils. heyond le Fayet, has risen hi;^di ahove the 
.\rve, and nives a very line view of the Plain of Sallanches ami of 
the Ai<;uille de Varens. It then turns sharidy to the east, and for 
a time the Aij::uille du Midi makes its aj»pearance in the distance. 
The near scenery is hiji^hly jdcturesque. At Chatelard, Hotel nr 
TlNNEL nil Chatelaim) (pension (} francs a day, no villa.i-e), the 
dilij:;ences chan<ie horses. This little inn is situate<l in a very 
charming' position, and is suitable for persons who want an economical 
holiday. The neij^hbourhood is well-wooded, and oju» can j;"o about 
at pleasure anywhere. (This place must not be conf<»unded with 
another Chatelard on the route from Chamojiix to the Tete Noire.) 






CHAT. VIII. 



THE TUNNEL AT CHATELARD. 



89 



The road here passes throui;h a small tunnel, that intersects a Roman 
<,^allery, which was found while the tunnel was bein.i; made. At the 
top (if the steps lea.linj.; to the -gallery there is this inscription, 
' Culcric llnmaiuf, Drrourcrfc vu IS()3, m rim.sfrtfisffnt Ir s<nitirnihi.' 







=?-.V.'A 









'-A'.. 















^■■M^ 



-a- 






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.%S 



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\-fT J*i'V i^''? .<>^.^ 






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•St' 



Mir 










'\i ''■ - Im II' ,Ai.£.n- 



I I'NNKI. AND KOMAN CAI.I.KKY Al" CHAIKLAKU. 



The part of the <;allery that is now 

visible is only 1") paces lonu", about 

."> ft. ins. hioh, and .S ft. ti ins. 

wide.' The roa<l leading away on 

the left, after i»assin.i;- throu.uh the 

tunnel, «,'oes to Servoz, which is seen 

alxait 4 mile away (see chap, x.) 

In \{\ or 17 min. from Chatelard the dili.uence arrives at les Monties, 

Hotel des Montees. The road liereab<mts, and indeed almost 

all the way fiom le Fayet to les Houches, passes thr(»u.i;h extremely 

I The majority of tourists who i»ass throu^'h tlu- tnnml at Chatelanl are unaware of 
tlie existence of this irallery above. 



ss 



i'llAMi^XrX AM) MnXT IlL. WC 



(11 \r. viir. 



S;illan<lies. Ic l'\l\«'t, < 'llAtrhnd. ;iinl li'^ Mniitrrs. 'I'll*' illt('niH'(liMte 
<list;nU'»»s WYO 

("lust's to M;i^l;in(l 

M:iir];ili(l to S;ill;iiu-lics .... 

S.illamhc's to Ic F;iyot .... 

U' hiyot to C'li;\tel;»r(l .... 

Cliatohird to les Montt'es .... 

los Montt'es to les Houclics 

les Homhes to les Hos.'^ons 

les lio.s.suns to t'lmniuiii.\ .... 



«;■.'. ki 


ouii'tre.- 


l(»-2 




(i-O 




<••> 




'!•{) 




• > .r 




o*;» 




1-0 




:J-0 





or alxmt 2*)H Fiiitiflish Miles. 



rj'7 kilonu'trcs 



TIk' rn;i<l at lirst keeps to tlio ri^lit l»aiik of tin' .\iv«\ and ris«»s 
\<'jy sli.ulitly. I'ivc kils. tVoiii Sallaiiclirs it <toss<'s to tlic left Itank. 
and Moiil lllaiie a)>)K'ars soon at'f crwards, diiretly in fVont. In 1 li. 
.'>n iiiin. (Ity dil.) one coinos tn 

Sallanches (r)4(» nii'tr«'s),'jn(i4 inliahitants. Hori;i, im;s .M i:s,s.\(;i;i.'|i:.s: 
IImIi;l i»i .MoNI' IIl.Wc. l-'iom this ]»laee. or anywlirre in its nei^ji 
Itonihood tor s('\(»ral miles lonnd in all diiections, one lias the lineal 
jtossihle \ lews of .Mont IMane that <an he had fioni ;i low le\<'l. The 
summit is distant l.'i.', miles as the eiow llies. and it i i-e- I I. ( inn leet 
ahove the speetaloi-. It eontinnes \isih|e dniini; |»ait ot the way to 
li' l''ay<'t. hut at la>t the Aimiille de l>i(»nnassa_\ shuts it «»nl, and 
heeomes the dominatin;; feature of the landsrape. Noti<'e also the 
towerinu .\iuuille de N'areiis (S(l!)7 feet) to the left, on the n<»itliern 
side of the .\r\('. In '1 h. I0 mill, fi'om Clnses the dili^enee ai lives .h 
the sjuall L:i<»n|» of houses ealh>d 

le Fayet. Il(>ri;i, m Wwv i»i: Hon N.wt: IIoiki, di: Taix: 
IJnrKi, hi.s .\l.l'i;s. This is ;i sto|»|»iim-|daee of the dili^cnees for t he 
r»aths and \ illa^e of St. (iervais (see eha]*. \i\. The Totu' of Mont 
Kline, for I'lan). The new (Na]»oleon III) road, whieh has su|»erseded 
I he old lonte to ('ha!iH)ni\ /*/// Serv<>z, eommenees jit le h'ayet. and 
it is to thi^ jilaee the extension <»f the railway from ("luses (which is 
now nndei- eonstruet ion) is to Im» carried. The road continues to rise 
hut slii^htly for twt> kilomi'ties heyond le I''ayet. hut then t he ^ladient s 
increase, ;ind the diliiicnces u<> at ;i walUiui; i»a<e foi" ;i loiiu distance. 
.\ nood pedestrian .uettin^ down here can arrive at ('lianioiM\ on his 
le^s almost as soon as the diIiL;en<'e. 

The i-oad, '.\ to 4 kils. heyond le I'ayet. has risen hii;li jiIionc the 
.\r\(', and uives a \ery lin<' view of the Plain of Sallanches and of 
the .\iuuille de \'arens. It then turns sharidv to the east, and foi- 
a time the Aiguille dii Midi makes its appearance in the distance. 
The near scenery is hiuhl.N' pi<-tiii-es(|ue. .\t Chatelard, H(»ri:i, m 
Ti NNKL i»r ('iiAri;L.\i;i> (jiension (i francs a day, no \illa.ue), tli(> 
diliiicnces change h<»rses. This little inn is situated in Ji \ery 
chainiiiiL: position, and is suitahle f<u" persons who want an economical 
holiday. The nei^hhouili(»od is well wooded, and one can ^^o ahout 
at jdeasure anywhere. (This place must not he confounded with 
another ('hatelard on the route from ('hamonix to (he Tet<' Noiie. ) 



ni Mv vm. 



TIIK rrWKL AT (llATFJ.Ainf. 



m 



The road here passes throii-h :i ^mall tunnel, that intersects a Honian 
uallery. which was found while the tunnel was heinu made. .\t the 
hip of the steps leading to 11m' .gallery there is this inscri|»t ion. 
'dnhrir HnnHiiin, Ihcimrrrfr rtt |S(»:{, nt must ruistnif Ir snntiinun. 



<^S^^ 






.1 • ■. .V 








■J ' ,»^, '' 












^S" T 







* jji'^'^i;^^^ Nr~-- vi^; visihle is (udy I.") pa<-es Ion-, ahoiit 

/>/^ ,-|^;%s|5a>>^^-''^^ .') ft. (i ins. hi-h, and ;{ ft. <• ins. 

■ f ^? 1^S^^~ -'' J^'^^ffr^ ^^"""'''•' '''*' '■''•^"' lea<lin.u away «»n 

■ik'-'k'^i:' ' - • M.-'";^/' HT the left, after )>assin,u throiiuh the 

'VA>'y^/^c tunnel, noes 1<» Ser\oz, which is seen 



tunnel, noes 1<» Ser\oz, which is seen 
ahout Y mile away (see chap. \.) 
ju Hi or 17 min. from ("h:"itelard the dili.iLKMK-e arrives at les Mont^es, 
MoTKL in;s MoNI'KKs. The road hereahouts, and indeed almost 
all the way from le I'ay.'t to les ||ou<-hes. passes thron^h «'xtremely 

I The jnaj..ii|\ ut tourists wlio jmss tlumi-li \\\v luun.l id ( 'li:ilel;«r(l :iiv uii:i\\;.r.' ot 
tlif existeiHH- ot tlii< uuHfV :»lio\r. 



90 



CHAMONIX AND MONT BLANC. 



CHAP. VIII. 



V»ietures(ine scenery. Notliiiig can well l»e liner than the views of the 
Aig. <lu (iouter an«l tlie Aig. de IJionnassay which can be seen for 
several kilometres over this part of the route. The summit of Alont 
r»lane, however, is hidden. The Hotel ties Montees has woods all around 
it, and is another place where persons of quiet tastes can find much 
enjoyment. After leavin*,' it, the road enters a sort of defile, and 
for some distance is carrie<l alon*-- a shelf cut out of the face of a clifi". 
In 20 to 22 min. from les Montees the dili«;ence crosses to the right 
hank of the Arve, and after another kilometre recrosses to the feft 
hank, just below the village of les Houches. Then you enter the 
\'alley of Chamonix, the vista begins to open out, and a line of 
Aiguilles is seen, coinmencing on the right with the Aiguil]«'>< i\n 
Midi, du Plan, de Pdaitiere, and des Charm. /. i .ii.»wed by thr Mmi, 
Verte, and Chardonnet. After passin- \]\v><\\-\i ih. 
IJossons the road again recrosses to the 
I'errolataz, and a few minutes lattr \^m 



I iirou- 
riglii 1 
;ii-o at 



lane ot 



les 
de 



'•The majestic glaciers, separated hy great forests, crowned bv granitic rocks 
to an astonishnig elevation, carved into gigantic obelisks and intermixed with 
snow antl ice. offer one of the grandest and most remarkable spect^icles that 
It IS possible to imagine. The cool, pure air that one breathes, so different 
from the stuffy atmosphere of Sallaiiches, the high cultivation of the vallev 
and the pretty hamlets one passes, give the idea of a new world, a sort df 
harthly Paradise." De Saussure's Voifnge.'i, vol. i, p. 359. 

To this eulogium it may be added that everyone has jxu-fect 
liberty to roam anywliere. at will. 




PLAN OF CHAMONIX, 






■er# i^sf^e" lesstn^^immmmi 



A 




REFERENCES. 



A 


GRAND 


HOTFL rOUTTET 






K 


HOTEL HE LA TERRASSE. 


li 


V-, 


H 


_)T 


EL 


ROVAl- rt. DE SAUSStlRt 


L. 


i.UISSE 


V 


C. 




1 » 




Ot LA POST!::: 






M. 


DE LA CROIX BLANCHE 


w 


D. 




» 1 




DU MONT fJLANC. 






N. 


DE FRANCE. 


X 


E. 




, , 




D ANGLETERRE. 






O 


C'E LA PAIX, 


Y. 


F. 




, 




DES ALPES 






P 


SCHOOLS. 


Z 


a 




, 




DE PARIS 






Q 


THE CHJRCH. 


* 


H. 




. , 




OEAU SITE 






R 


PLACE DE L EGLISE. 


** 


1. 








DE FRANCE 8i DE 


L' 


UNION. 


S 


BUREAU DES GUIDES. 


** * 


d. 




, 




VILLA BEAU SEJOUR 




T 


ENGLISH CHURCH. 





ROAD TO SALLENCHES, ETC. 
ARGENTIFRE. ETC 
ROUTE TO MONT BLANC 
PATH TO THE BREVENT VIA PLANPRAZ 
TO THE MONTANVERT. 
MONUMENT TO BALMAT. 

TO DE SAUSSURE. 
LOPPE S GALLERY. 
PATH TO THE BREVENT ViA BEL ACHAT. 



CHAPTER IX. 

UPON CHAMONIX. 

CHAMONIX— ITS POPULATION— CONSEIL MUNICIPAL— REVENUE— MEANS 
TAKEN TO MAKE IT A POPULAR RESORT — COMMUNAL FORESTS — 
HOTELS — BUREAU DES DILIGENCES — LA SOCll^^Tl?. DES VOITURES — 
SHOPS— BUREAU DES GUIDES— MAIRIE— THE CHURCH- MONUMENT 
TO JACQUES BALMAT — PATH TO THE BREVENT — SCHOOLS — THE 
LAITEKIE — THE SHAM — MONUMENT TO DE SAUSSURE — PATH TO 
THE MONTANVERT — THE ENGLISH CHURCH — SULPHUROUS SPRING 
— PATH TO MONT BLANC— FOREST RETREATS. 

The Village of Chamonix is situated on nearly level ground, 
i.artly on tlie right and i)artly on the left hank of the Kiver Arve.- 
Altitude, 3445 feet (10.-)0 metres). It is the chef lieu of the Canton 
of tlie same name, which also comprises the Communes of les 
H (Miches, ^'allorcine, and Servoz. 

Population.— According to a Census taken in 1896, Chamonix 
(includin<'- the numerous little allied handets and villages) has a 
pojmlation of 1923; Argentiere has 487, and les Houches 1028; 
which makes the total population of the Vrdleij 3438, in 1896. It 
increases slowly. M. Perrin believes that so long ago as 1411 the 
])opulation of the valley was somewhere about 1140, and he says it 
was found from a census taken in 1773 by the Cha])ter of Sallanclies 
that there were 444 hearths in the valley, namely, 200 at Chamonix, 
160 at les Hcmches, and 84 at Argentiere. Allowing .1 persons to a 
household, this wtmld make the populaticm of the valley 2220, in 1773. 

Each male native of the Canton of Chamonix, on attaining his 
twenty -first year, has the right to vote at the election of the 
Conseil Municipal. This body has 16 members. The ordinary 
sessi(ms are held four times a year at Chamonix, when the Com- 
munal liudget is discussed, and questions relating to all works of 
public utility in the Canton. All contracts, or specifications for new 
roads, brido-es, or sclunds which are proposed must be submitted to, 
and all drsbursements i)roposed to be made from the Communal 
Funds must be sanctioned by, the Prefet of the Department. 

The Revenue of the Commune of Chamonix is chiefly derived 
from the rents of the hotels and chalets, frequented by tourists 
durinc' the summer months, which are built on the upper slopes of 
the valley. The Taxes paid in the Commune of Chamonix are of 
two classes— 1. In Taxe ImntobllUre, which goes to the Canton, is 
levied on houses and land. 2. la Taxe Pn'sonndle, which goes to 
the Pepublic. Owing to the Canton of Chamonix being situated in 







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CHAP. IX. 



rilAMOXIX. 



03 



the 'Zonr' wliicli was estahlislieil l»y Napolcuii 111 «»ii tiie amiexatioii 
of Savoy, tlu'ie aio no duties on collee, tea, tol>aeco, eiio(M»late, etc.' 

Reparation of Paths.— Every male iiilial»itanl of the Coniniune 
hetween the a;4es oi IS ami 00 is eoiiipelle<l to eontrihute three 
(lays' labour per annum (or to furnish a substitute ) in onler to 
repair the jiatlis leadin;^ to the various jtoints of interest in the 
X'alley. Everyone who has a horse, mule, or cart, must also jilace 
them at the disposal of the Commune for three days eaeh year, for 
the same i»urpose. The mules are all re<iistered (the numbers bein^ 
stami»ed on tlie hoof of the near fore-foot), and in the event of war 
or mol>ilization they would be placed at the service of the State. 
They are inspected annually by an Othcer of the French Army. 

Communal Forests. — Every year, a certain number of trees in the 
Communal woods are marked by the Adnditistrotioii (ks Forrfs, and 
are felled and divided among those ratepayers who have aiti»lie<l for 
a share. A nominal sum is paid to the (V)mmune for the price of 
the wo(m1; and the cost of felling the trees and Ininging them down 
in the valley is Ijorne by those mIio ]>artici]>ate in the distribution. 
In Chamonix- there is very little land used as Communal grazing 
ground, where the ratepayers have the right to send their cattle. 

The Voters in the Canton of diamonix are represented by a 
' Conseiller d'Arrondissement ' at Bonneville, who is electe<l for six 
years; an<l also by a ' Conseiller-Ceneral' at Annecy who remains in 
()tiice for the same period. The Maire is elected by the Conseil 
Municipal for four years. 

Hotels on the left bank.— CJkani) Hotel Couttet (large and well- 
couilucted, with good gardens) ; lloTEI. PENSION 1)E LA I?OSTE ; HoTEL 
HoYAL «S: DE Saussuke. On the right bank — (Jhand Hotel du 
Mont Blanc (large and good, with gardens) ; Hotel de Fuance & 
l)E lTniox Ueinie (very central); Hotel de la Mek de Clace 
(new lH»tel, jdeasantly situated); Hotel Ueau-Site ; Hotel Villa 
Heat Sejouk ; Hotel des Alpes (large and goo«l) ; HcrrEL de Pai:is ; 
Hotel Suisse ; Hotel de la Tekilvsse ; Hotel d'Anoletekke (one 

of the oldest); HoTEL DE LA CkOIX liLANCHE ; HoTEL DE FRANCE; 
Hotel de la Paix. The positions of all the Hotels are indicated 
on the IMan of (Miamonix, with the excei)tion of the Hotel de LA 
Mek de (Jlace, which is at the extreme northern end of the village, 
on the road to Argentiere, and beyond the range of the Plan. 

The main street, running right thnmgh Chamonix, is calle«l the 
Rue Nationale, and the large open space leading from it at a right 
angle towards the Church is the Place de PEglise. The Bureau of 
the Diligences which are run by the " Socicte anonyme «le la corre- 
spondance des Chemins de Fer Paris-Lyons-Me<lit. and Jura-Simphni " 
is in the Hue Nationale at the angle of the Place. In the mid«lle of 
the season ]»laces sluMihl be secured well in advance, as these diligences 
to Cluses Mil to overllowing. Thin ComjKonj Juts one sadc of dainjcs 

1 The inic-es iiriiitwl on the labels of packets of French to])aoo and ei;r:us are the 
liriccs for France in general, but in the 'free zone' they should be supplied to the 
l»urchaser less duty. 



111 


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CIIAMOMW 



m 



Ik'Lw tx'ii tilt' Ji;^i's of IS 
• lays' lalnMir ]»('r aiinuni 
i('|>air tlic ]>atlis IcatliiiL: 



tlie 'Xoni' wliicli was cslaldislicd l>y NaiM»k'uii Hi «»ii llic Hiiin"\uli«ni 
of Savoy, llu'ic ar«' no thitics on collcc, tea, lohacco, clKK-oIato, etc' 

Reparation of Paths. Kvery male iiilial»itaiit of the Coimnuiie 

ami (ill is compelled to coiitiilmte tliree 
(or to funiisli a sultstitute) in oiilei- to 
to tlic various ]>oiiits of interest in tlie 
Valley. Kveryone wlio has a horse, mule, or eart, must also )>laee 
them at the disposal of the Commune for three days eaeh year, foi- 
the same i>uiiM>se. 'IMie nniU^s are all le.uistiMed (the numhers heinj; 
stamped on tlie hoof of the near fore-t\)ot), and in the event of war 
or niohili/ation they w<nild he jdaeed at the service of the State, 
They are insj.ected annually hy an Otlieer of the French Army. 

Communal Forests. Kvery year, a certain iiumher of trees in the 
Coinmunal W(K»ds are marke«l hy the Aihnitiistrfit'ntn (frs Forrfs, and 
are felled and divided anion;;- those ratejiayers who have apjdied for 
a share. A nominal sum is ]»aid to the Commune for the price of 
the wood; and the cost of felling- the trees and Inin^iin.u" them down 
to the valley is home hy those who ]tartici]>ate in the distrihutioii. 
In Chanionix there is very little land used as Communal ,urazin- 
-round, where the ratepayers have the ri^ht to send their cattle. 

The Voters in the Canton of Chanionix are representeil hy a 
• (*on>eillei- (rArrondissement ' at IJonneville, who is elected for six 
years; and als«» hy a ' Conseiller-( Jenerar at Annecy who remains in 
i)nice for the san'ie ]>eriod. The Maire is elected hy the Council 
Municipal for four years. 

Hotels on the left bank. — Ckand IIin'KL CtHTTKT (lar-e and widl 
conducted, with -ood -ardens) ; IloTKL Pknsion DE h\ I*(>stk ; Hotkl 
liOVAi. \- !n-: Saussi'im:. On the right bank- (iuANi) XUvvva. ni 
Mont r.i.ANC (lar-e and -ood, with -ardens) ; Hotki. dk Fi.'ANCk ^: 
in-: i/Cmon Kkixik (very central): lloi'KJ. dk la Mkk i>k (Ilaci: 
(new hotel, pleasantly sit'uate.l) ; HoiKl. UkaI'-Sitk ; HoTKL ViM.A 
l>i; Al Sk.mhk ; Horiii. dks AlI'KS (lar-e and ^ood) ; HoTKl. DK Paims : 
il(»Ti:i. SrissK; Hotkl dk i.a Tkiikassk; Hotkl dAncjlktkimik (one 

of the (ddest); HoTKL DK LA CHOIX liLAXCHK; HoTKL DK FlSANCK ; 
llorKL DK LA Fa IX. The i»ositi«»ns of all the Hotels are indicateil 
on the Flan of Chanionix, with the excejttion of the HoTKL DK LA 
Mki; DK (iLACK, which is at the extreme northern en<l of the villa-e, 
on the road to Ar^uentiere, and l»eyon<l the ran-e of the Flan. 

The main street, runnin,u ri-ht thron.uh Chanionix, is called the 
Rue Nationale, and the larue open s|>ace leailin^ from it at a riuht 
an-le towards the Church is the Place de FEglise. The Bureau of 
the Diligences which are run hy the "S«KMete ainuiyme de la corre- 
spondance des Chemins de Fer I'aris-Lyons-Medit. and .lura-Simplon 
i> in the Kne Nationale at the angle of the IMace. In the middle of 
the season places should he secured well in advance, as these dili-ences 
to Clnses (ill to overllowin;^. This Cfnii/xmi/ h^s oar scilr of chxnir.s 

1 Thf luiccs i.rinttMl on the lal)ds of inickels of Firiich tol.ar.o ami ci-urs iwv tlic 
prices for France in j;eneral, but in the 'free zone' tl»ey should be suitphed to tlie 
l»urehuser less dutij. 



94 



CUAMONIA' AND MOXt BLAXC. 



the inconvcnienoo of t.avelle.-s v] , a H^ T ' """-' "^ <''»««>^- t" 

Mmn„.n,.v pour Afarti^.„v et \°ln^yTTx ''"'''" '''^^" ^"'""•-^•'^ ''« 
et les environ.). Tl,e • xkrif N,f thisV'nno ' "•"''"'^'' '"''""^ ''^ ^-i"™ 
;. enKajfins earriaf^es for Mart 'nv ''"'•'■ '' ^'"T "' "'« -^'I'-^'xiix- 
Ifailway- Station at Marticny \t il'wlll ? ";'-'''f '" «" '" "'« 
"■ntmg or in tiie ..resenee "oTwi „„ } ,'" "t'l"''afe expressly in 

fre,,uently „,a,le l.y tl,e voitnrie '■ f ""'"I't^ at imposition are 

that the traveller ifas to e eS att:' 'T,T' "'« '•'"'''"-' '- ""-■a" 
ext...t an a.I,litio„al snn for ° lin , to M.elf f •^^'"•«^"'.v, an.l try to 
l"'.nfc to he notice,! is that t?a eHers "'t .^^'''''^--'-y-Station. Another 
l-any are compelled to chan.-e vel,?i ! ^V'V''*"'''^*-''^'* "' *''i-^ Coi"- 
-.'.".it to a lonj, .letentt^tl;ere ttre t 1' "" ^T''' ■'''"' '"^^^ t" 
. There are nnn.erous shops in C^^ '', "' '' '" '"'"'^"'• 

•suas can l.e obtaine.l, the cS.arof'u'!''' /'''''''• •"" "•^^■«""'^' ■•"l"'- 
an.l on the Pia™ ,Ie lE.^ise an,l H „ ' '"'^ "' "'« ''"e Rationale 

crystals an,l loeal pmhio s a,';'? ll, 1'^;:,^ .T^'^'^'l «;""' ""^ "''-« 
the corner of tlie I'lace ,le y^ ,■ i"'^i'^'': ttne of the principal at 

■^ kept hy M. Venant pSo "-^ :r i:'rrr '", ''"^ '^"'*---e iwi^ 
•"t' i'w/»„.., npon the i Ja n? etc J M.'L'' .i' '"""^•'^^ "' ■•"'-est: 
. A fe«- ,Ioors .lo«„ the north Ti f ^r , ""' "" ^''"''y- 

;; the Bureau des GuidL The' t:;fs of r,''*'* ''^ •'^«"- "-- 
themselves into an Assoc-iation eali;" " I " - '''"''"'.''■^' ''■■'^"« f<""'«'l 
Chanmmx,' which n.akes rnles for it, nf S""'l'«-"'« <'e« <;t.i'les ,le 
tourists. The Bureau is I "rp.,i , '"^'"'"^'■« and regulations for 
"."■eh as it miVht l,e), a aU kfor na'tTonT""r ".""•'■^ ""' "^<"' - 
t-uu les. Porters, Mules, i.rice.' °™ "" "'" '* V'"!'""''' "'"^^ .^'«»t 
h.ch are upon the list. Tl,: ' „t l^ 'r^f '"'f "-' t" •'"•■rsions 
''|i>ean, is always rea.lv to .hvp .„/."■''' "''" I'resuU's in the 
what (;ui,les are' avaflli;!' ^Z^^^TltT', ''""' "f" '* ■'^''''' '" -V 
ts^lf, .m,l not a few live .so f^Tr "way a Ar /•'-"' "'''"'''^ <'han.onix 
takes tune to snnMuon then,, Imt tht\;Tl ^,'^^7'"-''f '""' !<-' Tour. It 
The 'Tanf of Excursions wil U t, „ ' !T J ""'^ "T"-" *''"''« <'hef. 

The repetition of the family inmos i " *""' "' ""'* ™''"'"e- 
Ihere are at the present time m on ,L"p ° '? ''*"-^« "^ Perplexity. 
Tanraz, 8 l{o.s.sonneys, 12 Ch rlets' .4 ^^?'"*'' " ''f "'« >".•"'« of 

an.l as many Cachlts. 16 D .citk .^'('•'"i'h '^ ^'?^^^^^^ 

although •C-h?amon?v h^^ of. fc'eriuine honev of the „ eJ ' . , \°-' " ^'"y superior 

, .Martel savj, ■■ Tw" Hont, ?•'' 'i ."'«'•''•" "■•mi Chamo^,^!" "' '"■" ""^ ■^"^I*. ' have 

Init not for'tiit* ■• ri: s",^- '" "''"'■• rfsf"iMinK verv mS th-.i , f v , 

.excellence irunkno!™ f^J" r'"'"^'' "'at tlie reaC for t „hi. '°'""' '""■ •^'°'°".-. 



CHAP. IX. 



THE BUREAU DES GUIDES. 



95 



The list j^iveii in the Appendix will go some way towards enaVtling 
a traveller to i>iek out the guide he wants, as it gives their ages, 
their villages, and other infcniuation. It has heen corrected hy M. 
the (4nide ("hef. 

The Mairie is in the same huilding as the Jhireau kX^h^ (iuides. 
In the Archives there are a large nuniher of documents of the 15th, 
IGth, and 17th centuries, including records of lawsuits and local 







BUREAU OF THE GUIDE CHEF. 

sf|ual)ldes, amongst which there is evidence of a consideralde amount 
of friction between the Syndics of Chamonix and the Canons of Sal- 
lanches. Many early documents, I am informed, perished by being 
transjiorted for safety to Fort du IJard. 

Chamonix Church is situated at the north-western en<l of the Place. 
According to M. Perrin, there were five Chapels in the (liurch of the 
Priory (Notre-Dame, St. Felix, St. Andre, St. Sel)astien, and St. Jean- 
IJaptiste). The Chapel of Notre-Dame is incorporated in the existing 



94 



CHA.yONlX A XI, MOXT BLAXC. 



ot les envn-,.„.s). The ^riirif ^ f ,i kV'!? '• '"•'"'"'" ''"'"■ ''' «"'•« 
Ka.hvav.s„ui„„ at Marti..,, irt'uln'T "'-'"^r '" -" '" "'^^ 
li.ul,r„;,. station. If tl K i" 1} T ^ '*" «"'»«.V<-"I <" -Marli..„v 

l;any are c««y..;/,,/ to el,ant.e '; ,f oTa tl',oV-r''T" "*' ""^ *-""- 
. Tl'-e are n,„„ero„s shops ,^1 ,! '', '"'" " '" """'-""• 

"•■'1 .... the I'laee ,le 11^, j'e .if "'' ■'"•'' "' "'« J'"^' -Nati.male 

crystals a,„l loeal vr^^d.^^.^tJt^if'' T'^i ^"""' ""»- "'"">■ 
llie coiner oC tl,e I'laee ,le rl? ,•" ''''^'*'^^'': <'..(■■ "f the |),ii,ei„al at 

■^ "^^P^ '^v M. Venan;" ViU"-^ ;:^:'':':;rr« "'/I-' '>'".-.«■ ii.;.ean 

A few .l„o,.s ,|,n,„ ,1,., . !,' . ;' " '"'"'•■ '""' "'>^ Valley. 

;; '''^Bureau dlr'Gu s."' :e-^';:,i.t'''^ ri''™ ''« '•^•'-'"- '"- 

lje,„seh e> i,.to a„ Assoeiatio, oalle,? . L " ■ ' '"""""''^ , ''■■»•■• f"'"""l 

l.an,on,x,- whiel, ,„akes rules 1 its n S""'''"-'>'« 'l*"'^ <-"i'l^'- <le 

t....i-,sts. The liareau is a .'re. / >"e""l'er.s an,l rojr„lations for 

"".(•1. as it ,„i„|,t he) as aH Tnf " '"^'^'i-e (h„t is „ot „se,l a' 

•■"i'les Porter; M,ries"^,:l "f .'l"'"?.;-'" '" f'""-'' "'-« "'>"" 
"l...-h a,;e uj,o,. ,|,e Ms . The '..-f '.','";. ''''f' "^' '" ^■.«'..,-.^io,.s 

l';..«u,, ,s always rea,ly to .ave inf. ^^r ''*''• ?'"' '"'^■^i''^"' "' '!'« 
what (;,.i,les are available. %lny7T 'x""'"^ "'" '«^' ■•''■'-^' '<' «n- 
"-_elf, a.,,1 ,.ot a feu- live ,so fa- "iay as T ''"/•"" "''"''''^ « ■'"•^■"""i-' 
.Ikes t„„e to s„„„„o„ the,,, »t thfi^ Jn ■,^'-';"""'' "'"' '•■' '''""'■• "> 
".e -Tarif' of Exc„,sio„s wi «':,!* ;""« '7''- «i..i.le Chef. 

I l.e re,,etit,on of the fa,„ily ,,,„,." u " """^ "' ""'' ™l"''"^- 
',l'.«e a,e at the juesent ,i ,-e o,, ,t'll"'. 'l ""'-^^ "f PCTle.xity. 
la.,Taz, 8 liossonneys, 12 Thar e s 4 ' ^'"T^"' " "f "'« >'a,>,e of 

been imaf.le to e- n. I'h'^f- '' ?" ^'^'*^^ "' '"'-^"v o the Sk m/'^lr '" /t*"' *>«^^"'^ ' »'" 



(HAP. IX. 



77//=; BUREAU DES GUIDES. 



95 



The list ^iveii in tho A)>j>eiuli\ will j^o some way towjinls enabling 
a traveller to i)iek out tlie ,nni<le lie wants, as it j^ives tlieir a^es, 
their viliaues, ;iii<l other infuniiation. It has been corrected hy M. 
the (Juide Chef. 

The Mairie is in liie same huil<liii,u as the JJnreau des (Juides. 
In the Archives there are a lar^^e numher of documents of the IfJth, 
Kith, and 17th centuries, includin;j; records of lawsuits and local 







$ 




s((uahl>les, anum<;st which there is evidence of a considerable amount 
of friction between the Syndics of (Miamonix and the Canons of Sal- 
lanches. Many early documents, I am informed, perished by l>ein- 
t rails] >orted for safety to Fort du Uaid. 

Chamonix Church is situated at the north-western end of the IMace. 
Acconlin^ to M. Perrin, there were live Chapels iu the Church of the 
I'riory (Notre-I)ame, St. Felix, St. Andre, St. Sebastien, and St. .lean- 
iiaptiste). The Chapel of Notre-Danie is incorporated in the existing 



96 



CHAMOMX AND MONT BLANC. 



CHAP. IX. 



Chunli, aii<l this a|»i»eais to l»e {iliiu»st the sole n'maiiiiii- relic ot tlie 
Priory. Ipon the n<»rtheni siWe of the Chureli, there iiyq the "raves 
of tlie Kev. (J. Me( '<>ri<iinhile, ami of Mr. lieaii, to Avhich lefereiiee 
was ma«le \\\Hm iia<;e THi, Visitors are admitted to the Chureh at all 
reasoiiahle times. 

Monument to Jacques Balmat.^ In front of the Chureh there is 
the nnnmnieFit to Halmat ereeted l.y the Freneh Alpine ('lul», whieh 
• loes honour to the ('hih as well as to the (iuide. See pa-^^e IS. 








"^^^-'yig^.T 



"«BiSB9W*?'t»**™.«e^*«^ -«» *^^tj|f«s 



■^ 



ir r 






^^/.agp^^q 




«^K> 



CHAMONIX CHUKCH. 



The Path to the Brevent starts on the western side of the Chureh 
After a few minutes (aen.ss lields) it divides,— the left hand hraneli 
leads to the Urevent nVf Del Achat, and the other «;oes nVf I'lanpraz. 

Schools. — The lar<;e Iniildin.u to the west of the Church was 
ere<-ted by the Commune. Consi.leral.le sums have heen sj.eut from 
the Communal fun<ls, for a number of years, over the erection of 
new school l)uildin;,^s. Instruction in En--lish is «,dven. 

In the IJue Nationale, on the same side as and close to the 
Hotel des Alpes, there is the Laiterie de Chamonix, hehm-in*^ to a 
Co-i.perative Society founded in 1S91, with a cai)ital of 18,000 "francs 
The ol»ject of this institution is to ena])le householders to have the 



CHAl'. IX. 



THE LAITERIE. 



97 



milk of their cows and goats converted into hutter and cheese l>y 
the most scientific ju'ocesses, and by the newest and most ai>proved 
ai)[)aratus, which wouM be imi)Ossible for any private individual to 
provide for his own use. Every morning and evening .about 100 
persiuis send their milkings to the Laiterie. The amounts are care- 
fully measured an<l recorded in a Register, and also in a pass-book 
which the householder keeps as a check. During the course of the 
year the Imtter and clieese are sold from time to time ; and, after the 
exjjenses of the Laiterie are pai<l, the profits are divide<l amongst 
those who have taken part in this system of Co-oi>eration. The 
I)irect(U* holds a Dijdoma from one of the (lovernment Agricultural 
Schools. In 1804, 180,000 litres of milk were received, which are 
said to have yielded 10,400 kilos, of cheese and 1900 kilos, of Initter. 

The Sham Picturesque. — Between the 2nd and 3rd kil. stone from 
Chamonix on the road to Sallanches there are some .shain rants 
and slmin rorhs, worthy of the l)est days of liosherville (hardens. 
Strangers arriving at Chamonix are fre(iuently gulled by them, and 
suppose they are the ruins of ' the Priory.' A closer ai)])roach shews 
that they are nia«le of lath and plaster. Though this piece of folly 
(which is said to have been peri»etrated by an Englishman) has little 
that is attractive for sane persons, a visit to the ]»lace is not altogether 
loss of time, merely to see its artificial po(d, with real irafrr, but of 
such ex<iuisite purity that one suspects it to be an ingenious fraud. 

On the left bank of the Arve, on crossing the bridge, one sees in 
the centre of the o[»en space in front of the Hotel Koyal a monument 
to De Saussure. The Professor is represented in a costume resembling 
that of a Ceneral of the Revolution of 1789, and Jac<{ues IJalmat is 
insjuring him to ascend Mont Blanc by jtointing away from the 
mountain. M. Cheiial bequeathed 4000 francs for the erection of a 
monument to De Saussure in the Commune of Chamonix. The 
Commune added 400(» francs to the legacy, but feeling that larger 
sums w ere necessary to erect ' un monument dii^iie de ce savant 
(ienevois,' a})pealed to outsi«lers to assist. The Erench Academy of 
Sciences granted oOO francs, and the Conseil-Ceneral of the Dei)art- 
nient gave as much more. This was su}»idemented liy contributions 
from the Erench Aljjine Club and by jjrivate persons, and upon Aug. 
28, 1887, the monument was unveiled, with much ceremony. 

The Path to the Montanvert commences at the lane on the left 
hand (northern side) of the Hotel Koyal. A few yards past tlie 
hotel the road divides — one l)ranch goes straight on, and the other 
turns off to the left. This latter in about three minutes turns 
sharjdy to the right, and rejoins the other path. The two ways are 
used al)out equally. A few yards <lown the former, one comes to the 
atelier of M. Tairraz, the photographer of Chamonix, who keejjs an 
interesting assortment of views and scenes taken by himself ; and just 
beyond his establishment there is the Gallery of Alpine Paintings 
by M. Gab. Lopp(^. Admission free. 

The English Church is a little farther on, upon sloi)ing ground 
Chamonix. 

H 



overlooking 



The interior of this building is distinguished 



!M) 



CHAMfLMX AXn Mn\r IlLANC. 



(MINI'. I\. 



riiurcli, ;,ii.l this a|»|K'ais to ho aliin.>l tlic sole rcinainiim M'u- oMlie 
IViorv. rjM.ii I he iKntlK'iii si.lc of the Cinnvli, tlion' aiv I lie --raves 
of the IJcv. (;. .McC<.iI<iii,lale, ami of Ah. Mean, to wliirli reference 
Nvus nia<le u|>oii pa-e TUi. Visitors are a<liiiitte<l to the ( iiureli at all 
reas<nial»le times. 

Monument to Jacques Balmat. In fn.nt of tlie CJiureii tiiere is 
the iMoimiiieiit to llaliiiat ereete.l l.y tiie Treiirh .\l|.iii.' Clul.. wliich 
<loes h«»iiour to the Cluh as well as' to the (niide. See \kv^v Is. 




X .-. 



CMA.MONIX CMLKCH. 



The Path to the Brevent st^irts on the western side of ili,> Chnnh 
After a few minutes (aen.ss lields) it divides,- the left hand l.rancli 
leads to the Ihevent rh', l\v\ Aeliat, and the other -oes ria IManpiaz. 

Schools.- The lar-e Imildin- to the west of the Clinreh was 
erected hy the ("ommune. ( 'onsidcrahle sums have heen spent from 
the Communal funds, for a numher of years, over the erection of 
new school l.uildinjjfs. Instruction in Kn.i;iish is «;iven. 

In the Kue \ationale, on the same side as and close to the 
II(.tel des Alj.es, there is the Laiterie de Chamonix, heh.n.-in<. to ji 
To-operative Society founde.l in 1S{)I, with a capit;il of I.S,(>7h» IVancs 
The ohject of this institution is to enaMe iioiiseholders t(. have the 



i 



CHAP. IX. 



77/ A' LA IT i: in K. 



9: 



milk of their cows and goats converted into hiitter and cheese l>y 
tlie most scientilic processes, and hy the newest and most approved 
ap}Kiratus, which would l>e imj»ossihle for any i»rivate individual to 
provide for his own use. Every morning and evening ahout lOU 
persons send their milkings to tlie Laiterie. The amcmnts are care- 
fully measured and recorded in a IJegister, and also in a i>ass-hook 
which the househ(dder keej>s as a chetk. During the course of the 
year the hutter and cheese are sold from time to time; and, after the 
expenses of the Laiterie are paid, the profits are <livi<leil amongst 
those who have taken ptart in this system of Co-oj>eration. The 
Director hoMs a Diploma fnnn one of the (lovernment Agricultural 
Schools. In LS!)4, I. SO. 000 litres of milk were received, whicli are 
said to ha\ e yielded 10,400 kilos, of cheese and 1000 kilos, of hutter. 

The Sham Picturesque. — lietween the '2nd and 3rd kil. stone from 
('hamonix on the road t<» Sallanches there are some sJnmt ruins 
and slnnn rorls, worthy of the hest days of Itosherville (Jardens. 
Strangers airixiiig at Chamonix are fre<[uently gulled hy them, and 
su[>pose they are the ruins of 'the I'riory.' A closer a[>itroach shews 
that they are made of lath and i>laster. Th<mgh this j»iece of f<dly 
(which is said to have heen [»erpetrate<l hy an Englishman) has little 
that is attractive for sane persons, a visit to the place is not altogether 
loss of time, merely to see its artificial po<d, with ir«tl imfrr, hut of 
such ex([uisite purity that one suspects it to he an ingenious fraud. 

On the left bank of the Arve, on crossing the hridge, one sees in 
the c(>ntr<' of the ojieii sj»ace in front of the Hotel lioyal a monument 
to De Saussure. The Professor is represented in a costume resemhling 
that of a ( U'lieral of the Kevolution of 178M, and dac([ues IJalmat is 
inspiring him to ascend Mont iJlanc hy j»ointing away from the 
mountain. M. Clienal hetpieathed 400U francs for the erection of a 
monument to De Saussure in the Commune of Chamonix. The 
Commune added 4000 francs to the legacy, hut feeling that larger 
sums were necessary to erect ' un monument di^ne ile ce savant 
Cenevois,' ai>}>ealed to outsiders to assist. The French Academy of 
Sciences granted r)00 francs, and the Conseil-Ceneral of the Dejiart- 
ment gave as much more. This was sup}>lemente<l hy contrihutions 
from the French Aljdne Cluh and hy private jiersons, and upon Aug. 
:2s, 1SS7, the monument was unveiled, with much ceremony. 

The Path to the Montanvert commences at the lane on the left 
hand (northern side) of the Hotel Koyal. A few yards past the 
hotel the road divides — one hranch goes straight on, and the other 
turns off to the left. This latter in ahout three minutes turns 
sharply to the right, and rejoins the other path. The two ways are 
useil ahout ei|ually. .\ few yards down the former, one comes to the 
(ttch'rr of M. Tairraz, f/tr [»hotograi»her of Chamonix, who keeps an 
interesting assortment (►f views and scenes taken hy himself : aiul just 
heyond his estahlishment there is the Gallery of Alpine Paintings 
by M. Gab. Loppf?. Admission free. 

The English Church is a little farther on, upon sloping ground 
overlooking Chamonix. The interior of this huilding is distinguished 

H 



98 



CHAMONIX AND MONT BLANC. 



CHAP. IX. 



l»y iiake<l simplicity. It wants colour, ami the walls more l»rokeii 
up. It contains three tablets; one in memory of Albert Smith, 
another to his brother Arthur, and the third to Capt. Arkwright, 
which bear the following inscriptions. 

"To the Memory of Albert Smith, who died on the 23rd of Mav. 1860; in 
the 44th year of his ag:e. This tiiblet is erected here in the English Church 
at C'hamounix by his affectionate brother Arthur Smith." 

'• In Memory of Henry Arkwright. born Dec It). 1837. fourth son of John 
Arkwright of Hampton Court in Herefordshire, Cai>t. in H.M. 34th Regt. of 
Foot and Aide de Camp to the Lonl Lieutenant of Ireland. He was lost in 
an avalanche while ascending Mont Blanc, October 13, 18t)t). — He shall give 
his Angels charge over thee they shall bear thee up in their hands." 

At the back of the Church, close to the Montanvert i»ath, is the 
gi-ave of Mr. Nettleship, with this inscrij.tion :— 

Richard Lewis Nettleshij) Fellow and Tutor of Balliol College Oxford 
Born December 17, 1847, Died on Mont Blanc, August 25, 1892.- He maketh 
the storm a calm. 

Admittance to the Church can be obtained on ai.plication at the 
Hotel d'Angleterre, where the keys are kei)t. 

A little farther on, up the valley, there is a Sulphurous Spring.— 
Take the path to the Montanvert that is nearest to the IJiver Arve, 
and, after walking al)out live minutes, the smell will guide you to the 
Spring^ It bubVdes out in a meadow a few yards off the road, on 
the right hand, or eastern side. No use is made of the water. 
Formerly it issued a few hundred yards higher up, and the Commune 
erected a small building over it. The water runs into a neighbouring 
brook, and its odour can be smelt a long distance away. ^Although 
the stones round the source are encrusted with sulj»hur, the taste ^oi 
the water is not strong enough to be unpleasant. The temperature 
at the source is 50^ F. This spring was visited by Peter Martel, who 
remarked of it (in the French version of his narrative) — 

"A word niust be said about a spring one comes acros.s in going up the 
mountain, which yields a very good mineral water, containing iron and sulphur. 
It IS a jaty that it is not more abundant, for it is delicious and very cool- 
it IS the first that one finds on the way to the Montiinverd." 

The Path to the Pierre Pointue, and for the ascent of Mont Blanc 
leads from the De Saussure monument i)ast the Hotel de la Toste, 
and in alnmt three minutes turns sharply to the right. Hoth on this 
route, on the Planj)raz way to the IJrevent, or upon the path to the 
Montanvert one can get in ten minutes into the shade of forests ; 
but the niost charming of all forest retreats within a few minutes of 
Chanionix is arrived at by taking the path to the Montanvert which 
IS nearest to the Arve, and by continuing along it towards the end of 
the Mer de Glace (over nearly level ground), instead of turning up- 
wards towards the Montanvert. For those who love (luiet, wlm are 
unable to jiut forth exertion, and who are not insensible to the 
beauties of nature, this is the place. 




lii.ifiiipi!ftiiiH,. m 



b-r- 









' 'fefi^^^^^y^i " 'hr — ■' i - ^- ^t^^^^^?^^i ^ ■ 






, >^_^, ,_.- 






HOTEL UU MONTANVERT. 



CHAPTER X. 

EXCURSIONS FROM CHAIMONIX. 

THK MONTANVERT AM) THK MKK 1)K GLACE — THE CHAPEAl' — ASCENT 
OF THE IJREVENT — THE FLfiufeRE — AIGUILLE DE LA FLORIAZ — 
ASCENT OF THE BUET — THE COL DE IJALME AND THE T^TE NOIRE 
— FISHINti FOR 6CREVISSES — SEKVOZ — THE GORGE OF THE DIOZA — 
COL DE VOZA — PAVILLON BELLIIVUE — ST. GERVAIS — GLACIER DES 
BOSSONS — (JROTTO DES BOSSONS — BALMAT'S HOUSE — CASCADE 
DU DARD — PIERRE POINTUE — PLAN DES AIGUILLES — PIERRE X 
L'ECHELLE — GRANDS MULETS — MONTAGNE DE LA COTE. 

Since the establishment of the new Montanvert Hotel, and the aubrrf/c 
at Lognan (in ]>lace of the old chillet), it has become customary for 
those two [daces to be used as starting-points for many excursions 
which were formerly made from Chamonix. There still remain, how- 
ever, a number of excursions for which the Village is the centre, and 
liist of all must be |»hued the 'course' to the Montanvert and Mer 
de Glace (Cx. T. 5, 6, 27, 29).i 

TIic path commences at the side of the Hotel Koyal (see p. 1)7), 
passes the group of houses called les Mouilles, and, about (me quarter 
way up in time, arrives at a refreshment shed named Planard (les 

1 The alibreviatioiis in antique type in the foUowinj,^ I'liapters (Cx. T. 5, 6, 27, and so 
on) are references to the Chamonix 'Tarif <les Courses,' which is <,dven in tlie Appendix. 
The numerals corresi)ond witli the Numl>ers whicyi are attixed in the List to the \arious 
Excursions. 

Tlie tuiu's (juoted in this and in the following chapters are actual goinjj times, ex- 
clusive of halts. 



98 



CHAMONIX AND MONT BLANC. 



CHAP. IX. 



i»y iicike<l f^implic'ity. It wants colour, and the walls more hroken 
u|». It eontains three tablets; one in memory of Albert Smith, 
another to his brother Arthur, and the third to Capt. Arkwright, 
which hear the following;- inscri]»tions. 

"To the Memory of Albert Smith, who died on the 2:ird of May. 1860; in 
the 44th year of his age. This tablet is erected here in the English Church 
at diamounix by his affectionate brother Arthur Smith." 

'• In Memory of Henry Arkwright. l»orn Dec lt>. 1837. iourth son of John 
Arkwnght of Hampton Court in Herefordshire, Vii\A. in H.M. :'>4th Regt. of 
Foot and Aide de Camp to the Lord Lieutenant ot Irehmd. He was lost in 
an avalanche while ascending Mont Blanc, October l:j, 18t)t). — He shall give 
his Angels charge over thee they shall l)ear thee up in their hands." 

At the back of the Church, close to the Montanvert path, is the 
grave of Mr. Nettleship, with this inscri]»tion :— 

Richard Lewis Nettleship Fellow and Tutor of Balliol College, Oxford 
Born December 17, 1847, Died on Mont Blanc, August 25, 1892. —He maketh 
the storm a calm. 

Admittance to the Church can Ijc obtained on application at tiie 
Hotel d'Angleterre, where the keys are kept. 

A little farther on, up the valley, there is a Sulphurous Spring.— 
Take the i)ath to the ^Montanvert that is nearest to the Itiver Arve, 
and, after walking about live minutes, the 8niell will guide you to the 
Spring. It bubbles out in a niea<low a few yards off' the road, on 
the right hand, or eastern side. No use is ma<le of the water. 
Formerly it issued a few hundred yards higher u]>, and the Commune 
erected a small building over it. The water runs into a nciuhbouiing 
brook, and its odour can be smelt a long distance away. Although 
tlie stones round the source are encrustetl with suljdiur, the taste 'f^f 
the water is not strong enough to l>e unpleasant. The temperature 
at the source is 50' F. This spring was visited by Peter Martel, who 
remarked of it (in the French version of his narrative) 

"A word must be said about a spring one comes acros-s in going up the 
mountam, which yields a very good mineral water, containing iron and sulphur. 
It IS a pity that it is not more abundant, for it is delicious and very cool- 
it IS the first that one finds on the way to the Montanverd." 

Tlie Path to the Pierre Pointue, and for the ascent of Mont Blanc 
leads from the De Saussure monument i»ast the Hotel do la Toste, 
and in about three minutes turns sharjjly to the right. Both on this 
route, on the riani)raz way to the Brevent, or upon the path to the 
Montanvert one can get in ten minutes into the shade of forests ; 
Imt the most charming of all forest retreats within a few minutes of 
Chanionix is arrived at by taking the path to the Montanvert which 
IS nearest to the Arve, and by continuing along it towards the end of 
the Mer de Glace (over nearly level ground), instead of turning ui»- 
wards towards the Montanvert. For those ^^ho Io\e cpiiet, wlm are 
unable to put forth exertion, and who are not insensible to the 
beauties of nature, this is the place. 



\ 




.-m^ 






X- 



r 






''»m^ »- r_?l£l!!X^^7 



|^^2Sw.-iiU***— "^ ■"' 




HOTEL DU MONTANVERT. 

CHAPTER X. 

EXCURSIONS FROM CHAMONIX. 
I'liK .MoNTAXVKrrr and rnK mi:i{ de glace — the chai'Eac — ascent 

OF THE HKEVENT — THE FLl^XjfeKE — AIGUILLE DE LA FLORIAZ— 
ASCENT OF THE BUET — THE COL DE I5ALME AND THE Tp/IE NOIRE 
— FISHING FOR fiCREVISSES — SERVOZ — THE (JORGE OF THE DIOZA — 
COL DE VOZA — PAVILLON BELLEVUE— ST. GEKVAIS — GLACIER DES 
BOSSONS — GROTTO DES BOSSONS — BALMAT'S HOUSE — CASCADE 

-PLAN DES AIGUILLES — PIERRE X 
MONTAGNE DE LA COTE. 



DU DARD- 

l'echelle- 



PIERRE POINTUE 
GRANDS MULETS- 



Since the establishment of the new Montanvert Hotel, an«l the auhei'ffc 
at Lognan (in place of the old chalet), it has become cust(uiiary for 
those two places to be used as starting-points for many excursions 
which were formerly made from Chanionix. There still renuiin, how- 
ever, a number of excursions for which the Village is the centre, and 
first of all must be placed the ' v(mr,se' to the Montanvert and Mer 
de Glace (Cx. T. 5, 6, 27, 29). ^ 

The path commences at the side of the Hotel Koyal (see \). M7), 
passes the grouj) of houses called les Mouilles, and, about one <|uarter 
way up in time, arrives at a refreshment shed named IManard (les 

1 The abbreviations in antique type in the followinjj^ chapters (Cx. T. 5, 6, 27, and so 
on) are references to the Chanionix 'Tarit des Courses,' which is jjri\en in the Appendix. 
The numerals correspond with the Numbers which are affixed in the List to the \arious 
Excursions. 

The tiiiH'H (pxoted in this and in the following chapters are actual going times, ex- 
clusive of halts. 



100 



CHAMOMX AM) M(LXT liLAXC 



CHAP. X. 



IManaz). After tliis, nearly all the way is tlirou-li forest, l»y a fair 
path. At the Source «le C'aillet (-1871> feet), whieh is rather more than 
half way up in time ami exactly half way in hei-ht, there is another 
rcfreslnnent she<l, which is the last j»lace where <lrinks can he luul, 
either artilicial or natural, until the Montanvert. Near ain>roach to 
it is indicated hy the trees hecominj;' thinner, and when this haitpens 
you have hefore you the lower end of the Mer de (llace, or (Jlacier 
lies Hois, as it is termed,' and the Aiguille du Dm, which is, of its 
kind, the most strikini; ohject in the Kan;;e of Mont IJIanc. The ]>ath 
then hears to the rij^lit, and yim presently arrive at the Montanvert 
Hotel (0803 feet), which occupies a prominent and commanding; position 
on the left hank of the (Jlacier. Time ascendin<i, "2 lis. <,a)in<^- steadily. 
In descending, ^ h. is ([uick time. 

The Hotel du Montanvert is jdain in ajjpearance, hut is more com- 
fortahle than one would exi>ect fn>m its exterior. IVnsion from \) to 
10 francs a day; rooms, 3 to 4 francs; Dejeuner, cafe complct. l..")0, 
Lunch 3 fr., Dinner 5 fr. The lirst shelter that was erected at this 
place was a shepherds hut, which the Chamoniards called 'the 
Chateau.* This primitive ahode was succeeded hy a l*nrilluii which 
was put ui» in 1779 at the expense of an Englishman named IJlair. 
liviuiT at tJeneva. Prof. d. D. Forhes says the J'(Uu'//o)i or Ho.sj,iftff 
was sui>erseded in 171)^) hy the hnilding dedicated ' <> /ff Xttfftrc,"- that 
is still in existence (used now as a store-house). This, in its turn, 
was ahandone<l when the first (or <dd) Montanvert inn was opened in 
18-40; and that very humhle huilding served its juirpose until 1S70, 
when the present Montanvert Hotel was completed. There has thus 
been the following succession of edifices — The 'Chateau,' ' IJlairs 
Hospital," • A la Nature,' 'the Did Montanvert," and the present H«»tel. 
Illustrations are given of the two latter. 

There is a diversity of ojunion regarding the i>roi>er manner of 
spelling the name Montanvert. Some writers use Montantverd, others 
Montainver, or Mont-Anvert, Mont Anver, Montanvers, Montenvers, 
and Mont-en-Vert. Bourrit said (in 178.')) "it is called the Montanvert 
l>ecause pasturage is found there, the verdure of which contrasts heau 
tifully with the horrors of the icy valley."" Mons. C. Durier (in 1877) 
adopts quite a ditlerent view.'^ 

1 I have not heard it stated wiiere the Mer de Ula«-e ends ami the (Mae. des JJois 
he<,dnsi. It will be con\enient to consider that all below the Montanvert should be 
termed the Glacier des Bois. 

-• '* In one of Link's excellent coloured views (published at Geneva) entitled ' \ue de 
la Mer de Glace et de THopital de Blair, du Sonnnet du Montan\ert dans le niois 
d"Aoust 1781,' a regularly built cabin, with a wooden roof, is represented, witli this in- 
scrii>tion over the door : — 

"BLAIR'S HOSPITAL. 

UTILE DULCE. ' 

•'At a later i>eriiKl, a small solid stone house of a sin^de apartment, was built at the 
expense of M. DesjMjrtes, the French Resilient at Geneva, havin.LT a black niarble slab 
above the door, with the inscription A la yatuir. On my first visit to Chamouni this 
was the only buildin;,% but soon after a nuich more substantial and effectual shelter was 
erected at the expense of the Coiitinune of Chamouni, and is let to the i»resent tenant, 
David Couttet (toj,'ether with the irrazin;,^ round), for the considerable sum of 1400 
francs." Traieh ihrowjh the Alps of Suroif, by James 1). Forbes, F.R.S., Edinburj,d), 1843. 

•i See Ills Mont Blanc, chapter ix. 



CHAP. X. 



THE MONTANVERT. 



101 



The ai>pearance of the Mer de Glace from the Montanvert must 
he known to everyone from }>hotogra[)hs ami drawings. The ]K>sition 
occu]»ied hy the Hotel is one of the very hest that couhl he selecte<l 
for viewing this famous (ilacier, and the coup (ra'il out of the upper 
windows np(m a fine moonlight night is a thing to he seen. With 
the greater part of the (llacier in gloom, and only the crests of the 
icy M'aves sparkling ami glittering, it is easy to imagine that the 
>ier de (ilace is a frozen sea. The Hotel is the property of the Com- 
mune, and the Lease is jmt up to ]mhlio competition. The Lessee 
is hound to maintain 'the crossing' at the Mer de (Jlace, and the 
paths along the moraines, in the hest possihle cimdition, and to em- 
jdoy a cdnfimnirr expressly for that jmrpose. He has right of i)as- 
turage gratis for a certain numher of animals, and iipmi tut nrconnt 
is fo I'ln-uish /(is furuifKrc' The water supidied at this Hotel is very 
hright and good. It is conveyed through leaden pii)es from a spring 
a little ahove ' les Ponts.' The 'old' Slontanvert ^ is close alongside 
the ]>resent Hotel, and has the temple <ledicateil to ' h( Nature'' 
hehiiul it. 

Tiie view from the wiiulows of the Hotel emhraces the jxntion of 
the (glacier which has heen rendered classical hy the lahours of Forhes 
and Tyndall. In 1842, Principal d. D. Forhes commenced his investi- 
gation of the motion of glaciers, and initiated the method of measur- 
ing th(^ surface -movements of the ice hy means of a theodolite. He 
determined the velocity at vari<ms places, in the centre, and at the 
sides ; and iliscovered that move- 
ment continued day and night ; 
that the higher part of the 
gl.acier (its feeder the Clac. de 
Lech.aud) moved .slrnnr than the 
lower )>art near the Montan- 
vert; an<l that the central part 
of the glacier moved /^^s7/y' than 
the edges in a very consideralde 
proportion. b'orhes' investiga- 
tions were continued hy Dr. 
dohn Tyndall in 18.")7 ; and ex- 
tended in 18.")i), on Dec. 28-'2<), 
by measurements of the irinter 
movements of the glacier, o])- 
posite to the Montanvert. In 
summing up the results obtained 
hy themselves and others, Tyn- 
dall said, "the proof of the 
quicker central How belongs in 

]>art to Rendu, but almost wholly to Agassiz and Forbes; the jiroof 
of the retardation of the bed belongs to F'orbes alone ; while the 
discovery of the locus of the point of maximum motion belongs, 
I supi)ose, to me." Forbes' Tritccis thruiiyli tin: Aljf.s of Sficoif, and 

1 Tills slKU)l)y little structiu'e has ro<>eivoil many eminent persons and personages, in- 
cludinu- the Emperor Napoleon III and the Empress Eugetiie. 




^/^-" 



I'KMNCII'Al, JA.MKS !>. FOKHES. 



1(»0 



(}/JM(f.\f\ .L\7> M(f\r IIL.WC 



CHAP. X. 



IMaiia/.). Atter tliis, nearly all llic way is tliiouuli toicst. Ity a lair 
l>atli. At the Source <k' Caillol (4S7!> feet), wliicli is latlior iimhc than 
half Avay u|> in liino and rxaclly bait way in hoi.^lit, llinv is anotluT 
letivslniiont shed, wliirli is llie last jtlaco wlieiv <lriTiUs can l>c had, 
either aititicial or natural, until the Monlanvert. Neai- a|»|»roacli to 
it i> indicated I»y the treo l»econiini4 thinner, and when this happens 
V(»u have hetore you the lower en<l of the Mer de (Jiace, or (Jlaciei- 
lies l>t»is. as it is termed.' antl the Ai-uiHe du Dru. which is. of it- 
kind, the most striking ohject in the llan.uc of Mont Pdanc. 'I'he path 
then Itears to the ri.ulit, and you presi-utly arrive at the Montanvert 
Hotel lO.SOo feet), which occuides a i>roininent and commanding po--ition 
on the left hank of the (llacier. Time ascen<lin^, 1 lis. -oin.u steadily. 
In deseendinii, \' h. is ipiick time. 

The Hotel du Montanvert is j.lain in ai>i»earance. lait is uiore <-oui- 
fortahle than one would e.\i»ect from its exterior. Pension from !t to 
lU francs a day; rcjoms, ,S to 4 francs; Dejennei-. <-afe <'omplet. !..")(». 
I.unch :> fr. , Dinner .l fr. The tirst shelter that was erected at this 
]>lace was a shepherd's hut, which the ( "hamouiards calle<| -the 
Chateau." This ]>iiiuitive ahode was suc<-eeded hy a I'nrHliui \\\\'\k\\ 
was ]»ut up in 177'.> at the expense of an Kn-lishman named IMair. 
livinu at (Jeneva. Trot. d. 1). I\>r1»es says the I'urillim oi- lln.s^iitnl 
was >u[>erseded in 17'.i"> hy the hiiildin.u dedicated •" /" A'"////v,"- tluit 
is still in existence (used now as a stoie-house). This, in its turn, 
was ahandoned when the lirst (or old) Montanvert inn was o|.ened in 
1S40; and that n ery Innnhle huildin.u served its purpose until IS7'>. 
when the present Montan\erl Motel was complete<l. Theii' has thus 
heen the following succession of edifices — The • Chateau." • Ulairs 
Hospital." -A la Nature." •the(Md Montanvert," and the present IJotd. 
Illustrations are liiven of the two latter. 

There is a diversity of «)pinion rei:ardin,u the juopei- manner of 
spellin.u the name Montanvert. Some writers use M(Hitantverd. «>tlieis 
Montainvci-. or Mout-Anvert. Moiit Anvcr. Montaiivcis. Mouteiix frs. 
and Mont-enA'ert. llourrit said (in I7N'>) "'it is called the Moutamert 
because pastura;.ie is found there, the verdiire of which c«uitiasts heau 
tifully with the horrors of the icy valley." Mous. C. Durier (in IS77) 
adopts quite a ditVerent view.-' 

1 I liavf not htartl it statt-d wlR-re tlu- -Mti- <lc (ilart- cints and the (Uac (k> Hois 
l>t\iriiis. Il will he coint'iiiL-iit to «oii.si<k'r thai all below the Moiilainert should he 
termed the Glacier lies I'.ois. 

- "Ill one of Link's excellent colovned views (imhlished at (kiiexa) entitled ' \ ue de 
la Mer de <;laie et de l]Ioi>ital de lUair, du Soniniet du Monlan\ert dans le niois 
dAoust 17^1,■ a re-ularly huilt cabin, witli i woiKlen roof, is represented, with t!ii> in- 

Mriiition over the door :- 

♦BLAIKS IlOSl'ITAL. 

ITILK LULCK.- 

"At a later j'eriod. a -inall solid stone house of a sin^ile a|iartnienl, \\a> huill at tlie 
expense of M. l>e>i>orte-. tlie French lJe>ident at (.Jeneva, haxinu a Ithnk niarhle >lal> 
above the door, with the inscription A la yatim: On my first visit to I'hamonni tliis 
was the onlv buildinu-. but soon after a nnich more substantial and effectual shelter was 
erected at the e\i>ensc of the Cininniim' of C'liamouni, and is let to the ]»resent tenant, 
David Couttet (together witli the .^raziiiL; round), for the considerable sum of 14im» 
francs." Tranl.-^ t/,ri>ii,i/, tin- Alt'" of Saroif, by .James D. Forbes, F.I5.S.. KdinburL:li. Is4:!. 

'•> .Set his Mont lihiitc, chaitter i\. 



CHAF. X. 



TffE .VffXTAXVEnr, 



101 



The api)earance of the Mer de Glace from the Montanvert must 
he known to everyone from plioto,uraphs and drawiniis. The position 
occupied hy the Hotel is one of tlie very hest that could he selected 
for viewin.o this fanuMis (llacier, and the roiijf (Tail out of the iijjper 
windows upon a line nioonli;4ht nioht is a thinir to he seen. With 
the ii-reater part of the (ilacier in -loom, and only the crests of the 

• •11 

i«y waves spaiklino- and "litterinu. il is easy to imaj;ine that the 
M<'r de (ilace is a frozen sea. The Hotel is the jnoperty of the Com- 
mune, and the I.ease is pitt up to public competition. The Lessee 
is JMumd to maintain 'the crossin- " at the Mer de (llace, and the 
paths alono- tin' moraines, in the best possible condition, atid to em- 
ploy a nnttniiuhr expressly for that purjtose. He has rii;ht of pas- 
turaoc .uratis for a certain number of animals, and ninm in (imniDf 
is />, ruriiish /lis fffrtilfitrr .' The water su])plied at this H(del is very 
b)i-ht and o'ooii. It is conveyed throitoh leaden )»i|»es from a sprino- 
a little above ' les Touts." The -old" Montanvert' is (dose alongside 
the )>resent Hotel, and has the temple deili<-ated to ' /o Xfifnrr' 

behind it. 

'I'he \ iew from the wiinhtws of tlie Hotel embraces the portion of 
the (ilacier which has been rendered classical by the lab:»urs of Forbes 
autl Tyndall. In 1S4'2, Principal .1. 1>. Forbes commenced his investi- 
uatioii of the motion of o-laciers, and initiated the method of measur- 
in,u' the surface -movements of the ice by means of a theodolite. He 
determined the vidocity at various jdaces, in the centre, and at tin' 
sides : and discovered that move- 
ment continued day and niuht : 
that the lii,ulier part of the 
olacier (its feeder the Clac. de 
licchatid) moved slmrn- than the 
lower part near tin' Moiitan- 
Ncrt: and that the central i>ait 
of the ohicier \\u\\a\ fusli r than 
the ed^es in a \-ery <'onsiderablc 
proportion. I'orbes' iji\<>sti,na- 
tions were continu«'d by Dr. 
.bdin I'yndall in I S,")7 ; and ex- 
tended ill 1S,")!>. oil Dec. "iS-'iO, 
i»y measurements of the irintrr 
moNcments of the iilacier. op- 
]»osite t(> the Montanveit. in 
summino ujt the results oiitaine(l 
by themscl\i>s and others. Tyn- 
dall sai<l, '"the i>i-iiitf of the 
«|ui(d<er central flow belongs in 

part to Kendu. but almost wholly to Agassi/ and j-'orbcs ; the proof 
of the retardation of the bed belon.us t<» Forbes alone; while the 
discoxcry of the locus of the point of maximum motion belongs, 
I suppose, to me." j-'orbcs" '/'/v/^v/v fli I'o'iifli flu Alfis of Siirni/, and 

1 Tliis shabb.v little structure has receiveil man\ eminent jiersons and ]>ersonaj;e'i, in- 
clinliiiu the Kiiii>cror Najioleon 111 and the Empress Kuv;vnie. 




IWINCII'AI. JAMKS n. l-i)M'.KS. 



102 



CHAMOXTX ANT) MONT BLANC. 



CHAP. X. 




^^^■^-Vv^^ 



I'ROKESSOK JOHN" TYNDAM. 



Tyiidairs Glacirrfi of the Alps w'lW l>e foiiiul interestin<( to roa«l «linin^^ 
a stay at tlie H(»tel. 

For excursions to the upper en<l of the Mer de (Jlaee, or in tlie 

basins of its tributaries the 
(41aes. (le Talefre, <le Lesiliaux, 
and <lu (xeant, take the j)ath 
which iQads past the ' old ' 
Montanvert. This i>ath rises 
at first, and in a few ininutes 
one comes to ' les Fonts,' wliich 
are a series of stej^s cut on the 
face of steejdy inclinc<l rocks, 
a considerable height above the 
^dacier. Iron handrails are pro- 
vided. The path then «lescends 
to the lateral moraine of the 
left bank, which is followed for 
a shoit time. Many of the 
iKJulders here are insecurely 
poised, and caution should be 
exercised. The tnick from this 
point to the Kjtpcr end of the 
<^lacier is laid down on the 
ma}). One can return Uy the Montanvert down the centre of the 
♦glacier, and obtain jjfood i>ractice in cutting; amonj;st its contorted and 
Jissured ice ; but, more usually, tourists return by ' les Ponts.' 

The Aiguille du Dm, 12,5 IG feet, on the opposite side of the Mer 
de (ilace, is incomi)arably the most strikin<; object that is seen from 
the M(mtanvert, anil the views of it which can l>e obtaine<l from this 
direction are the linest one can lind. The Ai;;uille is imi>osin;^' in 
two senses. It fijtjtrnrft to he the cuhninntintj point of the opposite 
bloek of mountoins, when, actually, it is only a i»innacle upon one <>f 
the ridi^es of the Ai^'. Verte (see the illustrations uimhi pages 100, 121). 
The real summit of the Dru cannot be seen from the Hotel. When 
lookinj; u}> the Mer de (Jlace, the highest |>oints which are seen at 
the end of the vista are the Grandes Jorasses, 13,800 feet, the loftiest 
mcmntain in the ranjjje after Mont Blanc itself (on the left) ; Mont 
Mallet, 13,084 feet (about the centre), with the Pic du Tacul, 11,280 
feet, in front of it; and the Aig. du Geant, 13, !.")() feet (on the rij^dit). 
The liiLchest })oint of the (irandes Jorasses cannot be seen from this 
side. It is behind the left hand of the two i»eaks which are visible. 
The 1,'reat wall of the (Jrandes Jorasses is more than 5 miles from 
the Montanvert, and requires closer approach to be appreciated ; and 
the sanie may be said of the Ai<^. du Geant, which, near at hanil, 
looks a most impudent pinnacle. The Aig. des Charmoz, 11,293 feet, 
is the })rincii>al feature on the left bank of the Mer de (ilace. 

The path to ' the crossing * starts from the back of the Hotel ; and 
a few yards off it, on the land side, just l>efore it arrives at the ice, 
there is the lar<;e block of rock called 'the Englishmen's Stone,' 
inscribed " Pocock et Windham 1741." See illustration ujion page 1. 



,'^^'>.'. 








^ '■• ^'i Mm - 



J!- 













tV^N -^-y 



THE AIGUILLE DU DRU. 



1 02 



rifAMOXTX AXD MdXT HLAXC. 



v\\\\\ \, 




I'KOKEssoK JOHN I ^■Nl>.\r,I.. 



Ill:l]l 



Tyiulairs GIttr'nr.s of fhti J//>.s will l>o found iiiterostiiij; to rojul durin.n 
:i stay at tlio H(>t«'l. 

For excursions to the upjtor on<l of the Mor do (llaco, or in tlie 

l>asins of its triltutaries the 
(llaes. de Talefre, de lA'sciiaux, 
and dii (ieant, take the j»atii 
wliicli lea<ls past the ' (dd ' 
Montanvert. Tliis path rises 
at first, an«l in a few minutes 
one eonies to ' les Fonts,' whicli 
are a series of steps rut <»n tlie 
face of steejdy in«'line<l roeks, 
a eonsiderahh' hei^lit ahove the 
i;laeier. Iron liandrails are pro- 
vided. The i>ath then (h^scends 
to tlie hiteral moraine of the 
left hank, which is f(dh»we«l for 
a sliort time. Many <»f the 
houlders liere are insecurely 
poised, and caution should l»e 
exercised. The track from this 
point to the n/>prr end of the 
,t;lacier is laid down on the 
One can rrfiini to the Montanvert down the centre of the 
glacier, and olitain j;ood }>ractice in cutting amoni^st its contorted and 
fissured ice: l»ut. more usually, tourists return l»y ' les J*onts/ 

The Aiguille du Dru, 12,r)l() feet, on the o)>posite side of the Mer 
de (Jlace, is incomi>aral>ly the most strikin<i: object that is seen from 
the Montanvert, and the views of it which can he ohtaine<l from this 
direction are tlie finest one can lind. 'I'he Aij;uille is imjxisinu in 
two senses. It ^/y/y//v//w In hr tJir vidinhuil hi<j pDitit of ihc ojtjtositr 
lihu'h of inoHutn'nhs, when, actually, it is <mly a jtinnacle u]>on one of 
the ridges of the Ai;;-, Verte (see the illustrations u]»on ]>a;ies 100, 121), 
The real summit of the Dru cannot he seen from the Hot(d, When 
lo<d<inji u]» the Mer de (Jlace. the highest points which are seen at 
the end (jf the vista are the Grandes Jorasses, 13,S(M> feet, the loftiest 
mountain in the ranj;e after Mont IJlanc itself (on the left) : Mont 
Mallet, l.S,ns4 feet (ah<mt the centre), with the Pic du Tacul, ll.2s(» 
feet, in front of it; and the Aig. du Geant, l.S,ir)() feet (on the rij^ht). 
The highest jMnnt of the (Jrandes .lorasses cannot he seen from this 
si«le. it is hehind the left hand of the two peaks which are visible. 
The ureat wall of the (Irandes Jorasses is more than '> miles fr(>m 
the Montanvert, and requires closer ai>i»roach to he .api»reciate<l ; an<l 
the same ni.ay he said of the Ai«;, du (leant, which, nrur of hnml, 
looks a most impudent }»iiniacle. The Aig. des Charmoz, 1 1 .20.S feet, 
is the principal feature on the left hank of the Mer de (Jlace. 

The path to 'the crossing' starts from the ha(dv of the Hotel : and 
a few yards off it, on the land side, just before it arrives at the ice, 
there is the lar^e bl<»ck of ro<dv called 'the Englishmen's Stone,' 
inscribe<l " Pocock et Windham 1741." See illustration upon pajue 1, 



.,4 -A* 






^\ .fear- '^^ 







/ 




.v.-' - 


1 


■^.Z'';^ 














■ -'',5 • /'i ;^ t 'jbA "^i-* v!»^' . 'V 



,'^i>'jW*L' 






mc^- 

















I'^-i 



m 


















v^ 






THE AIGUILLE DU DRU. 



104 



CHAJKLXLV AXn MOXT BLAXC. 



CHAP. X. 



The track across the glacier is sufficient j^iiide to tlie other side. 
The crossing can l>e effected in 10 niin., or less. There is a refresh- 
ment shed on the right bank. 

In returning to t'lianionix one can go i-iii 'the Chapeau,' r)082 feet, 
and the end of the Glacier des Uois to see the source of the Arveyron, 
instead of going hack by the ^Fontanvert i>ath.i At first tlie' way 
lies along the moraine on the right bank, and then by 'the Mauvais 
Pas' across the face of some precipitous locks. Kails to hold arc 
fastened along the parts where a slip would be ol»jectionable. There 
is a building for refreshments at the Chapeau that is an fojnr.rr to 
tlie Montanvert Hotel. Time from one to the other about 1 li. 
20 min. The jdace takes its name from a rock called 'the ('ha]»ean' 
Avhich is said to have been use<l formerly by chasseurs for ]»ivouacs. 
Tyndall says of the view — 

•'The scene to my riijfht was one of the most wonderful I had ever witnessed. 
Along the entire slope of the (iltieier des Bois. the ice was cleft and riven 
into the most striking and fantastic ft)rnis. It liad not yet suffered nuich from 
the wasting influence of the snnnner weather, Imt its towers and minarets sprang 
from the general mass with clean chiselled outlines. Home stood erect, others 
leaned, while the white dehris, strewn here and there over the glacier, showetl 
where the wintry edifices had fallen, breaking themselves to pieces, and grind- 
ing the masses on which they fell to powder. " (Jiuders of the A Ips, pp. 39-40. 

From the Chapeau a mule path leads down through beautiful 
forest to the terminal moraine of the glacier. To visit the source of 
the Arveyron bear round to the left, on arriving at the moraine. In 
1895, the icy vault from which the torrent usually issues did not exist. 
Keturn to Chamonix can be eftecte<l from this spot either by ]>assing 
thnmgh the hamlet of les Praz, and thence along the high road ; or, 
more directly, by the path through the forest and the left bank of 
the Arveyron and Arve, of which I have spoken on page 08. Time 
Chapeau to Chamonix about 1 h. ;^0 min. 

The Ascent of the Brevent, S2S4 feet (Cx. T. 8, 9, 10, 11), must 
not be omitted by a visitor to Chamonix. There are two ways, — 
one rid rian]»raz, and the other by IJel Achat. The former starts 
against the cliurch. and mounts 2000 feet or so through forest. The 
rest of the way is shadowless. At Planpraz, 0772 feet, there is a 
Pavilion (not recommended) where refreshments may be <d»taine<l. 
Time from Chamonix about 2 h. 20 min. From this place one can , 
pass over into the Valley of the Dioza, but there is no advantage * 
in doing so, as the Dioza can be reached more easily riiX Servoz. At 
Planpraz the path to the Brevent turns to the left (West), and gets 
round to the back of the peak. On the latter i>art of the way, irons 
•are hxed in some places to assist the tourist. The top of the lirevent 
is large, and there is a cairn, a ruined chalet, and a drinking-booth at 
the summit. Time from Planpraz alx>ut Oo min. The path riCi Jiel 
Achat commences on the right hand side of the Hotel JJeau-Site. 
The first part of the way for alxmt | li., through the handet of les 
jMossons and foiest, rises gently ; it then steepens, but continues 

1 Or one can return most of the way to tlie Source de Caillet, and then take a path 
on the riirht which leads to the foot of the Glac. des Bois. 



PETITSi ROCKERS ROUQES 



M ifcjj Wi 



ROCHERS ROUGES 


PETITS MULETS 


JAN88EN-S OBSFf 


H'ATORV 




GRAND PLATEAU LA TOURNETTE BOSSES t 

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MONl BLANC, FROM 

FROM A PHOTOGRAPH BY 



THE BREVENT, 

: WAPc WHYMPER. 



PFTITS ROCHERS ROUGES ROCHERS ROUGES PETITS MULETS JANSSEN'S OBSEI »VATORY 



GRAND PLATEAU 



LA TOURNETTE 



BOSSES DU DROMADAIRE 




MONT BLANC, FROM 

FROM A PHOTOGRAPH BY 



THE BREVENT, 



EDWARD WHYMPER. 



CH. X. THE FLKGEBE AXD AIGVTLLK DE LA FLOEIAZ. 105 

,11 1 1 r .1^ viiw^vtK' nftor oiiier'nut!; from the trees, 
tlnou^'h -^''';l'-;^f;;. f;;';r ;,,,^ "loOO f et >.', tenante.l at ni.^l.t), and 

'r,?ii':ur;;iny:i..a,. V,,eren,aindero£U^ 
thar'an 1^ a.l on this si.le. The 1, est , joint for see.,,, * ; '"f^, 

Diofa. tl,at i,...l,,.les sevcal othe,- excellent po„,ts of v,e«, of .l„a, 

the most frequently visite<l is , . .1 ^ 

^i - - -..1- s «f 1 /Pv T 7 Q ll'i The usual way to tlie 

,lista,„.e the s„„„„it is set ha.-k fro,„ the ^ '"7,; '^ ,,, ", , yy,,, 

|,„sitio,.s a,..l i,„,K„ta„ee of va,;,o.,s l"'.'"t;, '" . ''"^-'^ ''^^ ;> {{... 

eat,..e of the view fr,„„ the Kle!,e,e '^f '«."<'„;; ^Uef "^e 

Verte an.l th,. Mer .le (ilaee, on t"'*; yl'l«'^''.t/'''\f ,;, 1 he Kle< e.e 
ascent of the l!,event is often eon,l>,nc.l «,th a Ms,t to the be ue 

ahout 2 h. ir> mm.: .lescemlm-, 1 h. lo mm. i> ineti.> i 

Tl.o Aip-uille de la Floriaz, or Floria, ah<mt 07(»0 feet (Cx. T. 14), 
X W c>f tl^ Fie. ei^, is (,K,s:ihlv exeepting one of the peaks of the 

. T„i. is the A.va,ion «iv«, on .1,0 Kren,-,, cm-ia, Ma,., l.u. .lu- F,e.tre i. ...ore 
nearlv on a level with the Montanvert. 



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CHAP. X. 



ASCENT OF THE BUET. 



107 



CMialet is passod, aii.l tlie way then lea.ls over ^leUris an.l sn()w-l|eils 
to a i\>\ between the Ai-. <le hi Fhniaz an<l the Ai-. ^e hi (,lirre. 
On leavin- the Col turn to tlie ri^ht up a rocky arete, and tollow 
it, or the "snow on the western side, to the top. The suninnt is a 
cone of snow. Time from Flegfere to summit ahont 3 h. oO mm. ; 
summit to Flej^ane 1 li. 45 min., movinj;- briskly. 

The Buet, 10,200 feet, can he ascended from several directions. 
The easiest and miiekest route from Chamonix is vid Argentiere, the 
Col des Montets, and the Valley of I5erard (Cx. T. 40). The road 
to Argentiere leads out of the N. end of Chamonix, and at les Chables 
crossed to the left hank of the Arve. At les Praz (2 kils.), Hotel 
N vTioNM. Pension ; Hotel du Chalet des Praz, it divides. lake 
the road" to the left. At les Tines (4 kils.). Restaurant et Pension 
i)K T \ Mer de (iLACE, it commences to rise, and m 2 kils. more passes 
les lies- at 7 kils. Chauzalet (Chosalets), ami recrosses to the ri-ht 
hank- and at S kils. from Chamonix arrives at Argentiere, 3903 feet. 
Hotel de la Couronne ; Hotel Pension Uellevle. Time from 
Chamonix to Ar-entiere alnmt 05 min. riding, or 80 mm on foot. 
\ short kil. beyond Argentic're the road to le T<mr and the Col de 
iialme <'oes aw'ay on the right. Our road inclines to the left, and 
mounts "in several zigzags (which a pedestrian should cut) i»ast the 
handet of Trelechamp to the Col des Montets, 4700 feet. At about 
'>i kils from Ar-entiere there is the Hotel des Montets, but after 
tl'at there is no "other hotel until the Hotel Pension du P>uet, at 
the entrance of the Val Bcrard. This latter hotel is .sY/zr/ to be at 
Vallonine, but the village of that name is more tlian a mile farther 
ou The •••roup of chalets at the entrance to the \al Berard is called 
la Poya, 4318 feet. Walking time from Argentiere to la Poya is a 

little under 1 Ixmr. 

The course up the Val Berard is at first a little S. of A\., and fol- 
lows the right bank of the valley. Tn 40 min. it <r<>^ses to the left 
bank, and "keeps (m that side until Pierre a Berard, 0332 feet at 
which si.ot there is an erection that can iiardly l>e called either 
hotel, restaurant, or refuge. It has beds, an<l a reputation for high 
changes. This place is at the head of the valley, which here oi^ns 
out 7nt<» a cirque. Mules can go so far. The stream is called Eau 
de Berard, and is beautifully clear, with pords large enough or 
bathing. After passing I'ierre a lierard, the track mounts steeply, 
due W for alumt HMH) feet, an.l then turns to the N., and skirts 
the eastern side of the Aig. <le Salenton. The Buet is now seen, 
but a direct course is not shape<l for it. The route usua ly taken 
bears rcmnd to the N.W., and mounts sometiuies over solic rock or 
.aass, but generally over tlebris with occasional sno^v-beds (incipient 
Glacier) to a spot which overlooks the valley of the Dioza ; and then 
turns N.E. over rocky ground (which has a strongly marke.l track, 
almost a path ) to the lower an.l western en.l of the summit-ridge. 
Snow and glacier on the P.uet have diminished of late,i Imt it is 
still advisable to employ a rope. The ascent of the Buet is a walk 

1 On Oct. 1, 1895, I walkecl aloiii? the whole length of the summit-ridge of the Buet 
ivithout touching snow. 






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CIIAT. X, 



ASCENT OF THE BUET. 



107 



Chalet is passo.l, an.l tlic way Ummi leads ..vcr <lol.ris aii«l show-IkmIs 
to a i\A UelAveen the Ai-. .le la Kh.riaz an<l the Ai-. .ic ••'^ <;l';;i*''- 
On leavin- tho Col turn to the ri-ht np a rocky ante, an<l follow 
it, or the'snow on the western si<le, to the top. The suninnt is a 
eone of snow. Time from Fle-ere to summit about 8 h. .")() mm. ; 
sunnnit to Fle<;ere 1 h. 45 min., moving briskly. 

The Buet, 10,200 feet, can be asceniled from several <lirections. 
The easiest and (luickest route from CMiamonix is via Ar-entiere, the 
Col <les Montets, and the Valley of lierard (Cx. T. 40). The road 
to Argentiere loads out of the N. end of Chamonix, and at les thables 
(.r.»sscs to the left bank of the Arve. At les Praz (2 kils.), Hotel 
N \T1(.\ \L riAsiON ; HoTKL !)U CllAT.ET DES PllAZ, it divides, lake 
U.e road to the left. At les Tines (4 kils.), Restaurant et Pension 
i)K I V Mil; i)E (U.ACE, it eommenees to rise, an«l in 2 kils. m(»re passes 
les lies- at 7 kils. Chauzalet (Chosalets), and reerosses to the ri-ht 
bank • and at S kils. from Chamonix arrives at Argentiere, .SlMi8 feet, 
IIoTKL I)E LV C()11{(»NNE: HoTEE 1»ENS1()N liEEEEVlE. lime fr(»m 



Chamonix to Ar-entit'ie alumt (i.! min. ri«lin--, or SO min on 



foot. 

\ ll.l lUWIIl.X LW ...^^..v^.- — - - 1 il ill! 

\ .liort kil. beyond Ar-entiere the r.)ad to le l(mr and the ( ol de 
iJalme ooes aw'ay (m the ri-ht. Our road iiulmes to the left, and 
niounts'in several zi-/a-s (which a pe<lestrian sluml.l cut) past the 
hamlet of Trelechanip to the Col des Montets, 4700 feet. At akmt 
'>i kils from Ar-entiere there is the H(Hi:l des Montets, but after 
tliat there is no "other hotel until the Hoiee Pension i»u P.i et, at 
the entrance of the Val Berard. This hitter hotel is .sr</r/ t.> be at 
Vallorcine, but the villa-e of that name is more than a mile farther 
<ni Tiie "roup (►f chalets at the entrance to the \ al l.erard is caUed 
la Poya, 431 S feet. Walkin- time fnnn Ar-entiere to la Poya is a 

little under 1 hour. ^■^c.c^.\- ^ s \ 

The course up the Val Berard is at lirst a little S. of ^^., and fol- 
lows the rioht bank of the valley. In 40 min. it crosses to the left 
bank, and "keeps on that side until Pierre a Berard, b.S. 2 feet at 
whi<h sp<.t there is an erecti<m that can har.Uy be callcl either 
hotel, restaurant, or refn-e. It has beds, and a reputation tor hi-h 
,.hap.es. This place is at the head of the valley, which here oi»ens 
out Tnto a rirnnr. Mules can -o so far. The stream is calh^ Eau 
de Berard, an.l is beautifully clear, with pools large eium-h Or 
bathin-. After passing I'ierre ii Uerani, the tra(dv nmunts steeply, 
due W for about 1000 feet, and then turns to th(^ >., and skirts 
the eastern side of the Aig. de Salenton. The Ihiet is now seen, 
but a direct course is not shaped for it. The route usiia ly taken 
bears round to the N.W., and mounts smnetimes over solid rock or 
.-•rass, but generally over debris with occasi,Mial sno^y-beds (incipient 
olacier) to a spot ^vhich overlo«»ks the valley of the Dioza ; ami then 
turns N E over rocky uround (which has a strongly marked track, 
almost a path) to tile h.wer and western end of the summit-ndge. 
Snow and glacier ou the Ihiet have diminished of late,i but it is 
still advisable t^. employ a r<»pe. The ascent of the buet is a in,lk 
1 on o.t. 1, ISO-., I walked alon- the whole lens;th of the sunnnit -rid jfe of the Buet 
irit limit toiii'liiiig snow. 



n 



108 



CHAMOXIX AND MO XT BLANC. 



CHAr. X. 



( II Al'. X. 



THE MYSTElUnUS BRIDGE! 



10!) 



from heoinnin- to end. There is no dimlnno. Time from Pierre a 
Berar.l to the summit ahout ;H hours. 

The view from the Buet of the llanoe of Mont Mane is (me ot 
the very finest that can he had from ro^v positi^m. It is more eom- 
prehensh-e tlian that from tlie Brevent, and more ]»ictures<iue than 
that from tlie Ai-. <le la Floriaz. The ran-e of the lirevent ocrupies 
the middle distance, and contrasts foreihly with the snow-tie Ms and 
olaeiers of the Great White M(mntain. In other directions the view 
fs very extensive, ami emhraces many of the hi-hcst P^^'-^l^;; <»* /"'^^ 
Pennine Mns. (4eneva can he seen, and the dura hcycnd. 1 he Imet 
was first ascended via the Val Bcrard hy liourrit. an.l tlie ^^^^'^^^^ 
is referred to hy him in his Xofirrllr Drsrnj^ftoa, chap. xvi. llie 
mcmntain had previ<msly hcen ascended hy M. <le Luc from Sixt. 
See Dent's Aborr the Sno^r-Iiffr, chap, viii, for sunset from tlie Buet. 

The (hsrrnf may he made to the Hotel du Buet m '2 h. in mm., 
or less Thence to Cliamonix on foot will occupy ah«mt 2 h. l.> min. 
\lthou-h the Ascent of the Buet is upon the Chamonix l^fnj </rs 
Courses as an nnv-daif excursion, few i)ersons make it m (»ne day ; 
for with a moderate allownnce for halts it occupies ahoiit Hi hours. 
Starting at 2 a.m., one would return at (> p.m. This will he seen 
from the followinj;- tahle. 



Ii. mill. 



Chamonix to Arg^entiere 
Argentiere to Hotel du Buet 
Hotel du Buet to Pierre a Berard 
Pierre ?i Berard to summit 
Summit to Hotel du Buet . 
Hotel du Buet to Ar^^entiere . 
Argentiere to Chamonix 



1 

1 
3 
2 
1 
1 



20 

f.O 
30 
40 

1') 



Over the Col de Balme, returning by the Tete Noire (Cx. T. 35-39), 

is a -ood excursion for a pedestrian, and is preferahle U^ -oin- hy 

the Tete N(ure an<l returnin- hy the Col de Balme. For the road 

to Ai-entiere see ]»a-e 107. Five or six min after iiassin^ thr 

villa-e the road crosses a wooden hrid-e to the left hank <.t the Arve. 

and hi a little more than half an hour arrives at le Tour, 4C.9., feet. 

The carriau-e-road ends here, — the rest of the way (to Irient) is 

mule-path " The inn <m the i\A de Balme can he seen fron. le lour. 

In had inathn- the tele-raph posts -ive a (due to the ri-ht <lirection. 

most of the way. From le Tour to the Col takes ahout 1 h. 40 mm. 

Bather more tllan half way up, one passes 7 cow-sheds called Balme, 

which appear to -ive the iiame to the Vo\. Here are the sources ot 

the Arve. On the summit of the pass there is the HoTKi. SrissE 

DU Col de Baiaie (7231 feet), a p<K)r jdace, and <lear. 

The prop(.rtions of M(mt lilanc, and the relative imi.ortance ot the 
various Ai"uilles are hetter seen from the Col de lialme than from 
the Brevent or the Fh'-ere. The view on the French side is very 
Hue. Commencing,' on the ri-ht there is the Buet, then the Ai-s. 
Bou-es (cra.-y and i.reci]»itous), the slopes of the Brevent. the whole 
len-th of the'Valley of Chamonix from the villa-e of I'lasserans to 
the'col de Vozn. the Ai--. and i^6me du Goiiter, Mont Pdanc itself. 



the Ai;;. N'erte with its supiHuters les Droites and the Ai;;. <lu Dm, 
and on the left the Ai<;. du Tour. "Je restai," said Alexaiulre 
Dumas, 'Mine heme aneanti dans la contemplation de ce tahleau, 
sans majiercevoir (luil faisait ([uatre depes de froid."' The view to 
the north is less interesting. The jiath seen to the right leads to the 
Tricnt (llacier; the proiuineiit hlock of mountains heyond it is the 
Pointe Konde. Near at hand, on the left, the grassy slopes culminate 
in the point called the Cn)ix <le Fer, 747S feet. It is (mly a few 
hundred feet ahove the Col, and can he reached hy anyone. 

On the lirst part of the dcst'cut (m the N. side the course is N.E. 




it?W_ 








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if." 






HOTEL SUISSE DU COL UE BALME. 

It inoently enters forest and hecomes N. In less than an hour one 
can go frdm the Col to the hottoin of the Valley of Trient. On 
arriving at the hridge of Peuti, do not cross the stream. Keep on 
the left hank, and go over the Inidge at Planet, a kil. lower <lown. 
In live min. more one strikes the carriage-road at Ciillot. Thence to 
the Hotel on the Tete Noire (3920 feet) is 2J kils. As people going 
from Martigny to Chamonix <u- in the contrary «lirection are now 
cuinpellcd to change carriages here, in the middle of the day, this is 
a husy place. Time from Peuti less than an hour. 

I recommeml the imrchase at this Hotel of a little ]>amidilet in 
English entitled Thr Mi/sfrrloas lir'ahic on f/a^ (dnfss fa hr .sroi front 
th*^T('tr Xoirc, jmhlished at Martigny- Bourg hy Biidey. The author 
set out from Martigny on a hot day in August to walk over the 
Fonlaz to the Tete Noire. "The road," he says, "which winds 
itself through the forest" (on the Forclaz) "is ]»erfectly well enter- 
tained, and wide enough to allow the circulation of carriages Mith 
two horses." This was how it ai»i)eared to him after he had taken 
(hy his own admission) at least three drinks in the course of two 
lumrs, whilst walking n\). At the toji of the Forclaz " that Mhich 
pleased me most," he says, "was the frank and liearty reception I 
found there. I took my seat at the tahle and dined Mith the hest 
j»ossihle appetite." The eilect of the dinner shortly hecame ai)parent. 
He found that "the roa«l passes Inifore ... a saw -mill in full 
activity and successfully conducted. At jiresent one can see there 



,10 CHA.MONIX A.yn MOXT BLAXC. CHAP. X. 

luu,.lre.U of telegraplm- posts V^^l"^r^\f^-"''^l,^' J" ^T^^^;;^';;;, 
nnt ill motion siii.plv l>y tlie water. I I"'" annal at tlii. Howi o 
tl^ Tetei" «■ hi onoountere.! tlic host, " «l...se cor, lality is we 
k^.wn I will eoiuluet you," sai.l he, " t<. the mysterious Ini.lge 

oi le abyss of the Tetc 'Noire, hut, lK.fore we «o, « «| ^" ",/ < 
,,t Ltl^ to take so,ue rcf,-c.hma,ts. I aec-epte,! will, thanks hs 
V taUou au.l we retur.ie.1 to the hotel. After luneli or watl is 
^1 lei i. tl is eountry tlie -liuuer, he hr.uight lue a soul moiinta i 
Vf^tt an. invited nie to follow him, an.l not he atraul assnrc.l 

f ,^ t I WT,; not timorous.- This was after three drinks an.l a 
!:::;,e':f .1:,.:.." F.:; "he remain.ler of the .leseripti.m refer to the 

\ i.i..f If will li<«liten tlie ^vav back to l_ luuiioiiix. 
''"S oasln: t^^i H^^el on the^Tete Noire, the roa,l 1h,„.1s roun.l 
to S S \V aiul^for somewhat more than i kils. i,>i.sscs thr.m-h forest, 
m.rpri. u^ipa Iv «, on a shelf ent out of the face of a e .11 overhang- 
; t e E N. e. It then erosses to the left hank ot the stream, 
"uTmI slui tly afterwanls j..ine.l hy the roa,l from f-'--^ -.1 ,«usse 
i l.nrnt out H.)tel. (Hie kil. lieyon.l the hri.l,;,'e there is the hwiss 
To , ,n iZse . n tlic ri.'ht; then a station for (lenaarines, ami a few 
vm a'tle. o tie Hotkl-PknsioN SU.S.SE, Chatelard,' ,xh.,1, ol.hJ;- 
;l ,rm rhetor A liuiulre-l yar.ls farther on the rotu eros«es t., the 
"iTl?. a 4/ the brkhic there is a «toi,c m«rh,i;i the h-<»,e„-.s,ns., 
;W« ; \l«.nt 500 fe ton the French si.le, ..„ the right, there is the 

•^H^m "i^K lUKB.raxK, which is a post "f tl-.f .-.'■' -'t';';",:,! 

.m.l U1.0U the opi".site si.le .)f the valley, the village .<,,!) teet),.in.l 

Cascad f Barbiiine. The village of Vallorcine, ya'-; ^'f tauran s 

I kils. from Ihatelanl, an.l the Hotel .In Ihiet a ..nit 2 ^1- """;• 

Thenee to thamonix, see page 107. The splen.h. ;'"\,"f ''\;):;-, 

Verte is the most noticeahl.' thing on the roiu l-etween the H.te 

,1. Bnet an.1 the Col ,les Montets. From no other -•■-•t'-— ' ,^ ^^ 

1 7- f iU^ \ur «lii Dm to t U3 Verte be s^eeii so well. i n^^ 

;:i'r 'r.:ll .tvJr'ai.: Co? ae S-.alme, returning hy the Tete None, 

occupies aV)oiit 1) hours. 



f 



e'hanionix to Argentiero 
Vreentiere to Col de Balnie • , . • 
Col de Balme to Hotel on Tete Noire 
Tete Noire to Argentiere . 
Argentiero to Chamonix 



h. niiii. 

1 20 

2 ir> 

1 40 

2 35 
1 15 



Servoz; Ecrevisse fishing; the Gorge of the Dioza (Diosa, Di^saz) 

which natuiallj f..llowt.t '|'« "•" ; a-reeahly situate.l, rather 

ma,le the way .ircuitous It wllagc '^^''■•y .- , >/„. ,.,„^, ,,,.i„„en 

C^■:eW^n: l^s'tuLtcW^^^^^^ 

thet;il,"whicU runs along the hack of the range of the prevent 

» 1 n...t ..ithcMi-'h the^e several places are called Chatelard, the 
villain if Sat'nalufu' .LtL i^^^^^.^^^y. o.- the road to Sa.va... 



CHAP. X. 



ECEEVI:^SES! 



HI 



Take tiie moniing dili^erice (fare 2 francs), or go on foot to les 
Montees. Then walk about 1 kil. down the high road towards 
Chatelard, and turn off anywhere on the right to the brook ^that you 
will see at the foot of the slope below the road. Here are Ecrevisses 
(cray-tish). The manner of catching them is on this wise. Before 
starting, ask for some strips . of raw meat from the kitchen (any 
rubbish will do), and Ining these along with you in a l)asket. Cut 
several twigs 2 to 3 feet long, cleave them at one end, and in the 
clefts insert bits of meat. You then poke the ends of the twigs 
with meat attached into slimy places or uii<ler stones, and leave them 
at rest for a little. Examine your rods from time to time, to see 
whether there is an ecrevisse hanging on to the meat. If so, land 
it, cautiously and cunningly, and begin again. On return to Chamonix 
give the ecrevisses to the Chef of your hotel, who will know what 
to do with them. When this sport is over, cross the bridge at 
Chatelard to Servoz, which is only a few hundred yards from the 
C Jorge. Admittance 1 franc. Beautiful beeches, and luxurious foliage 
at entrance. A plank path is carried on trestles or otherwise a long 
way up the chasm, which atlords a succession of delightful prospects 
at its numerous bends, and has many cool, shady nooks, where one 
can repose and be lulled to sleep with the music of singing-birds and 
the murmuring of the stream. Notice the Inscrii)tion on the walls. 

Alx)ut a mile N. of Servoz, on the slopes overlooking the village, 
there is a marshy pool called Lac de la Cote, where the summit of 
Mont Blanc can lie seen mirrored in the water — an ex«iuisite spot for 
an artist. Ifeturn from Servoz by the old road, aiul over the Pont 
I'elissier. A few minutes after the l)ridge, this route joins the high- 
way just in front of the Hotel des Montees. This park -like road 
is well kept up, ami leads through shady woods, well -adapted for 
readers. 



Chamonix to the near end ot les Houches 
Les Houehe.s to les Montees 
Bridge of Chatelard to Servoz . 
Servoz to les Montees. . . . . 
Les Montees to Chamonix . . . . 



Ii. mill. 

1 
45 
30 
35 

1 50 



Another excursion which may be made ujion days that are unlit 
for high levels is to the Pavilion Bellevue or Col de Voza (Cx. T. 
70, 11, 72), over to the other side ; descending via Bionnassay to 
Bionnay, and returning by St. (Jervais and le Fayet. Walk to les 
Houches (goo<l beer at the little inn), and take the ' chemin direct,' 
which leads partly through fields an<l pastures, aiul partly through 
forests. Many flowers here. The Pavilion Bellevue, 5945 feet, is the 
building which you will see whilst ascending, against the sky-line, on 
the left. A very humble place ; plain food. The view from it, looking 
back, extends over the whole of the A'alley of Chamonix, and in the 
contrary direction it is ecjually tine. Descending towards the W. by 
a steep path down the valley of Bionnassay one soon arrives at the 
village of that name, and joins the path coming from the Col de Voza, 
5496 feet. A mile and a half away S.E. by E. there is the small 



CJiAMUSJX A.\l> M(jyr BLAXr. 



CHAP. X. 



«l,ere tl.o rtoo-l orig.nato.1 ^^^j:;^ /^^'^^^ ^.'jY^'.'f,.,,,,,, in tl,e valley 
i., m-2. Few t'-f-'r "f ^';'\^,'-- ,e v'n ,.'e f Bionnay Oli.-i feet, .... 
of l!i,.n..assa.v : ''»^J"f / "^ '" ..rv,, up the Val .Mo>.tj<.ie is eul 
i„„) it will 1« "'"t"'^"' "'''l V ,1, t •'(> feet l.i"l.. This «as 

,.,.o,„l,l .low. l.ytl.e ^^'^- r^^^^i^'^'^r^^..^^^ the l.a,..let 
lii.mi.ay t...'.. t<. the .'.gl.t, t.» i>t- y,f'\' , „„„ j,„.,|. is a roa.l o.i the 
les l>.aV., a.,.l just l-e ore ^''f '•";; '''^; '^(^'-bie , ;, which there is a 
left lea,liu^' .low..war.ls to the P.^n *" Df^;-^; i„. i.,,„.,„„t the 
fine view of the 'W"', ,1"^" l^'v.^v, ^|,,M Ho'.KL l.K CKNkvK: 
roa.l to St. Gervais; """'- l^^,'"^., ' ! .'^'.oN UE, Etkan.^kus ; 
HoTKl, ..U Mc.Ni IJi.AN..; "''\ ;.*;',, .rere..-.a,,l.. The villa^-e of 
lK,si,les several eafes a...l shops ; 1 ost ami ^^^^ ,,^ ^„t,„„, 

St. Cervais oo.upies a I'I-^'^^'m Ce .ve ..oki..j; the plaii. ..f 

wester,, e,.,! of the Ua..,-e of ^^^'^ :J^^^^,,^^ feel helow, 
Sallai.ehes, The /-'»'/".■ of St. *".':P'"%^.\.^ ,,,,,, t„ the.... A little 
out of sight. K„.,.me at the v.llajje . - ;|f ^'^ ' ,,,,„.« the 
way -low., it. ....other path lea.ls oft "' / '.•; ^^^ j ,.,^, ,^. well see... 
,J,l,e of the (iorge of Crep... ( T""™'^ "* /, ' j.^a t „.l .■o,.ti,...i..^' 
A,l,..issio,. .-..-. ee.,ti,..es. Het..r.>...y to th. " -^aM t ^^ .^^ ^^^_.^^ 

,low.,war,ls through l'';«;"-H"e «.-ls .. o, U ^ .V^^_^ ^^^^ ^^^^^, 
at the Hotels ot the I'.at l.s. T.in. t" *'"; '^^ • 1 ■ ^ tl.e lo.nr 

,,„i„lh.gs a...l eross a 1 ttle '«'<y«."^;^^, ^ l'^ ,Vl v tl e si.le of the 
e,..l of the (Jorge: a..,l the., 'f,""'" "'-,/' ^.J ,t,al,/,l,ere is the ..evv 
tor.e..t. AlK.ut a k.l. I'^''""/''.*^; ""';', ' s.lhur Laths "i fra..es, 
Bathing Establishment. ^^'^^^'^^^ 3 ."L", the roa.l joh.s 

^,;:^'Mgh:ra;"ir^aye^ 'l-'r-Vl ui. either on foot or hy 

<liligenee.* h. miti. 

Chamonix to near end of le. Houches . • • 1 
Les Houches to Pavilion Bellevue . • • ^ .^ 

Pavilion Bellevue to Bionnay • • • • • ^q 

r iS.S %^Z\:f^k V;. tfc Baths : : 35 

The Cascard du Bard the aUcierdes^^^^^^^^ 

House of Jacques Ba mat fp-,^;,, !;/>;, ,;',,„,,,„ i.S) ; pass th.-o..gh 
noo... Take the path to the e.e . t.,c -V 11^ ,Tissours), 
the l.a,..lets of les I'raz (_ o...!,. t les 1. . ts. . ' .^.. ^__._^ 

whieh are all close together, a... ".-^ '"'"-[ J'"i,v„d, a very h«...l.le 
j-ou will reach the H-r.Kt l-t ^A.e^'^L ^J^^;^ ,„t,,/tl,e path 

place, close to tl'« -",t<;.f '' ;,, to the I'i"''^ l'-"^"*-'' '""* "'" "'"""' '" 
llivi.les.-that on tl.e left goes to t e 1 .cut i ^^^^^ j. ^^^ 

the <;huier des ISossous. Cross the flat .ce to t .^^^ ^__^ 

visit the Grotto-a gallery ^-^-^^f^ ,.;, \', u-'e f.,r acl...issiou. Fro... 
the l«..ehtof t"7f;- .^r';:^:H:.rthe .ft h'mkof the glacier, which 
^:^'^^^IX ^ ^"tastic pi....ac.es. fross tl. stream 

.. • ,.... rpfi>rre(l 10 in more deUil in Chapter Xl\ . 
1 The Baths and Village of St. Ciervais are referred lo 



CHAP. X. 



BALM ATS HOUSE. 



113 



issuing from tlie glacier, and make for les Pelerins. The house of 
Jacques Balmat, an ordinary elialet with barn attached, is almost 
the higliest one of the village, and stands apart from the rest. At 
present it is not inhabited. The inscription ii]>on it was put up 




« ■ 
t i s 



JACUUES BALMAT 

A FAil BATIR CETTE MAISONi 

.,_;:;^:;: en 1787 



3 



ll-l-'A HABITEL JUSQUA .SAMORT 
;: : ENI834 . 



k- 




TABLET ON BALMAT S HOUSE. 



by the French Alpine CluT). In returning, you can either walk 
liome tlirough tlie fields, by les Favrants, les Barats, and le Praz 
Conduit (which will take about 25 min.), or cross the bridge of 
Perrahjtaz and go back hy the high road. This is alx)ut 1 kil. longer 
than tlirougli tlie fields. At the first liouse on the right bank after 
crossing the bridge is the shop of Simond Bros., tlie ice-axe makers, 
who have generally a good assortment in stock. Prices moderate. 
This is the l)est place at Chamonix for ice-axes. 

To the Pierre Pointue, returning by the Plan des Aiguilles (Cx. 
T. 20, 22, 28). To the Pierre Pointue will occupy 2 hs. ascending, 
and 1 h. descending. Less than these times is quick. The path to 
it forms a portion of the usual route for the ascent of Mont Blanc. 
See pp. 98, 112. After passing the Hotel du Cascade du Dard, there 
is only one other ])lace where refreshments can be obtained on the 
way, the Chalet de la Para, 0266 feet, prices fair, which is almost 
exactly half way up in tunc. The path emerges from the forest soon 
after leaving this place, and for most of the rest of the way it is 
shadowless. Take umbrellas. The Pavilion at the Pierre Pointue, 
6723 feet, is a shabby building, and is usually kept by the lessee of 
the Grands Mulets. Prices high. The Brevent is nearly immediately 
opposite, and the path to it vld Bel Achat is very well seen. The 
view also embraces most of the Valley of Chamonix, and a consider- 
able portion of the tumultuous part of the Glac. des Bossons. On 
leaving the Pavilion turn eastwards, and skirt the bases of the Aigs. 

I 



1 14 CILUWNIX AND MONT BLANC. cmai'. x. 

,ln Mi.li. <lu Plan, an.l Ao r,l.aiti(Vo, hy Nvl.at is ternuMl the Plan d^^ 
Aiguilles. ( )n(^ eaii -<> all the way lou.ul tc the M<nUanvert, oi <lescena 
on Chan.onix hy more than one path. (Glides nn necessary in e 
weather,--the way is readily pereeive^l. It is best to start foi this 
excursion at a reasonably early hour. 

To the Pierre Pointue, Pierre a I'Echelle, and the Grands Mulets 
(Cx. T. 21, 108; and 2, -courses extraord.") This excursion is a 
continuation of the route usually taken for ^^lont lilanc, an.l nni he 








THK l.KANDS MULETS. 

united to the last one, hut without this it will occupy a nio.lerately 
Ion.- day ; 4 a.m. is not too early to start. Avera-e time from 
Chanumix to the (hands Mulcts is ahout 5] to 5^ hs. ; descen.lin^-, 
al Knit 31 hs. Anythin- less is unu-k time. lor the way to the 
Pierre Pointue, see last paragraph. The n.uh'ijath cmnes to an end 
there but thence to what is called the Pierre a 1 Echelle there is a 
path over which any Enolish hoy ou-ht to he able to -o al<»ne. After 
that he had better have someone with him. Ihe ^yay from the 
Pierre Pointue to Pierre a PEchelle gradually approaches tlie right 
bank (»f the Glac. des liossons, and at the latter place arrives at the 
ed'-e of the ice. There are not many ladders usually seen there now. 
Uptakes its name from the habit which was formerly indulged m. in 



CHAI\ X. 



TffE GRANDS MULETS. 



II T) 



imitation of De Saussure (see ]>]>. 3S-9), of carrying a ladder about (o 
use for crossing crevasses. The ladder, or ladders, were usually left 
iiere. From this place the rocks called the (Iraiuls Mulets can be 
seen, and in clear weather anyone who is accustomed to traverse glacier 
will lind a route to them; but in had weather this passage, which is 
.scarcely a mile and a half long, is trying even to experts. There 
have been occasions when it has been imjtossihlr to the ellfr of the 
guides of (liamonix. See \^. 5."). For one-half of the distance there 
are no greater dilHcMilties than such as arise from walking over ice 
wliicb is lissured ; but upon arrival at 'the juiutioir — the ixnnt of 
union of the eastern (ilac. de Taconnaz and the (llac. des JJossons— the 
ice is a gcMul «leal <lislocated (see Illustration on p. 42), under any 
circumstances will rciiuire the use of the axe, and at times re(|uires 
something more. Tiie excursion from Chamonix to the (hands Mulets 
ought not to be undertaken irifJitmt f/tudrs except by ]>ersons who are 
acciis(«>in<'(l to traverse glaciers under all conditions of weather. 

Aft<M- passing 'the junction,' the way becomes easiei- ; bnt it is 
seldom possible to steer a (hrrrf course to the (hands Mulets. (hie 
is driven to the right (north-west), ami then has to «louble back. 

The (h-ands Mulets, 10,113 feet, as a resting place on the ascent of 
Mont P.Ianc, was discovered by the earliest exi)lorers of the mountain. 
This island of rock is, <loubtless, an Aiguille of the ridge which lower 
down is called the Montague «le la Cote. It occupies a very command- 
ing jjosition, and the views from it looking across the Valley of 
Chamonix, towanls the Aig. dii Midi, and, in the contrary direciioii, 
over the (Jlac. de Taconnaz to the Aig. du (Jouter are all striking. 
A sunset seen from the (hands Mulets will be remembered. The 
building there— terme<l the Pavilion — is, like the other (me at the 
Pierre Pointue, the juoperty of the Commune of Chamonix, and the 
two places are generally let together for a term of years. There are 
beds at the (hands Mulets, and food can be had. ' "The Commune 

reserves to itself the right to fix the price of lodging, etc.," the 

tenant has no option in this matter. The following are jn-ices lived 
by the Commune. 



fr. cts. 

12 . . 

« . . 

2 r.o 



I^)g'ement d'lm Voyageur aux (irand.s Mulets, service et 
bougie eonipris pour une nuit ..... 

Un dejeuner <le Voyageur a la fourchette 

Diner sans via ......... 

Chaque repas de guide, vin compris .... 

Provisions pour I'ascenciun au Mont Blanc et autres 
sonimites, menu habituel par tete, guide compris . 

Les mets ou provisions laisant I'objet du present tableau 
seront de boiuie 4ualite et d'un volume raisonable 
autiint <|u'il sera possible de le faire a cette altitude. 



Many visitors consider these jnices high, an<l do not like to be jmt 
two in a bed, or with sever.al strangers in a room, when they pay 
12 francs per head for lor/nnoif : and the general opinion is that as 
'a point of view' this spot is very fine, but that in point of accommo- 
dation the place is not up to the times. 



ClIAMOXTX AXD ^mXT BLAXr. 



11 ClIAMOXIX AM> M(f^\i /i/-i^>'- ♦'"^^'- ^• 

.!„ Mi.li. .in Plan, an.l .lo lilailioiv, U ul.nl is IovummI thr Plan ^es 
Aiguilles. ()..(« run u.. all i1h> way nmn.l t<» ti.c Mnnlanvert, or .Use 
<,n (l.an.onix Uy movo than .mo i-atl.. (ini.los "'^^^^'^^'-^^ ;'' V 
weather,- tl.o way is n.ulily ,.ereeive,l. It is hest to start to, this 
<'\«'nr<i<m at a reason.-ihlv early hour. 

To the Pierre Pointue, Pierre a TEchelle, and the Grands Mulets 
(Cx. T. 21, 108; and 2, -courses extraord."). 'Phis ^^^'^-^^'' ''' a\ 
rontinnalion of the route usually taken for Mont lUane, an,l mn U 




Tin-'. (.KANDs Mii.i:rs. 



unite<l to the hist one, hut without this it will occui»y a n.o.l.'rately 
Ion..- aay; 4 a.m. is not too early to start. Avera-e tm.e iron, 
(M.an.onix to the ( ;ran<ls Mulets is ahout r>l \n .V. hs. : .leseen.l,,,-, 
.ih<mt :U hs. Anvthin- less is .,niek tin.e. For the way to the 
Pieire l>ointue, see last pani-mi^h. The n.ule-i.ath eon.es to a„ en,! 
there hut thenee to what is ealle.l the Pierre a 1 Echelle thr,v ,s a 
path over which any Kn-lish hoy ou-ht to he ahle to .^o ahme. After 
that he ha.l 1»etter have s.nneone with hm,. I he way fron, the 
Pierre Pointue t.» Pierre a IKehelle pa.lually ai.proaehes the n-ht 
hank .»f the (ilac. .les P.ossons, an.l at the latter plaee arrives at the 
e.'h-e of the iee. There are not n,any la.hleis usually seen thei-e„ow. 
It "takes its name f,om the hahit whieh was formerly in.lul-e.l m. ,n 



<"n\i'. X. 



TIfK GHAXDS MULETS. 



11.-. 



imitation of I)(^ Saussure (see ],]». 8S-1)). of caii-yin.!; a huhie,- ahoiit to 
nse for cossin- c'evasses. The ladder, oi- laddeis, we,<' nsjially Icfl 
heie. Piom this plae.? the roeks called the (iiands Mnlets can he 
sect,, and in clca,- weather anyo,,e who is accistomcd to tiavejse ^la.-ici 
will liiid a jonte l«) th.Mn ; hnt in hftd weather this |»assau<'. wliich i> 
scarcely a mile ai,d a half loi,i^-, is trying even to expeils. 'I'hciv 
liavt; heen occasioi,s when it has l>een IntjKt.ssihh to the rlifr of the 
;4iiides of ('liamoi,ix. See p. .').'). For (Hie-half of the distance theic 
are no neater dinh-ulties than sucji as arise fi-o,ii walkin.!^ ov<m- ice 
which is jissu,eil ; h,it ujioi, aiiival at 'the junction" — the i»oii,( of 
union <»f the easte,i, (Ilac. de Taconnaz and th(» (Ilac. dcs P>osso,,s the 
ice is a ,i;-o(»d .leal dislocate.l (see lllustrati.ni on ji. P2), un.lei- anv 
<'ircumstances will ,<'(|uii-e tl,(» use of the axe, and at ti,i,<'s i(«.|ui,(»s 
sometliinn;- moic. The excuisioi, from ('hamo,,ix to t he ( Jj.-uxls Mulcts 
ou^lit not to he nmleitake,, iriflinnf ijniilrs except I»y )»e,soi,s who a,-e 
accustomed lo tiaNeise glaciers imde,- all coi,dit i.»iis of wcathe,-. 

Aftei- passiui; 'the j,i],cti<Hi,' the way hecojnes easie,- : hut il is 
seldom possihle to steer a ifirrrf (-(nirse to th.' (J,a,,ds Mulcts. Hue 
is driv.'M to th(» li-ht (north-west), ai,.l the,, has to d.nihle ha.k. 

The (;,a„ds Mulet«^, KMI.'i feet, as a lestii,- place on the a-cent ni 
M.»i,t IJIanc. was discove,-ed hy the ea,liest expl.u'eis of the mountain. 
This island <»f ,(H'k is, douhth'ss, an Ai,L;,iille of the iid,u<' which lower 
down is calletl the .Moi,ta.une de la ('<'>te. It occipies a \<'iy c.numaii.l 
ini: pnsitio,,, ai,d tln^ \ ie\v< fioni it lo<d<in;; ac,'o^> the X'all.'y of 
(liamonix, towai.ls the Ai-;. dii .Mi<li, and. ii, the coiitiaiy dii-eclioii. 
over the (JIac. .le Taco,,,,a/ to the Aiu. .lu (nu'ite,- ai<' all strikin-. 
.\ >uiiset seen fjoju the (Jj-ands Mulcts will he j-ememhfM.NJ. The 
hnildinii thei-e -tei'ined the Pa\illon^is, like the othe,- <»iie at the 
Pieiie P.»intue, the p,-ope,ty of the ( "ommune of Cham. mix. and tlw 
two places aie j;enerally let to.i;ethei- foi- a leiiii <(f yeais. Theic aic 
he«ls at the (iian.ls Mulets, and food can he ha.l. "The ('.»mii,u,,e 
r(»-;eives t.> itscdf the li^lit to fix the piice .d' Iod^il,^•. etc." the 
tenant has ,,o opti.»i, in tins n,att(M-. The followii,^- ai-e pj-ices Ijxed 
hv tin' ("omimme. 



L(»<J!'c,ucnt d'un Voyau^cur mux (irands .Mulcts, service et 
h.»u^ic couipris jxuu- une unit ..... 

I'll .Icjenuer do V<»ya,i^cnr .a la fouivliette 

Diner sans vin ......... 

('ha<jUo ivpas <le fi;-uide, via coiupi'is .... 

Provisions pour rasconciou an .Mont IJIanc et aiitres 
.soinmitcs. menu lialiitucl jia,' tcte, lifuide co,npi'is . 

Les inets on [ii-ovisions laisant I'ohjet du i»i-esent tahkau 
.<e,'ont do hojuio iiualitc ot d'un vohinie i-aison.ihlo 
antant <|u'il so,-a possihie do lo fai,-o a cotto altitu.lo. 



tr. ct> 

12 . 

1 . 

♦ i . 



•1) 



Many visitors consider these })rices liii^h, ai,<l do not like to h(» put 
two in a he.l, or with several st,a,,.i;ers in a looiu. when they pay 
\'l fran.'s per hea.l for loifrmrnf : a,,<l the nei,e,al opinio,, is that as 
'a p.>int of view' this s[)ot is veiy \\\\i\ Imt that i,, poii,l of acco,u,i,o- 
.lation the place is not ui» to the ti,iies. 



116 



CHAMONIX AND MONT BLANC. 



CHAP. X. 



Clmuiunix to the Herre Poi^^J^ 
Pierre Pointue to Pierre a I Echelle 
plerre a VEchelle to brands Mnl^^^^ 
Grands Miilets to Pierre h 1 ^S'^elle 
Pierre a VEchelle to Pierre Pomtue 
Pierre Pointue to Chamonix 



h. 
2 

2 
1 



mm. 

50 
25 
35 
25 



Ascent Of the Monta.ne de la Cote (Cx T 101). returning by _U.e 
Glacier des Bossons. Tlnx f^f""-'"" "" ,„ ■lav'* woik. It was nA 
one, l.ut it .iU -;'Vltr'that'r.t of e eSly atton„.ts on Mont 
tlie Montagne .le la C. te t'l'^^ "'"■ \. j._,„,,^t ,vent on tl.e lirst ascent, 
Blanc were made, and it was tins waj bahnat ^ .^^^ ^,_ 

and De Sanssure after Inn. ^^^J^^.^^^^^ It U,,, and 3* U> 
3.-,, 41. It takes aLout .. lis. *'"*'!' ',''"i'"" x rEchelle, and Pierre 
4 ,s. connng back l.y 'the l""f «"' P'^^^,,;' ,i„a.e of les IJossons, 

Pointue. Go down the l'^''' "«^, /«, ^^ aV LsonsT This presently 
and follow the path leading t« U.e ( ac ,\e.J ^^^^ ^^ ^^^^^^ ^^j ^,_^ 

.livides. Take that to the "f * wlmh ka. _ ^^^ ,_^^^^ 

Taconnaz Glacier, and ."»;""*; f" ^ '",^ " ascends the slopes on 

When the moraine ternnnates, «>'^ l''-^^' J^,,^^ je ^ Cote), and then 
the right liank (or eastern - « '>*^, Vhamtmix can he seen The way 
.rets near the orcfe ot the lui^e, a"" ti„,,„rl, in other places it is a 

Ts an old one, and it «-^-;--^"5,^'::;,^ \,t C o"*-*' ''>' "'^ ^'^"'^"'"• 
,.,„od path. It is l''«f '"'^'''(.'^'^t ;; uere is a cairn, and alongside 
At the very .<«;l" »' t\re tedTere -^^ the ren.ains of a regnlarly 
the rock on which this » eiecte u j,^^^^ ^^^ ^„,^ 

built though unroofed hut. ^hcmt -W '««' ^ t,,^ Roehers 

very large lK,uldevs, winch '^I'l*"]; ^.^^^hi'd , hy 9 by 14 metres. 
Rouges. One of them ""'•'^j;"'^^ '^ J'^^^i^Ue >and the way up Mont 

that from tlie (ivands Mulcts. 




i#^-'' 



A< 






THE OLD 



MONTANVERT, IN 1895. 



/~~ 




THE COL DE TALIiFKE. 



CHAPTER XL 

EXCURSIOXS FROM THE MONTANVERT. 

TO THE JARDIN_BV THE COL DU GEANT TO COURMAVErR-THE 
S^RACS OF THE GLACIER DU GEANT— ASCENT OF THE AIGUILLE 
VERTE — AIGUILLE DU DRU — THE GRAND AND PETIT DRU — PIC 
SANS NOM — AIGUILLE DU MOINE — LES DROITES— LES COURTES— 
AIGUILLE AND CUL DE TRIOLET— COL DE TALf:FRE— AIGUILLE DE 
TALEFRE— COL DE PIERRE JOSEPH — COL DE LESCHAUX — COL DES 
HIRONDELLES — COL DES GRANDES JORASSES — MONT MALLET — PIC 
DU TACUL— AIGUILLE DU GEANT-AIGUILLE DU MIDI— AIGUILLE 
DU PLAN — AKJUILLE DE BLAITIERE — AIGUILLES DES CHARMOZ- 
AIGUILLE DE GREPOX— THE LITTLE CHARMOZ — AIGUILLE AND 
COL DES GRANDS MONTETS. 

In the iiiiddle uf the season tlie Moiitauvert Hotel is soiiietiiiies full 
and overrtowm-, and tourists cannot rely upon l>eino- taken in ; Imt 
intorn.ation as to the state of affairs can readily he ohtained hefore 
startin- from ( hamonix, as there is tele-raphic communication. The 
excursions from the Montanvert-for which it is properly the starting, 
point— emhrace all those that can he made in the hasins of the Mer 
de Uace, and its tributaries the (Glaciers de Talefre, du Geant and 
(le Leschaiix. As these bashis extend over nearly one-third of the 
total length oi the Kange of Mont Blanc, the excursions that can l)e 
niaiie are numerous and they include difficult as well as ea,sy ones 
\\ iilst nientionuuj the majority of those which can be made, I do not 
enter into detail respecting the more difficult ones, and refer those who 



lUi 



CHAMOMX AND MONT BLAXr. 



cuAr. X- 



Chamonix to the Kerre Pointue 
Pierre Pointue to Pierre ^i ^Kc»iak 
P erre a VEchelle to Oraiuls Mule > 
Grands Mulet. to Pierre a I hcjielle 
pTcrre Ti rEehclle to Pierre Pon.tue 
Pierre Pointue to Chamonix 



h. inin. 

50 
2 "i') 



1 
1 



2r» 



I'lerre ri»iiii>"- •^■^' - 

J lo Pnfo /T-x: T 101), returning by the 

Ascent of the Montagne ^^^ ^'^ ZL.a .i.l, the last 

Glacier des Bossons. U.i. '^ "'^ "" , ,,_^ ■, ,v,..k. It was n,! 

,„„, ,,„t it NviU a.ia several '"">%'"/ L emlv atteuipts ,m Mont 

„,e Montague -le la C. te «''" ,"'";V Itlt^tt^-^^^^^ <l''"'-t «-<-'"'• 
lilane were n.mle, an.l it was tins waj l..Un..i .^^ ^, 

.„., De Saussttre after hnn ^-,i;i;-,,,V,;,J,; 'k to t e t.,,.. a,„l ^ t,- 
3.-,, 41. It takes al«>ut .; l.s. ''<'V' j'^ne a lEchelle, an.l Pierre 
4 l,s. eotniny Lack l-y 'the .l"";:";"'' J'^ 7,,;' l^^:, J les ISossons. 
Pointne. V.. .l-wn the h.^'h r;"--^ /» ^, '^.J' ^ssons? This ,.vesently 
an.l follow the path lea.l.n!,' to t te ( a • Mc^ ^^„^^^_ ,,,. ,,„, 

,livi,les. Take that t,. the r..uht, «h. > "^^ ' . 7^„ ,(, ,; ,,,t hank. 
Taeonnax Glaeier, an.l ."""""t;,;;" j; f, .^ " ir t as""n,ls th^sloin-s on 
Wheit the n.oraine t^r.ntnates, * ' ' l;'^\\\,f, J, .^ .,e ,a fote), an.l then 
the ri-ht hank (or eastern s,. e "« \'^ J*' ;:; ;,„ ,,e ,een. The way 
.ets near the orcte of the ruljie, "^ '> <; ■"" ,^„ ;„ „„,er plaees it is a 
i. an ol,l one a,Kl it <-■-•;;;-' >-^f::,,:\' ''vllowe.1 l.y De Sanssnre. 

i;o,„l path. It IS l"e'->"';«'''> "'•^* " ^' ' Lve is a .-aim. an.l al.m^si.le 
■ .u'the very t<>l> o ^ - M< . a, 1 e.e ^.^.^ _^^ ,___^ ^^^ ^ ,,^,^,,,^^,,^. 

the rook on whuh this s ^leete ^,^^^^.^, ^,,^. ^,^,„^ 

l.uilt th.m-h ,inr.H>fe.l hu . Al mt Wl^e ^^^^ j, _^|^^_.^ 

very lar^e h.ml.lers, wlu.'h a,. pea .^ \ , ' ,,,. ,, ,„. ,4 nu-tres. 

l!.m.es. One of then. "'-^■"--',;.„'^; ,,,'::,,„,• the way up M.n.t 

tliat tvoin the iWamh Mulets. 











THE OLD MONTAN 



NVF.RT, IN i?9: 



f 




THE COL DE TAl£:fkE, 

OHAPTEK XI. 

EXCURSIONS FROM THE MUXTAXVERT. 

•■<» THK JAKDIX-IJV THE COL DU GKAXT TO COUKMAVECK -THE 
ShlAVS OF THE GLACIER DU GEAXT— ASCEXT OF THE AKiUILLE 
VEKTE — AlcriLLE DU DRU — THE (iiJAXD AXD J'EHT DRU — PIC 
SANS XOM — AKJUH.LE DU MOIXE — LES DROITES — LES C0URTE8— 
AR;UILLE AXD COL DE TRIOLET— COL DE TALEFRE— AIGUILLE DE 
TALEFRE— COL DE PIERRE JOSEPH— COL DE LESCHAUX — COL DES 
HIK'OXDELLES — COL DES (JRAXDES JORASSES — MONT MALLET — PIO 
DU TACUL— AIGUILLE \i\5 (JEAXT— AIGUILLE li\5 MIDI— AIGUILLE 
DU PLAN — AKJUILLE DE P>LA1TIERE — AIGUILLES DES CHARMOZ— 
AKJUILLE DE GREPOX— THE LITTLE CH A RMOZ — AIGUILLE AXD 
COL DES GRAXDS MONTETS. 

Ix llie nii.lclle of the season the Moiitauvert Hotel is soiiietiii.es full 
|u.;l overUon 1,1-, and tourists cumot rely upon heino taken in ; l,ut 
intorniatR)!. as to the state of atiairs can readily he ohtaine.l hefore 
startm- from (Jiaiiioni.x, as there is tele-raiihie eomnmnieation. The 
e.xeuisKuis troni the Montanvert-f.»r which it is properly the startin.-. 
point -enihrace all tlio.se that can he made in the hasins of the M?r 
< e Uaee, and its trihutaries the (JIaeiers de Talefre, du Cieant, an<l 
Me Leschaux. As these basins exten.l over nearly one-third of the 
total len-th ot the Range of Mont IJlaiie, the excursions that can he 
made are numerous, and they include ditticult as well as easy ones 
Whilst mmtvmuKj W,^ nuijority of those which can he made, I do not 
enter into detail respecting the more ditticult ones, and refer those who 



CHAMOXJX ASD MONT BLANC. 



CHAP. XI. 



1 



1 IS 

1 /r • /. ,//. In Chninc da Mont JUfOic 
,„ay aesue fuller inf.„„,atio,> J" ''-, [/^ u^-Znc mrtel, my>, M 

,,u. l>e l.ml of Messrs. (.eort', <^"> f« *: MV„ua>.vert is to tl.e Jardin 

TLe „K,st ,K,,ulav «"'7-;' '■^: ' ^ ^ ,• u le of the basin of tl.e 

(Cx. T. 23, 24), a loiky i>laiul n ti t .^ ^,^^ ^^,^_ 

^hu.. ,le Talofre. The 'U'V^', ';»;^;*,4;;atj' 11 aen-me-l this ,uune 

,u.,l ahout TOO feet ahove 'f^^'^^^^^J'";"^ ,ays of the way to it 
earlier than the tune o De ^^ussuie «^ o J^ ^^^^^^^^^^^^^ ,^.^,,, 

re'tL^SiS:Wt'inrHu::;ie^f al^ue- it is lost upon a 

to Chamonix, 1 sent off two men ^ ho »»^^^^^J ^^ i^,,,^ free Ironi danger. 
Buet ami made this place, it not '''\\^\^''\^''''^^^^^^^^ ,,in be under obligations 
¥ oe vvho visit the bottom ot ^l^?^/^^ ^n\^^ UU ^o^cinscih^, 

-z^t^^:^ ''^tz ^f'B%r tr:^ itr^'-^-"" 

" „: 'then .oes on to .leserihe Ip he Uave^^^^^^^^^^^^^ ^'^^ -— j^ 

of the Mer -le (ilace, an.l 'l'-"'^^™^ 7, \ ," Talefre, an,l arrhe,l 

to turn the tunmltuons lee-fall ot ^^ ^^^ , ; ,, ,5^, ,,etwceu the 

.,t the hrink of the eomparatntlj Hat -laati 

Couverele an.l the Jardin, wlach rs, he says, 

..„„„„t circular in sha,o, ft'^tb' raised al«ve the lo^l ;,f tho^ga-r.^^_^ ^^^ 

„,idcUe of July is only 'ho >>eg"U •*; "' ^f^ f,. ' „j ,, ,„gS variety of pretty 

!i^,ir\i:i^ri^^:;r2U3^u.i,.a^ 

r :.:!lr^'hS%S i^ t^^l. . sten. .lueh torn, a fence. 

eneireled hy sno«y peaks, f "= '""'^/"j,,^,, ;, the Aig. du Mo.ne 

„„,,. i,nly a n.ile away ^^ t'«,,;J\*f'4, Verte (l5,.M0 ft.), les 

01-214 ft.), then, turmn^' to the -".' f jV) '^Vi,,. .le Triolet (12,727 

\,,,;Ues (13,2-22 ft.) ^'^ '^^It^^t V^ of the Italian si.le 

ft.), an.l the A.g. -le ^'^ y"^/|i,',i e ,0 ieed that it is nnu-h steeper 

.,f Mont Wane is seen, and H «ill « > "tice y(„^,„tiun de la 

than the I'reneh si.le M. ]/ f \%,/,;^^;h, %/^,. rf. We, Lyons, 

,,,,.» de. .,e.,e. ''''f'^^'^^^'V plan s which have heen ol.taine.1 on 

1S08, enumerates 109 sieties 01 '''"■,,, ,„ade in a short .lay, 

an.l an early start is iwt neees^aly. lnue „oi ,, 
rt'tuvHii^!*? '^ hours. 



CIIAI'. XI. 



TJIE COL DU GEANT. 



119 



ext.). Some persons j^^o only to the summit of the Col and relurn 
the same way (Cx. T. 15, courses ext.). Either of these exeursions 
recjuires an entire day. Or one can i;<) from the M(mtanvert to the 
foot of the Seracs of the Glacier du Geant (Cx. T. 25) and back in 
an aftei'iioon. 

The Col du Geant is the oldest pass across the main chain of Mont 
lUanc, and it is one of the very few that are of the least i>ractieal 
utility. In a communication to the Alpine Journal for May, 1878, 
Mons'. Cliarles Durier drew attention to a letter Avhich was published 
in the Journal do Gcndvc for Sept. 15, 1787, from a M. Henri-Albert 
(Josse ; who stated that this pass (which does not appear, however, 
at that time to have been known as the Col du Geant, see p. 37) 
was crossed on June 28, 1787, by Mons. P^xchaquet (Directeur des 
Fonderies du Haut-Faussiony), with the guides Marie Coutet (Couttet; 
and Jean-Michel Tournier "of Chamonix. They left le Prieure at 
2.15 a.m., and arrived at Courmayeur at 8 p.m. It seems pretty 
certain that the i»ass was known some time earlier, but the date of 
its discovery is unknown. It can hardly have l>een made without 
a number of }>reliminary exi>lorations, and failures. It is not an 
obvious pass when regariled from Courmayeur, and the summit can- 
not be seen either from Chamonix or from the Montanvert. It was 
crossed on Jan. 27, 1882, by the late Mr. C. 1). Cunnin.L;liam, with 
Leon Simond, Ambroise liossonney, and Ed. Cupelin, in 12 hours, 
from the Mont Frety to the Montanvert. This was said to have been 
the first winter [>assa<;e. 

Starting from the Montanvert, the way for the Col du Geant is 
the same as that for the Jardin for two-thirds of the distance to the 
Couvercle. It then ai>i>roaches the base of the Tacul, and keeps near 
the right bank of the (Jlac. du Geant, as the ice there is entirely 
free fn)m ditticulty. Years ago, it was customary to make one's way 
from this point past the ice-fall of the (^lac. du Geant either by the 
lower rocks of the Aig. Noire (see p. 37), or l)y the ice on that side 
(the right bank). But latterly it has been the habit of guides to 
conduct their Messieurs across the glacier to the left bank, and to 
tind a passage through the srrars near the Petit liognon. Both of 
these tracks are laid down on the folding map. This ice-fall is 

••(nic of the grandest ice ca.scade.s in the Alps. At the summit it is Itroken 
into transverse chasms of enormous width and depth ; the ridges between these 
break across again, and form those castellated masses to which the name of 
seracs has been api)lied. In descending the cascade the ice is crushed and 
riven ; ruined towers, which have tuml)led from the summit, cumber the slope, 
and smooth vertical precipices of ice rise in succession out of the ruins. At 
the base of the fall the broken masses are again stpieezed together, but the 
confusion is still great, and the glacier is here tossed into billowy shapes." 
Ti/ndaU. 

When above the ice-fall, make for the left hand of the rocks called 
la Vierge, and thence steer a direct course to the Col (11,030 feet). 
The Cabane there is a few feet «lown on the southern side, and 
commands a magnificent view over Italy. Ti»e descent to Courmayeur 
is etlected by the rocks immediately underneath the Cabane (over 



I 



CHAMOMX AND MONT BLANC. 



CHAI'. XI. 



1-20 

...,..l.•^ to the M»nt Krety Hotel, where a 
wliich tliere is a stront! Hack) to the 

imilepath coinuiences. ,v.*sa"e of the Col ilu Geaiit is a 

Under competent gut.hu ce t ^^ l':^'-^:^'','^„j, advisable U> neglect the 

simple matter, h, ,p,>c nrafha , but it i. not ^^^^^_^^ ^^..^,_^^,^ 

tise'of the rope o.t this l'«f < «^J -/f, o.^'the Courn.ayeur side, 
statnina to go iU-clad I'l-- :^ ;») ' ^ ;' ^^1 ^ ,„„,t Ik. treated with 
altliough there is no real >1*"^ f? ' 'f J Ucursion as that to the 
respect (pp. 52, 60). On - « f->^ "^^^ to incur danger by 
ice-fall of tlie C.lao. du ^"^»'"' V' '. „ These ice-towers lal 
approaching too ^'f ^b' "''"f ^^.^^^^^^^^^ m crossing the Co 

fmiuently.' The length ' ^""^ ^^''J ,'^,^ several hours are occupied 
.lu Geant varies consuleral ly^ o;^^ '„t -y circun.stances reckon 7 to 7A 
in iiassing the ice-fall. Uiulei oiuiiiaiy return- 

\i.nulles immediately opi.osite have peihaps the ^itd 
for visitors at tUe MontanveiiU ,j, gg courses ext.). 

Ascent of the Aiguille Verte, l-'-'*'-' '^y S"; ,,,„,.,, „,■ „,„untains 

Thb Aiguille is the ,-''-"'f '"f, '"^ t" .1 Arge-^^'- Int^-"i^-"^« 
),etween the Mer de (lace '^ '> ' %^ 7une iof 1865, with (.'l.ristian 
of the first ascent, made 'y ">>;-fj5i"^^ j"„7 Zennatt ^vas received at 

i^roilHviuit^dS ''^^^'."^^ «-"^'' '"^ ■"^- ^"'^'- 

^^" ■- r »!,„ a;.t Vorte is the ordinary one for 

The original route for the a.^ent "fj^^^^ e^^^^J'.f'.'ii^eetly towards the Wvse 
the Jardiu so far .vs the Couverclc ThencM .o^ ^^^^.^^ ^^^^ „,, j the 

,if a larce snow couloir that load» Irom "'«' V'';;,,, v„r,e with the luountam 
eU o7the ridge connecting *!'« ''"■'""'* ,f„ h - a httlo .snow couloir to the 
eaUed les Droitel The first •--ftj'^jrot^he-s, all couloir we crossed over 
right (East) of the great one. At the Joj "■ ,,,^„,^ . ^^j ,vhen u-o 

o^he large one, and a..eendcd m ^Jfe^^tTM and completed the ;v.scen 
replaced ."now turned to the rocks on the lui J"^ .^ , , . ^„„v^.. The ascent 
hv the ridge descending southwards (ndge ol the Mo.ne), > ^^^^^ ^^^ 

^■>m the Couverele to the. Summrt occ^^n-d < h • and^th ^^^^^ .^ 

'^r^^^':^^^^^'^^ °' " '^ '''" ■*""■" "'■"" "" 

-tl'^.rl'^sJINlessrs T^ ^^.^^^gJ^^^-jiJ^^T:^^ 

to the summit and back to the Coiuercie. 

. 1 r'm«h ' crash ' ci-ash ! nearer and nearer, 

1 " A peal above us brought us to a «taml Ct^sn^- c ^ ^^,.,,.,.„aing nias.<es broke 

the sJunll becoming ^"-'•^^-^J^Xc^'^^'can e ' SK half a ton. or "^ore n; v.^,g t. 

into smaller blocks. Onward the\ ^a'"^ • -^ ^^ jr ^ole nussion was to ciush ine 

leaSin" down with a kind of maniacal i^^J'^l hi ice rel)ounded like elastic balK 

' C'est terrible ! il faut relourner. TymlalL 



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CHAMOMX ASD MOST lU.AXr. 



CHAl'. XI- 



!L, ,„eve is . st,.o,,. tnuU) U, ti,c N.-.U .-.cHy H..te.. ...ce a 

.inq.le .natter. /« /"<' "•«'"«' ' ' "^ ",/ .;;,"' ,„. f.„. ,,crsons ^vithout 
usc\.f the ropo on t ns i,as. (sec .5 ^^^ ,.;„„,„ayo«i- si.le, 

slan,ina to go .ll-c-la,l IM': :;;-*^> • •;' J,!,, ,„„,( ,,« treate.l u.tl. 
altl,o>.-l. there is no real ''""^•' '.>•..".,, "i'^,,„.sion as that to ll,e 

i,e.faU of the caae -h. ^"'^'"'^.V?" '"' ,, These iee-towers tall 
„,,,roaehing too '^'-^^^^"''^'^^X^'^n in er.,ssin, the Co 
f,e.i«ently.' The length '""^ , ,;, ,,,„,,, |,o„rs are oeeu,,.e. 

Vi.aiilles innneaiately opposite have i-eihap. tUt ^luiit 
tW visitors at the >U»ntaHven 3^, courses ext.)- 

Ascent of the Aiguille Verte, 1'^;; { /^^/ [,^. i.i,,^, .f lu.nu.taius 
This Ai-uille is tlie cuhuinatinu 1" " \;'\^-\;..,,,ti;.,,. Intelli.uence 
Uetween^he Mer de (jh.co ^"^ -, ;^; , j ;^ rV;!o5, .ith dni.tian 
of the tirst ascent, ina.le >y ?">^f . " J, "^' Zenuatt ^vas reeeivcl at 
Ahuer of <■Hnael^vala anJ tr.^ ^,, ^,;^,, ,,,,. 

("haimmix ^Mtll im-reduht}. i?>te ocyr/ 

"^^"^■^ . r 41.0 \ur Vei-te is the urcHnary one tur 

The orioinal n,ute fur the ascent ',^^^^^;^^-^.^;:;i airoctly towards tlic hase 

the Jardhi solar =^^t '^VTwl frouH 1^^ ^^^ '^^^^'"^ ''^^'' ''^' ''\ 

of a lart?e snow eouloir that leads i''^"\ S'W'lu^. Verte with the luouutam 
c est otShe ridge connecting ^he sun nu i .^ \^^^i^. ,,,,„, ,,,,u,ir to the 
called les Droites. The hrst ^^^f ,^, ^^ ^.^^f ^the sniall couloir we crossed over 
right (East) of the great one. At ^^h^J*^!' °\',\uere was s.n.r .- and when ice- 
to the large one, and ascended in it =;V^ J^/ f . '\ve't ) antl completed the ascent 
l^lAaced ^,ow turned to the n^l- - th^J^^ ^^M^iine), hy si^.>w. Tlie ascent 
l.v the rid<Te descending south\Nau s (iuit<^ > 1 ^j^ descent troin the 

l-.u^he Couvercle to the ^-"{^ occui;^^^^ ^^'Z track is lai.l down 
':r^^:iJ^^'::::;^!:^^ ^t^t is al., shewn u,on the Illus- 

^-S;^Xlyl^if -Mess. T S^^^^^^^^^ 

to the summit and hack to the Couvercle. 

. 1 r'r-.sh' crash' crash! nearer and nearer, 
1 -A peal above us hrou-ht us to a sUml. UasiJ • ^ - ^i^.^^.^.^^i,,^. ,nasscs broke 

i„to smaller blocks. On'.vur.l iLo an t . «wi ^^^.^^^^^,^ ^^^ ^ ,^1,1 t be 

\Xhvr clown with a kind of nuunacul fu , a^ ' ^ rebounded like elastic ball>, 

' Cest terrible \ il taut retourner. Tunaaii. 



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CHAMONIX AND MoNT BLANC. 



CHAP. XI. 



1*2*2 

In going from the chrdots ot L;>gnun to U.c ^mi^^ Jo„.;n./, vol. 

vm, pp. '^■f':.^ ^uVcn c de U Charpoua, and thence by the large coiilon- 
oner ascended , m the ^'1'^%'^^ '^ ^\.y{ le.dintr downwards from, and slightly 
which is seen in the ll^^^^tr^^^^^"!'" l^^V^^nner i^^^ the couloir divides, 

to the left of the ^^^l""^^^ - ;;;;.^\ ! ^,^f ^^^he^,^ towards 

A. F. Mummery. . . „.,,„,j ,,,,» „,|,,ear that there is any 

From the times that were occupied, it ^^" '')""' ^'''"^^^^ ™i„st the.n. 
advantage in following the.e ■•,']»f '; '""?^*;'^'," fcS,,rS^^^ at every 

That by the Charpoua "''^^"F . /, "l*",„*^,f t^ste^^^^ the impact of a falling 
step the texture ot ""^.^f;'' J^^f i-^L^ he Argentil.re Glae. it is said ';that 

snow it would 1.C madness to attempt it. JUlliiiU. 

' var„fovn>ed at the Moutanvert, at the dose "« .t''%^«'^" j 

tikcii on any two successive occasions. 

" The Aiguille du Dru is the n»st pro,nmeut of ^^^^^^ ^^J'Z^:: 

Montauvert. It hexs two sumnnts o «h^^h ^^e c.u ern ^^^^^^ ^^^^ ^.^^^^^_ 

'*"'VTo,!?4Xle'"'Thct'high.^t It Te true summit of the Dru is n.,w 
one IS alone ^i*\pig. inc "%" ,t ^ ' i^te Est ' or ' sommet oriental. Ihe 
sometimes -^f^^^^f^^l Dn.-omn.et 'occidental.' ' pointe Charlcf 
lower summit is termed tne rcut ^^^i' .. .« .p ^^ courses ext.). 

The tirst ascent of the Aiguille du Dm \^'f ^ ;^^\^!^^• }^[^^Z Burgener and 
was made in 1878 ^J^^^'J>^^ ^Ld '^- AiJX o^lL rjo. of the 

!;ildn^iifXSo.^t%e^r^^^^^ 

ascent of the Grand Dru has been made l^^ ^^^ for^^h^^ peaks become 

Si^t rr^Lr^ = f ^ -tv^^^^^^^ ^om 

the one route and to descend by the other. ^^^ 

The Pic Sans Nom (j-^ included m the Cx.T.^ mail g ^^.^ .^ ^^^ 

ridge of the Dru, to the E. of Jhe Grand Dru ihe r^ ^^^ charpoua 

same as for the ascent ot either Dru ^^^.^^^/''^J^ track on Illustration on 
ra.juo. (9:324 feet), after that it becomes distinct, bee tracR ^ ^^^ 

p.- 1-21. The tirst ascent was made by ^l^;^^"-'^^^^^^^ ro>juon, 

July -28, 1890, who bivouacked on the lower part ^^^f \t^^/;^/,^„,,it to the 
occupied 11 hs. thence to the summit, F^^^ ^^}, ^^^'J'^'^lZ^ Mr. Wicks 



CIIAl'. XI. 



77//1: CO/. /)£■ TALE FEE. 



1*23 



The ascent of the Aiguille du Moine, 11,*214 feet (Cx. T. 46, courses 
ext.). This Aiguille is situated at the soutliern end of the southern 
rid^^e of the Verte. Its ascent lias been made from several directions, 
Imt the S. side (sliewn on the ri<i,ht of the Illustration on j). 1*21) is 
geneially preferred. Time from Montauvert and back about 9 liours. 

Les Droites, 13,*2*22 feet, and les Courtes, 12,648 feet, after the Aig. 
Verte, tlie two lii<j;liest points of the ridge separating tlie (Jlacs, of 
Talefre and Argenticre, have both l)een ascende<l, and might be made 
the subject of excursions if they were worth the trouble. They are 
not on tlie List.i The Aiguille de Triolet, 12,727 feet, and the Col de 
Triolet (Cx. T. 14, 18, courses ext.) may very well be let alone. Tlie 
former is inferior as a point of view to others which can be gained 
more easily (such as the Aig. du Moine), and the Col is useless as 
a Pass. This is not the case with the 

Col de Talefre, about 11,000 feet, which is one of the few i>asses 
across tlie main range of Mont Blanc that are of the least practical 
utility, or which can compete in time with tlie Col du (Jeant. Uikui 
tlie Jirst passage of this Col on July 3, 1865, we took 13 lis. from 
tlie Montauvert to Courmayeur, including halts, or less th.in 10 lis. 
going time. See Scrambles anwugst the Alj*>s, chaj). xix. The track 
is laid down on the folding map. 

On leaving the Couvcrcle, make for the N. end of the Jardin ; and, after 



passing it, steer a direct course to a bent snow couloir situated at the head 
of the Glac. de Talefre. See Illustration upon p. 117. Time on the tirst 
passage from the Mont^mvert to the summit of the i)ass was 4 h. 35 min., 
•hiding halts. The descent upon the ItaHan side leads down steep but firm 
;ks, well broken up, in about 40 min. to the head of the Glac. de Triolet. 



passage 

inc" 

roc 

Make your way to the i-i<j/it hank of the g:lacier, and upon getting into the 

Val Ferret cross the Doire torrent by the bridge at Gruettii. This excursion is 

upon the Courmayeur Tarif des Courses, but is not upon the Chamonix one. 

Continuing the circuit of the basin of the Talefre, we linally come 
to the Aig. du Talefre, 12,287 feet, which has been ascended from the 
basin of the Lescliaux (Lechaud) Glacier, by the Glac. de Pierre 
Joseph. 

The head of the basin of the Lescliaux (Hacier is surrounded by 
mountains of high average elevation, the finest individual bits being 
the imposing wall of the Grandes Jorasses, which is one of the grandest 
things of its kind in the Al2>s, and tlie steej) corner witli the (Jlac. 
du Mont Mallet. Several passes lead out of this basin to the Italian 
side, but none of them are adapted to novices. Commencing at the 
eastern corner, there is the Col de Pierre Joseph (Cx. T. 22, 23, courses 
ext.), which goes over tlie top of the Aig. de lEboulement, 11,836 feet, 
and descends upon tiie Glac. de Triolet. Of this pass, its discoverer, 
Mr. Heathcote, says, " I may i>eriiaps be permitted to add ... it is 
one that can never l>ecome i)opular." Next there is the Col de 
Leschaux, 1 1,280 feet, between the Aigs. de FEboulement and Lescliaux 
(at the foot of the latter), wdiich also descends upon the CJlac. de 

1 The basin of the Glac. de Talefre is considered good huntin<,'-ground for crystals; 
and the slopes of les Courtes have at times yieldtxl large (luantities. Victor Tissa\ , a 
guide, told De Saussure in 17S4 that he liad collected '600 lbs. weight there in three 
hoiu-s 1 



124 



CHAMOSTX AND MONT BLANC. 



CHAP. XI. 



Triolet; then the Col des Hirondenes IM 
^^;:^^ia^t.'Th^^^^ -e .0. the foHo.h. 

ahead certain l.y.terious ^^ .^^^J tv Suteiy inotic>nU.ss l^tore 
upon the glacier. ^o«^e tv%ent> \'l^^\^} ^^ i^^^^,. mature, and not, as 1 nmH 
us; and as^e approached -«^^^.^^^^^^,^,; "'of badness. In tact, we had beiore 
venture to add, without a ^'^^^taui teeling oi sometimes rage m the^e 

us a proof of the terrible P^^^^//.^^,';^' corpses-nut human corpses, which, 
upper regions. The twenty object. ^^ ere coq -^^ ^ .^le iK>or httle 

i, deed, Sould in some sense have ^'^^^^ f^^-^^^^^^i^^, of swallows. Hovv it came 
bodies which lay before us ^^'^^r^^^f ,".;"'^VriIck down so suddenly as their posi- 
to pass that the little company ^^d ;c^ ^^nuJ.^^",^ .f ^n minutes' flight with 

tion seemed to in^^i-^^^f l^•^ft;^^ht the"'^r^ shelter of the Chamonix 
those strong wings would have ^^r^^^;|^\;^^^"{,,i,, ,vall to the congenial climate 
forests, or have taken thenv^^ro^^ the n^^^^^^ ^.^^ warmth, or been 

of Italv. Whether the h^^ds had g;^there^l t ^|, .^ ^^ body, there 

.tupetied so ^\^^lt"'^'J'^l .ndtokTn^^ strangely pathetic in he 

thev were, umted m death, and I'^oking Stephen, in the .1/^^^". Journal, 
midst of the snowy Nvilderneb>. -^H- i^«- "^ ^ i 



vol. vi, p. 



■'''^* ,• u • fbp Pol des Grandes Jorasses, hetAveen 

A fourth pass, into this ba^ U^ M d^^^^^^^, , ,i. Middle 

'-^^^:rt the bloeU of ii^^Uuns --- ^^^^ ^^^ 
(;ia<s. de Lesehaux and du ^'^«:^^t, »'^^^\^ f ^^ogo feet (Cx. T. 47, 
Mallet,! 13,084 feet, and the P c f\f^^^^^^^^^ but the Aiguille 

rr f ?^ 1^ i::n^^T ^T^/c -s^ -t.), ;hieh is the most 
du Geant, 13,lob teet VV^'- ^ / ', . Couriuayenr. 
appetizing of the poup, is .'*; , ''^^J „' ,f ' l.c CMae. flu Ceant (beyona 
'ri.e principal excursions ,n t le V< s n o t e ^ ^^^^ ^ 

the vi.i't to tl.e ice-fal , an,l the tol^i^ ^'^'^^ j^ ^^„j ^.e Aiguille du 
du Midi, 1-2,008 feet (Cx. T. 36, Courses ex ^ ^^_^^_^^^^_^ 

1 This peak is situated at the head of the OJac clu ^^^t ^I^Jl^t,^^L.jS^.L.^of^^ 
du jSnt, and distant from it ^ ><?"t one kilo re. 1 ^^^.^^ ^,„aere,'^ Ak-x Tourna-r, 
Leslie Stephen, Wallroth, and Loppc-. ^^th »ic uiOc^^^ ^^^^ ', "? ,, ^ ' ' »u^c 

and ? Cachat, on Sept. ■^' ^»' V.The rid^e on which we stoo<l was ">term Ul \'J^^p^^ 

cnnerinid-ai?, which placed him m the rij?ht h, e of asce U^ ^^^^^-^^ anpym^ 

vnWirJ^'ached the sununit. . . The l^J"^, f,^;^', j.^^^tv ice-stre.uns which combme to 
:jfeps the most cmnplete pan.jraina ^^^aU ^ mi.ht.^ .^^^ ^^^^^^^^^^^ ^.^j ,.^ ^, ,,,, 

brni the Mer de Ulace. ,. ^1^\^^%'L*^2\ I't «/e« Coursr,. . ^ ,, 

This excursion is not mentioned in the i« '/ e^ ^^^^^^.^ j.^^^^^ ,,,^1, ,,. 

^^/^d^r^^^r^^^ U^tr^i^ty/and, after passin. the 



CHAP. XI. 



THE AIGUILLES. 



125 



Tlie Aiguilles in the vicinity of the Montanvert are not, for the 
most part, suitable for l>egiiiners in mountaineering. The Blaitiere, 
11 .>91 feet (Cx. T. 43, courses ext.), was ascended m 1874; the 
Charmoz, 11/293 feet (Cx. T. 44, courses ext.), in 1880; and the 
Grepon in the same year. Amongst minor excursions whicli are 
frequently made from the Montanvert may he mentioned the ascent 
of the little Charmoz, which will occupy about .S hs. going up and 
2 hs. coming down ; and the Aiguille des Grands Montets, 10,8oO 
feet, a smallpeak (not marked on my map) to the E. of the Aig. du 
IJochard, which can be got at via the (ilac. du Nant Pdanc, or from 
the ( Jlac. de Lognan, or from that of Argentiere. The ascent of this 
Ai-uiUe can be combined with the passage of the Col des Grands 
Mo'ntets (Cx. T. 28, 29, 30, courses ext.) from the Montanvert to 
Lognan, returning by a path ciu the Ch. de hi Pendant ami the 
Chapeau. The nmnd can be made comfortably m a short ilay. 

second ice-fall of the lateral glacier which descends from the Ai- du l'l'"'.,f»»';;f \,^t 
riZlemtelv steep snow-slope whic-li led to a curiously curved snow a,rte, at the 
further ?nd of which appeared our Ai-uille. On arriving at its ^'^f^i}'^^'^^^^^^} 
lo the Chamonix side, and after fix e or ten minutes' easy chmbm- arrived at the sumnut 
a little after G a.m.*' 




LESLIE STEPHEN. 



CHAPTER XII. 



EXCURSIONS FROM LOGNAN. 

CHAMONIX TO LOGNAN — GLACIER d'ARGENTIERE — COL DOLENT — COL 
D'ARGENTIERE — ASCENT OF LA TOUR NOIRE — COL DE LA TOIR 
XOIRE — COL DU CILVKDONNET — FENETRE DE SALEINOZ — COL 1)U 
TOUR— FENETRE DU TOUR— AIGUILLE DU TOUR— ASCENT OF THE 
AIGUILLE D'ARGENTIERE— AIGUILLE DU CHARDONNET. 

The excursions from Logman embrace tliose wliicli can he ma.le witlim 
or lea.linu- out of tlie basin of tlie (llacier (rAr-entii're. This -lacier, 
it will he seen from the Ma}., is one of the most considerable in the 
Kan<'e. The lar-e area that it covers will not be snspected by those 
who'view it froiii the Villa<;e of Ar-:entiere, or iixleed fn.m L(>-nan ; 
as from those places only a ])ortion of its h)wer course is seen. 

To •••et to Lojiiian from Chamonix, «;-o to (Miauzalet, 3S21) feet 
(see i». loT), an<l tTirn to the ri-ht, throu-h the little -nm]) cf chalets. 
The path so<ni takes to the lateral moraine on the lett bank ot the 
Ar-entiere (llacier, ami continues near the ice for the best part of 
an "hour. It then bears to the ri-ht (south), ami afterwards resumes 
nearly its original direction, and mounts <lirectly towards the Hotel, 
which can l)e seen a considerable distance away. Time from Chauzalet 
•2 hs.i One can also oet to Lo-nan from the Village of Argentiere 
(Cx T. 93-96), or go there across ccmntry from the Montanvert, rut 
the Vliapeau and the Chalets of la Tendant, by a ])ath all the way. 
The Hotel, 621)3 feet (poor place, prices rather high), has replaced 
the old chrdets which were formerly used on excursions in this basin. 
The (ilacier .rArgentiere is nearly 7 uiiles long. Its lower 2 miles 
descend over a steep bed, and the ice there is so fissured as to be 
practically impassable. The uppermost 4 miles, however, are unusu- 
ally Hat, and attonl an agreeable promenade, which may 1k3 taken 
at "any hour of the day, amid scenery of the grandest character. Ihe 
intermediate mile rises rather steeply, but any (me can traverse it, 
and <'et to the ui.per plateau, if fnf l»J <' rnmi>rfrnf (jindr. I lie pofh 
exten.ls some distance above Lognan, ami after its termination the 
route follows the left l»ank of the glacier. The whole of the ui.per 
basi.i <(»mes into view when opposite to the Aig. du Chardonnet, and 
thence it is plain sailing up to the foot of the clitls at the farthest 
extremity. A rope should be usciJ, though for the most part the 
crevasses are visible and narrow. 

The lM)ttom of this large i>lateau (which is considerably more ex- 
tensive than the (Jrand Plateau on Mont IJlanc) is Hat and smooth 
enough for a cyclist; but the slopes on each side rise steeply, par- 

1 This i^ath has been accidentally oniitte<l on the fol(lin<r >L'vi>. 



CHAR. NIL 



rilE COL DOLENT. 



12: 



ticularly those (»f the Verte, les Droites and les Courtes, and are 
encrusted with glaciers that send many an avalanche thundering 
down. Keep at least several hundre<l feet away from the debris 
which will be seen at the foot of these slopes. (See i)age 60 for t^he 
fate of the Abbe ChiHlet.) At the extreme head of the (Jlac. <1 Ar- 
-entiere, the cliffs extending from the Aig. de Triolet to ]\Iont Dolent 
arc too precipitous to permit the lodgment of snow in any <iuantity ; 
but there is one large gully which will attract attention by its size 
and from its leading up to the lowest point on the ridge, tliat, ap- 
i»arently, is filled with snow. This is the Col Dolent. Its summit 
is (m tiie frontier, and on the other side there is the (Jlac. du Mont 
Dolent (or Pre de liar). In making a passage through this gap on 
June '^() 186.'), we^ were animated by a hoi)e that we might lind a 
pass which wouM compete with the (\d du (leant; but, although we 
went tbrough from C(mrmayeur to Chamonix in a day, at the end 
of the day we felt there was not much likelihood of the Col Dolent 
snpersedin'.. the Col .In (Jeant. Setting out from (Vmrmayeur at 
2() mill, to 1 in the morning, at 4.30 a.m. we j.assed the chalets of 
Pre de liar, and at a cpiartcr past 8 were at the head of the glacier 
of the same name, and at the foot of the Col. 

'It was the beau-ide:.! of a pass. There was a gap in the nionntains, with 
a bi<r peak on each side (Mont Dolent and the Aiguille de 1 riolet . A narr(.w 
thre^ld ..f sncw le<l up to the lowest point between them, and the bliie sky 
Leyond said. Directly you arrive here you will begin t() go down. VVe ad- 
dressed ourselves Ui our task, and at 10.1.^. a.m. arrived at the top of the 
pass Had things gone as thev ought, within six hours more we should liave 
l>een at Chanu.nix. Ui>on the "other side we knew that there was a couloir in 
correspondence with that up which we had just come It it had been tilled 
with snow all would have been well. It turned out to be hlled with ice. Croz, 
who led, iKissed over to the other side, and reported that we should get down 
somehow ; but I knew from the sound of his axe how the somehmv would be. 

"Croz was tied up with our good Manilla rope, and the whole 200 teet were 
iiaid out gradually by Aimer and Biencr before he ceased working. After two 
hours' incessant toil," he was able to anchor himself to the rock on his right. 
Ho then untied himself, the rope was drawn in, Biener was attached to the 
end and went down to join his comrade. There was then room enough tor 
me to stand by the side of Aimer, and I got my first view of the other side 
For the first time in my life I looked down a slope more than a thousand feet 
long, set at an angle of about W, which was a sheet of ice from top to bottom. 
It r4s unbroken bv rock or crag, and anything thrown down it sped away 
unarrested until the level of the (Glacier d'Argentierc was reached. . . I de- 
scended the icy st^iircase and joined the others, and then we three drew in 
the roi.c tenderly as Aimer came down. The process was repeate( ; Croz again 
jroinsr to the front, an<l availing himself very skilfully ot the rocks which pro- 
jected from the cliff on our right. Our 200 feet of rope again came to an end, 
and wo again descended one by one. From this point we were able to clamber 
down by the rocks alone for about 300 feet. They then became sheer clitt, 
and we stopped for dinner, about 2.30 p.m., at the last ijlace upon which we 
c(nild sit. Four hours' incessant work had l)rought us rather more than half- 
way down the jruHy. We were now approaching, although we were still high 
above, the schrund^ at its base, and the guides made out, in some way un- 
knowA to me, that Nature had perversely placed the only snow-bndge across 
the topmost one towards the centre of the gully. It was decided to cut diagon- 
ally across the gully to the point where the snow-bridgo was supposed to l^e. 

1 Michel Croz of Chamonix, Christian Ahuer of Grindclwald, Franz Biener of Zermatt, 
and nivself. 




THE SUMMIT OF THE COL DOLENT. 



CHAI*. Xlf. 



A GREAT ICE -SLOPE. 



1-29 



Aimer and Biener undertook the work, leaving Croz and myselt hrnily planted 
on the rocks to pay out the rope to them as they advanced. 

" Aimer and Biener got to the end of their tether ; the rope no longer assured 
their safety, and they stopped work as we advanced and coiled it up. Shortly 
afterwards they struck a streak of snow that proved to be just above the bridge 
of which they 'were in search. The slope steepened, and tor thirty feet or so 
we descended face to the wall, making steps by kickiiig with the toes, and 
thrusting the arms well into the holes above, just as if they had been rounds 
in a ladder. At this time we were crossing the uppermost ot the schrunds. 
Needless to say that the snow was of an admirable (piahty ; this performance 
would otherwise have been impossible. It was soon over, and we then found 




CHRISTIAN ALMEK.l 



cursclves up..n a huge rhomboidal mass ot ice, and ^^'l .^^l'^'';^^*^, ;"" ^ 
Argentiere (Jlacier by a gigantic crevasse. The only bridge ^^J^^^ 
schrund was at its eastern end, and we were obliged to double back to get to 
it. Cutting continued for half-an-hour after it was passed and it Y^:';'^' 1 -"J' 
}>cfore the axes stopped work, and we could at bist turn back ^^'^^V^^^^.^'^^t^j^'^^^; 
ably at the formidable slope upon which seven hours had been spent.- When 
we arrived upon the (Jlacier d' Argentiere our work was as good as over Uc 
drove a straight track to the chalets ot Lognan. and thence the '^■^\^f^''^^ 
familiar ground. Soon after dusk we got upon the high road at le Tine., 
and at 10 p.m. arrived at Chamonix." Srmmhhs umonijd the Alps, chap. xvn. 

This pass has sul)se(iuently l)een traversed twice in the contrary 
direction (staitin- from Lo-nan) ; but, notwithstanding the attractions 
that it has for the Alpinist, no one, I helieve, has again crossed it 
from Courmayeur to Chamonix. There are few places in tlie Kange 

1 Bv permission, from a photoj^raph by Mr. E. Edwards. 

•-' I ■estimate the liei-ht of this slope at 121H) feet. The triangulation of Capt. Mieulet 
makes the height of the pass 11,024 feet above the sea. 

K 



t^^ 



^ 



K .c'\ 



i^ 



'%..: 




'* 



THE SUMMIT OF THE COL DOLENT. 



CHAI'. XII. 



A GREAT fCE-SfJtl'K. 



120 



Aimer and Bicncr unclortock the work, leaving Croz ami myselt hrnily planted 
i.u the rocks to i.av out the rope to them as they advanced. 

" Aimer and Hiener got to the end of their tether ; the rope no longer assured 
their safetv. and thev stopped work as we advanced and coiled it up. Shortly 
atterwar<ls' thev struck a streak of snow that proved to be just above the bridge 
of which thev'werc in search. The slope steepened, and for thirty feet or so 
we descended face in the wall, making steps by kicking with the toes, and 
thrusting the arms well into the holes above, just as it they had been rounds 
in a lad.lcr. At this time we were crossing the uppermost ol the sclirunrls. 
Needless U) say that the snow was of an admirable .piality ; this poHonnance 
would otherwise have been impossible. It was soon over, and we then lound 




CHKlsriAN ALMKK.l 




ai)lv at tne lorimoaoit; moi>w .4"'h "i...... •-■- x , 

we'arrived upon the (llacier d'Argentiere our work was as good .is mcr N c 
drove a straight track to the chalets of Lognan. and thence the ^^}}^%^^ 
familiar groun<l. Soon after dusk we got up<.n the high road at lo> li"^-, 



and at 10 p.m. arrived at Chamonix." Sm(„^l>f'.< omnuust (/,>' J/p", chap. xvu. 
Tiiis i>a^s has subse.|iKMitlv been traversed twiee in the contrary 
direction (startinu fnuii Lognan); Imt, notwithstanding the attraetu.ns 
that it lias for the Alpinist, no one, I believe, lias again crossed it 
from ('oiirniayenr to (Mianionix. There are few places in the Kange 

1 r.v ponnission. from a photograph by >b'. K. Kdwards. „• i . 

•-• 1 cstiinute the hci;.lU of this slope at 12(K) ivvX. The trianyulution of Capt. Miei.let 
makes the height of the pass ll,(i-24 feet al.ove the sea. 



CHAMONIX AXD MONT BLANC. 



CHAP. XII. 

130 ' ^' 

of Mont Hlane that otter letter opportunities for the use of tl.e ice- 

axe.^ , , ,,1 • ,. .r \v.rAnfifMp the slopes between 

M^ ^lnVtftli?.:'&:ln!:tt:^i:s« steep, lut not .e. 



CI. DC ^^^ 




PRAZ DE FORT ,>, • ^Tl 

beautiful than the ^-reater ones .,f the Verte and les Dro.tes. Three 
passes lead across tlieiu. 

The Col d'Argentiere, 11,549 feet (Cx. T. 19, courses ext.), «as .Us- 

: The severity of the latour o„ thi» --^-'i -^'flfi .(iJr^;;^ ,:i.?J:„rWn\^™^^^^ 
rather alarmi>,|; ma,.ner o„ the M'"""*' '^^ ' !;",'„V' he AkSJ Verte, three davs later. 
S;;/SUnuiy:':.rS ;;!,w>Jt ^.n^Jl-'. >« ^^t.. - the active «., a„a . 
more vigorous than many men of five-and-UNent}. 






cii. XII. COLS UAUGENTIERE AND DU CHARDONNET. 131 

covered by Augiiste Siinond of les Tines wliile searching for crystals, 
and was first crossed, on Jnne 2*2, 1861, by him and his son along 
with Mr. Stephen Winkworth and Tol>ie Simond. They took 7 hs. 
from Lognan to the to[> of the pass, and 12 hs. more in tlescending 
via tlie Glac. de Laneuvaz to la Folly in the Val P'erret, and thence 
to ( )rsieres.^ Tlie snmmit of the Col is on the south-east side of la 
Tour Noire, 12,(308 feet, a little peak that can be climbed (by rocks) 
in 1| hs. from tlie pass. This ascent was first made on Aug. 3, 1876, 
by the late Mons. E. Javelle and Mr. F. Turner. 

In July, 1862, the late Mr. R. J. S. Macdonald and the Rev. 
Hereford *R. George, witli Melchior Anderegg and Christian Aimer, 
proposed to cross the Col d'Argentiere ; but through taking the W. 
instead of the E. side of the Tour Noire they invented the Col de 
la Tour Noire (height about the same as the Col d'Argentiere) and 
descended on to the (41ac. de Saleinoz (Saleinaz, Salena) instead of the 
Glac. de Laneuvaz, where there passed a night in a hollow of the ice 
(at the point marked with a cross upon the accompanying Plan), and 
arrived at Orsieres at 9 on the following morning, having occupied 
31 hours in getting to that dirty jdace from Argentiere!- This pass 
has not, I believe, been again crossed from Argentiere to Orsieres. 
Like the Col Dolent, it is not included in the Cx. T. des courses. 

The third pass, tlie Col du Chardonnet, 10,978 feet (Cx. T. 14, 16, 
courses ext.), is tlie lowest depression l)etween the Aigs. d'Argentiere 
and du Chardonnet. In 1861, Mr. Winkworth remarked, "Between 
the Chardonnet and the Argentiere is a tributary glacier, steep and 
crevassed, but I thought not imijracticable, and leading — who knows 
where? Simond thought to the Glac. du Tour." It actually leads to 
the ( Uacier de Saleinoz. The maps of ^Mont Blanc at that time were 
much at fault at this end of the Range. The Col was first crossed 
on Aug. 24, 1863, by Mr. A. Adams-Reilly (for the Survey which was 
necessary to produce his ]\la]>) along with Mr. S. Brandram, the 
eminent 'rea«ler.' After descemUng to the ui>i)er part of the Saleinoz 
Glacier, Reilly went through the Fenetre de Saleinoz (marked on the 
Plan upon p. 130 Col Fenetre), then descended the Glac. d'Orny by the 
way usually taken when crossing the Col du Tour, and arrived at Or- 
sieres in \'^\ hs, , halts included. Ex. halts, about 1 1| hs. is average time. 

Of late years, an excursion has been established from Lognan over 
the Col du Chardonnet, the Fenetre de Saleinoz, 10,856 feet, and the 
Col du Tour, 10,991 feet, descending upon the Village of le Tour, 
4695 feet, and returning thence to Chamonix (Cx T. 17, courses ext.) ^ 

1 The excursion is describecl by Mr. Winkworth in the sccuud series of Peaks, Pasties 
and Glaciers, vol. i, pp. 231-48. 'The height of the pass is stated there to be 12,55t) 
feet, and its summit is laid down upon the map accompanying the paper in a position 
that it does not occupy. 

- This adventure is related bv the Rev. H. B. George in a very interesting paper in 
the Alpim Journal, vol. i, pp. 274-88. The Col was named after la Tour Noire, and 
that name ap]>ears to have been given to the peak because it is a tower or pinnacle of 
dark rock. ri)on the Mieulet and the Siegfried Maps the Peak is called le Tour Noir ! 
and M. Kurz, in his Guide a Vusage des ascensionnistes, calls the Pass Col du Tour 
Noir : On the folding map I follow the Official spelling. 

3 I am told that joung Chamoniards who aspire to be Guides are made to cross 
these three passes in a da> , as a test of their ])roficiency. 



CHAilOMX AMJ }IOi\T VLAM'. 



CUM'. XII. 

I ,. Tlu. ti-ick is iiiaikwl on tlie t'o!<liiij; 
Tl.e round is done m one .laj. f''*-, "• '^. ^j, ' ti„.„„„l, the Fenetre 
,„„, [A variation can .e ":«;'« "';.■;, .^.r," ';.,,, tT.kes less tin.e, 
du Tour (atu^ cn,ssn^t - ^.^'j ';,,;'"" the Kenetre .le Saleino. 
r\:'rut.r';'He;:ltrre,n;«ntin. to the Co. ..« Tonr.]. 



T o^nan to the summit of Col du Chardonnet . 
Cof du Char<lonnet to top of Fenetre de fealemoz 
Fe Jtre de Saleinoz to Milage ot Argentiere . 



h. mill. 

4 45 

2 15 

4 45 



The vrineipa. A^.ts to ,. n^ie i^U^ a. tho. ^^ ^ 
Ai-. .1 Ar-entieve and '''^ -^'-; "" . . j^ ^„ i„si-nili«uit peak, 
Tour, ll,o85 feet if:\^^^^°ZZ hu a. ,,o„r fr.Tn. the Col .1« 
tS iT^ZSfo!:^^^^ o^tTie Ulac. dn Trient. 

The UiUe d'Ar,entiere .2,700 ^!^^:^-^,^Z:S^^:. 
the highest point at ^'"''^ ,«"' .";,"'.%nd t\vas this fact that le.l to 

at the northern f «>f/';^ .;?."?„' iTol We ".ade n.ore than one 
the first ascent by Mi. l\eill> m i»o* ^,^,^j 

attempt l>efore the snnmnt ^ as f'"^Xjv the ruh-e leading to 
the as'cent conUl ''f/"-";!' if ^,,^ ,,< m e Tl il rmite was fonn.l 
the summit from the t ol ''^^^ l;^,"; '" ^^j^ distance from the Col 
""'"■1*"; fe '"; .entii^re dacieT, and re.a.cen.le.1 hy a small lateral 
'W an a'cot .aho?e it, directly to>s-ards the summit. 



o 



° .The ,.aeier was ^t-p and the snow ^ul.yrjsi^^^^^^^^^^ 

Seven hundred steps wore "■':,/,''^" * ^„'; ' ""„ rUljie, at a point ahout 1;.00 
to the rocks on its. left, and at . -st gained the t i j,^^ ^^^^ . 

feet al«ve the Col. We f;'""' " "^^^ '," ereV^n the Saleino. side. The., we 
t:r1l^™.^r.r;^n.t'''n'^*;re":h.:J.ld^^;'? t..rnin„ as we were with.n ..0 

-^^J';:x:rr^ro. and Couttet^nt to^woH. - -- f-,:!;-:^^::^ 
about as steep as snow could be. I^^.^"^,^^^^^^ ^,,,.av in streaks directly it 

crust; drv and utterly incoherent ^^hchsllpp^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^^^ 

^■a. meddled with. The men ^'^f, ,^" /i^^ Xt;\he powdery stuff, which 
underneath, and to Pa"«e -c^-^^ntl^^ l\Trd XLtum! Ugh! how cold it 
poured down in ^.^«J"f, ^f,^'^"^' ^^Jet'. hat was torn from its fastenings and 
Ivas ! How the wind ble^^ ! ^^""^^;^^; \'^^ .^ow, swept off the ridge above, 
^^•ent on a tour in Switzerland. V? i^f^Vn ^0.0^,^/.. • then, dropt in lulls, or 
was tossed spirally upwards, eddying ^J'^f"^^; ^^^ 'the Saleinoz. ' My 
caught by other gusts, was A^^"^ ^ r, '^i Reilly 'how about frost-bites r 
feet are getting suspiciously ^^""j^f ^\ .^^^"1^ *^JX^ Their lingers were 

'Kick hard, sir,' shouted he men ts the onlj a ^^^^^ |,i,Ue<l and 

kept alive lv>' their work ; ^^^^^^ther example too 'violently, and made a 
lircirtJoSlS^ ?:^y Jo^J^ VlSStter followed as if crockery had been 
'''':!T^^^\i:;r'a step or two, and discovered in a second that all were 

, :j^r^z^.^f:^ Sa;?:r:^/^^ ^^'^^^i^^-^^ 



cii. XII. IIESURRECTION OF THE POINTE DES PLIXES 133 

standing over a cavern (not a crevasse, speaking properly) that was bridged 
over by a thin vault of ice, from which great icicles hung in groves. Almost 
in the same minute Reilly pushed one of his hands right through the roof, 
The whole i)arty might have tumbled through at any moment. 'Go ahead, 
Croz, we are over a chasm!' 'We know it,' he answered, 'and we can't find 
a firm place.' In the blandest manner, my comrade incpiired if to persevere 
would not be to do that which is called 'tempting Providence.' My reply 
being in the affirmative, he further observed. 'Sui)pose we go down?' 'Very 
willingly.' 'Ask the guides.' They had not the least objection; so we went 
down, and s-i::pt that night at the Montanvert. 

"We set out on the 14th of July, with Croz, Payot,i and Charlet, to finish 
off the work which had been cut short so abruptly, and slept, as before, at 
the Chalets de Lognan. On the 15th, about mid -day, we arrived upon the 
summit of the aiguille, and found that we had actually been within one hundred 
feet of it when we turned back upon the first attempt. It was a triumph to 
Ileilly. In this neighbourhood he had performed the feat (in 1863) of joining 
together 'two mountains, each about 13,000 feet high, standing on the map 
about a mile and a half apart.' Long before we made the ascent he had 
procured evidence which could not be impugned, that the Pointe des Plines, 
a fictitious summit which had figured on other maps as a distinct mountain, 
couUl l)e no other than the Aiguille d'Argentiere, and he had accordingly 
obliterated it from the preliminary draft of his map. We saw that it was 
right to do so. The Pointe des Plines did not exist." 2 Scrambler amonf/st 
the Alps, chap. xi. 

The Swiss Surveyors seeni to have an affection for the name 
' Pointe des Plines,' and have bestowed it (in the Siegfried niaj)) upon 
a previously unnamed })aint, 10,056 feet, on tlie northern side of tlie 
(Jlac. de Saleinoz. It is enough to make Reilly rise from his grave. 

The Aiguille du Chardonnet, 12,543 feet (Cx. T. 35, courses ext.), 
occupies a commanding position, and from its summit there is a 
view (mly slightly inferior to that from the Aig. d'Argentiere. It 
was first ascended on Sept. 20, 1865, by Mr. Robert Fowler, with 
tlie guides Micliel Ralmat and Michel Ducroz of Chamonix. They 
started from the Village of Argentiere, followed the path up the 
riglit bank of the Glac. d'Argentiere until near the mountain, and 
then turning eastwards struck the ridge high up which runs from 
tlie summit of the Chardonnet towards the north-west, and followe<l 
it to the top. Nearly 18 hours were occupied from the Village of 
Argentiere to the summit and back. Mr. P. W. Thomas in Aug., 
1879, improved upon this. He went from the Village of Argentiere 
ui> the (ilac. du Tour directly towards the mountain (not by the 
Col du Tour route), climl)ed its northern side (at the last part of 
the way following the same ridge as Mr. Fowler), and took only 8| 
hs. getting to the summit and 3| hs. coming back. This apiiears 
to be the l)est route that has been discovered up the Chanlonnet. 

1 The Michel Payot who is referred to in the Introduction and elsewhere. 

2 Left Lo<;rnan at 3.15 a.m. ; arrived on summit 11.20 a.m., and at the Villa're of 
Ar'renti6re 7.10 i^.m. Time 12 h. .S5 niin, acttial walkin<,'. The route taken on the first 
ascent remains the route. It is (juestionable whether anything' is gained in time by 
descending to Argentiere instead of vhl Lognan. 



CHAPTER xm. 

THE ASCENT OF MONT BLANC. 



■'^^^CKSmKC-.T. «KKVA,S BOrTK-O^^ ';^^^. ^.^^^^^^ ^,„^. ,,,,,., 

_THE SHADOW OF MON f 1-l.ANC 
, , the E.euvsions .Moh are n,.on tl- C— nx l.s^^ ha _._^^^ 

Most of the I-ncui. remains tlie .\sie" , ti,e 

,«en mentione.1,' ''"\ jf ^^je. >vhich are more oi les> 
itself. There are tluee louie 
French siile,-' viz. :— pi„teau and Bosses dn 

•, hv the Grands Mulets, Grand Plateau, a 
1. From Chamonix by the wa ^^ ^^^ 

Dromadaire. ^^lets, Grand Plateau, ^ 

Chamonix hy tne ur* Qouter. 

- ,, Aers Rouges. ^^^ Aiguille and Dome du Go 

.„„ there are five otl^. s U. ^^ ^^^^^ ^^^^ ^^ ^^^^^ ^^^ „^^, 
4. from Courmayeur, by the J^^^ 

by the Glacier du Mont Blanc. 
"• f- by the Glacier de la Brenva. . 

7 - ^^ *« ^a?l<^:rsTBrrumarrnd de Presnay, and 

do. ^Mont b"'- "^^ ^°"™'''"- ^^^. 

T,.e.e five latter (Nos. 4-8) ^vi.. '- -ferrea t« j W^^^^JV, ^ 
These n^e ^^ ^^^^^^^ eciiiaUj, ai-l^ , ,^,, tl,e 

^""'"'.^"o hV'them n.uch exceeds i^'^ ^ ^. ,„ttea line upon 

E":5 l|-l->.e^- -- -^ ■'-""; ;7 ;,.„ starti,. u, 
^"«s!>1Ii;';s\'hr.ranas Mulets - PP-JU^^^^^ J J. , ,,er e,.,l of 

-'' '•"" "\ :; r: ..e „ o. .^ c. ^; . ~ .a .e « 

- Several amonpt the re^^ue ^ ^^^^ jorasses) ^MU t>e ae. 
- Ai,. du Geant and the ^^^.^^^ ^„^^„^,) ,, 

miayeur. ^ plateau to the Rocners 
, The old route from the Cran .^^ ^.^.^.^^.^ ^^^^ 
now abandoned. . ... ,• „i.^,o Pierre a Ihcnent. >. ^ ^^ ^^^^. ,„o,,,eiit. 



•. The old route from the Cran .^^ ^.^.^.^^.^ ^^^^ 

now abandoned. j^j j,^,ove Pierre^ \*; ,^ 'V down at any moment. 

"^. on the slopes .«,irart'f^\securdy poised, and luUAe to < om^. d ^ ^j^^^,, ,, ,,,t. 
X^Sr ^:i^^^ S iaU to voint th. out. . 



CHAP. xin. BOUTE TO THE GRAND PLATEAU. 



135 



the rocks upon which the establisln.ient is situated (stron^^ track) and 
there take to tlie Glac. de Taconuaz, and to traverse that Ldacier 
from one side to the other. See track on enoravin- of Mont Blanc 
troni the Prevent. At this part the route mounts ^^ently, and <^oes 
towards the ri<l<re connectin*,^ the Aio. and Dome du (Joftter. It Tlien 
turns to the left, and mounts directly towards the summit. Between 
the asterisk on the en-Taving and the (irand Plateau, one passes 




*■ ^-^^ 













^^"•^r^.""* ^ ' • 






:;f^- 



•?.*' 



THE I'lERRE I'OINTUE. 

successively the Pctifrs Monfces, the Petit Plateau (see p. 61) and 
the Grrnu/es Montccs. The (irand Plateau is the next sta<^e oil the 
ascent. In the en-ravin<,s only the ed-e of it is seen. Five minutes 
after arrivin<,^ there, if it is intended to follow the route of the 
Bosses, you turn to the ri^^ht, and mount by moderately -inclined 
slopes to the ri-:ht hand of the rock on which the Vallot Kefu'-e is 
huilt, and <;et close to the summit of the Dome du Goftter, U '^10 
feet. Then turn to the left towards the Vallot Observatory' u's-^l 
feet, and keep to the crest of the rido:e (or near to it) all the 'rest 
of the way to the summit. The only steep bits upon this route are 
ui)on the Bosses du Dromadaire. 

If the Corridor route is to be followe<l, <ro half across the (^rand 
I lateau towards the summit, tlien bear to the left, and look for a 
way over the lar^^e crevasse or crevasses which will be found there. 
Ihe track now l)ecomes visible a,i,^ain on the view from the Brevent, 
mountmo- underneath the lower Kochers Kou<(es, «,^oin«,^ nearly east! 
and away from the summit. It then bends roun«l to the ri-ht, and 
emer<i:es a little lower than the Janssen cabane on the Kochers^Bo'u<'-es, 
14,794 feet. Yfm pass to the left of this, and shape your course'^for 



CHAP. XIII. UOUTE TO THE GRAND PLATEAU. 



135 



CHAPTKTv Xin. 

THE ASCENT OF MONT BLANC. 



.1. TIMF^ \SCKNP1N<^' AND 

,,eon .nentionea,' '" ''" . ,„t,, .vl.ieh are n,..re ... K>^ 

itself. 'I'l'W' ^'■•'' 

Freneli si.le,^ viz. :- ^^^ ^^^^,3 du 

„ >,v the Grands Mulets, Grana r. 
1. Prom Cbamonix by tl>e ur corridor and 

Dromadaire. „„iets, Grand Plateau, ^ 

2 From Chamomx by tne « oouter. 

^- "^ Uochers Kouges. ^^^ Aiguille and Dome du uo 

-- ^™^^ ^:; :: ;, 1 U.e UaUan ..>e. vi. .- 

-' '"^-^ "^^' ""^ ' : ;: Irde M.age, G>ac. du D.me, and I,5me 
4. From Courmayeur, by tbe ^G^^^ 

bv the Glacier du Mont Blanc. 
»• *"• by the Glacier de la Brenva^ . 

?■ ^0- ^' r ^Gtts'rBrruUlXna de Tresnay. and 

do. ^^^M^nt mane de Counnayeur. 

TUese nve Utter (Nos. 4-H) -" >.e ^'^^-^^^^ '^Z^ l^i t-u- 
V 1 o ave used al'<'"t e^uillN. .U'' ^ ^,^^ ,^„ ,i,e 

*'""''%^;':;. .v'tWem n.uch exceeds tlmt <.t t W - ,.__^, „|„,„ 

iiersoiis wlio ^'O »> i e marked ui stioiv 

l,U,e,pvays,vat...etUe,. n> v, on starting ;.,.- 

*'"s!;'S';s^Ur(;ran,,s Mulcts - VPj ^,y- to tie u,.„er end of 
wards from tl.e l>avill.m, it i « ^ ^^, „„ Ascents 

, , , ,he residue (.he ,.assa«e of O.e Co . U «r.._ . ^ ^.,,,,„^,,,„„ „ ,„, 

1 Several a.>>o"r'V'"f,.i the tiraiules .Jorassis) «'.' '* 
of the .M,-. du t;eant a,„l the ..,„ j„,.,„j„,) ,» 

Courmaveur. , ,.,,^eau to the U«hcrs Ko ^ 

., The oM route from the t.ran .^^ . .^^.^^. „,,. 

now alaiulo.K-a. ,. ,j ,,ove Pierre iv !/•' , ' ,.. ,|own at any moment. 

"°:> „„ the «l°l«'„.°il^':.,t'S,se".,v;v.i.oisea. a,;.. ^ t„'™°, 'S- '.u. shouM he Ke,... 

rc'un-i"-'''^ ^'» "- <»" '" '■"■"" ""' 



the rocks \\\)un \\\\\v\\ tlie establislniient is situated (strong track) and 
there take to tlie Glae. de Tactonnaz, and to traverse that glacier 
from one side to the other. See track on engraving of ]Mont JJIanc 
from the IJrcvent. At tliis part the route mounts gently, and goes 
towards the ridge connecting the Aig. and Dome du (Jouter. It then 
turns to the left, and iiKmnts directly towards the summit. JJetween 
the asterisk on the engraving and the (Jrand Plateau, one passes 
















THE I'lKKKE POINTLE. 

successively the Pcfifrs Moufcc.t, the Pit if Plateau (see p. 61), and 
the Grandcs Man fees: The (Jrand Plateau is the next stage on the 
ascent. In the engraving, only the edge of it is seen. Five minutes 
after arriNing there, if it is intended to follow the route of the 
Bosses, you turn to the right, and mount l»y moderately -inclined 
slo)>es to the right hand of the rock on which the Vallot Refuge is 
l>uilt, and get close to the sumnut of the Dome du (politer, 14,210 
feet. Then turn to the left towards the A^allot Ohservatory, 1-1,821 
feet, and keep to the crest of the ridge (or near to it) all the rest 
of the way to the summit. The only steep hits ujion this rcmte are 
ujton the IJosses du I)ronia<Iaire. 

If the Corridor route is to he followed, go half across the (Jrand 
Plateau towards the summit, then hear to the left, and look for a 
way over the large crevasse or crevasses which will he found there. 
Tiie track now hecomes visihle again on the view from the Brevent, 
mounting underneath the lower Hochers Kouges, going nearly east, 
and away from the summit. It then hends round to the right, and 
emerges a little lower than the Janssen cahane on f/ie Kochers INmges, 
14,7<U feet. Vou pass to the left of this, and shai»e your course for 



136 



CILUWXIX AND MONT BLANC. 



CHAP. XTIT. 



,;.e .0.. canea the m|ts Koe.^s ^^^^J^ '^^tu^'^^ 
,„ake for the I'et.ts ^ "lets, UJM J • ^^. ,,„,.;, the latter l-art 

Ohservatory, l-'-'^l'^'^t', "''"'' ';,"i;t Iv this rou^e the slopes are 
of the way. The Cor", or s st e ; ' m y ^^^^ ^^ ^,_^ ^^^^^^ 

at a moderate inclination ''"""-,J. ,.„ ' ,,:,,ea u is not easy U> say 
The two routes are {■•'H-je tJ eo,nta« • t ^^^^^^^^^ ^,^^ 

whether it is better to mount h> «^^« '%«,.;„ . i.i.h win.l the 
Corridor, than to go the eontrar wa>. ' ';' ;^,^^,,,f„, ^l^„ the Cor- 

''•r z%r'^r^tz^:^^^^'^^-^^^ - -• ^"^' """'^• 

n.lor. In time, Summit times are 

Times-lietween the t.ramls ^ "^^s «,m t ^^^^^^ ^^ ^^^^ 

largely atleetea hy.the .--;V\\';;;,^^.*,^:,,;T ".Utions may take Orlec 
snow. The same m. ma ual ".'^ "^'^^j,,^,, ,„ ,i„e weather, an,! 
:!.i^,:\t'snl'ir;:r..l;L!'ll:'a::^.rare ,r..hai.le tin,.^ 

ASCENDING VI.\ THE COHUIDOU (KX. H.M.Ts). 

f'hamonix to the Kerre Pointue . • • ; 
Pierre Pointue to Pierre ^^^ ^ I^^^^l'^' • ,. ' 
Serre h I'Echelle to the Gnuub^ M u et> ■ • 

(Irands Mulcts to edge o^^^;"^^. y;\^'^\^ . . 

(invn.l Plateau t.. top of Rocher. Kouge> 
lloehers Rouges to Summit . • • • 

Tot;il 11 •!•'» 



h. 


mil 








r.o 


2 


10 


8 


If) 


•2 


40 




r»o 



Descending via the Rosses (ex. halts). 



Summit to Refuge \ allot • • 
Refuge Vallot to (irands Mulets 
(irands Mulets to Pierre Poiutue 
Pierre Pointue to Chamouix 



Tot^xl 



h. 


imn 


1 


10 


1 


:>:^ 


1 


r.o 


1 




5 


f)') 



T„e wav hv the Ai.. and D.'nne -In f'-^^er (eom.uoniy .•al.c..^t^^^^ 

St. Gervais Route) has "'>t''>".^„^if irretentive ttn u,..,n Houtes 
on the earlier i.art of tlie ascent is "^ ^^^^^ ^ ^i.^ i-avilhm on 

1, 2. Smne sUrt from ^ ;^".';;"'^Vc evue Tcx T. 8, courses ext.), or 

the Col ae Voza. or the ^1 'Y'"':",,"^J'^;"^,t^7uttle U> the S. of the 

St. Gervais. There is "'?'""' ';f,',f*},,tFr m. St. (iervais to the 
summit of the Aig. ^u Gouter 2 fe . 1 .^^^^^_^^^ ^.^^,,^_^ .^ 

';t;r X'-ti.; an .foO^;.- t^asily ascemlea fron, the t^ramls 
>{uU4's in 3 hs."(Cx. T. 9, courses ext.). 

Expense.-The Chamouix -f J-^M.- •-- a':!,^ IXia 'a?, 
"^I^t^^t t'^:::as-^Mults, th'e total cost wi„ he 
little if at all under £1-2. 

1 Mont Blanc has Wen .»-en,l«l '-',^'^ZZ::T:T,^:Z'::S^^«« tl-'sunnni; 
m-,, .Mr. K. Mor*e.Ml .,f "-^-S^^rt 4.S " , th,,: n.akin« th. a»<'ent in 1« l.onrs, 
at 10 a.m., and returned to thamonix at •».- r 
including' halts. 



CHAP. XIII. 



THE SUMMIT OF MONT BLANC. 



137 



{ 



It is to be noted that the Chamonix Tarif takes various contingencies into 
consideration. If the tourist starts for Mont Blanc and gets no higher than 
the (irands Mulets. he will be charged 20 francs only, if he returns within one 
day (Cx. T. 2, courses ext.). If he gets to the (irand Plateau, the charge 
will be 50 francs (Cx. T. 4, c. ext.) ; to the top of the Corridor, or the top 
of the Bosses, 70 francs (Cx. T. 5, c. ext.). If he gets higher than these points 
the full 100 francs may be exacted. If the ascent occupies more than three 
days, each guide must be paid 10 francs extra, i)er day. 

The prices at the Grands Mulets are high, and the food is indifferent. 
EcoiK^my can be effected by taking provisions from Chamonix instead of buy- 
ing them at the (irands Mulets ; but this course is not looked upon favourabl}' 
]>y Chamonix (iuides, or at the Grands Mulets. 

A party on the Ascent of Mont Blanc, wlietlier accompanied by a 
ji'nide or not, slionld consist of not fewer tlian three jjersons ; and 
this applies to .all the excnrsions that are nientione<l in this jjook 
npon which it is necessary to traverse snow-covered glacier. 

Refuges. — The Observatory on the Summit, the Cabane on the 
Ivochers Kouj^es, and the Vallot Observatory are private i>ro]>erty, 
and admittance can only be obtained hy favour.^ The Kefu^e Vallot 
is on a different hasis. There is ri<iht to admittance upon i>ayment 
(see paj^e 68). But the building is small, it is far from being comfort- 
able, and is generally in a very objectionable condition. The juin- 
cipal advantage in passing a night there is the opportunity it affords 
of arriving on the summit at an early hour to see the view. Tiie 
eahntic on the Aig. du Ooftter is oj»en to all. 

The Summit h.as been described by various authors as resembling 
the back of a donkey, a pear cut in lialf, and the back of a carp. 
I am unable to account for these aberrations of intellect. The summit 
is a ridge of snow 145 paces hmg, descending more steeply on the 
French than ui)()n the Italian side. Its crest is nearly level, but the 
eastern is slhfldlii higher than the western end. There is every 
j>robability that three rocky ridges meet almost immediately under- 
neath the Observatory, and at no great distance below it. The little 
j>atcli of rock on the Italian side called la Tourette is only 171 feet 
lower than the very highest iKjint.'-^ Tlie sunnnit of the Mont Blanc 
de Courmayeur lies in the same direction, and can be visited in a 
short hour. Koj)e should be emi»loyed.-^ The ccmdition of the snow 
on the very top of Mont Blanc is usually good. The greater i)art of 
that which falls is blown or drifte<l away, and the small amount that 
remains behind speedily binds to the old snow underneath. 

1 Mons. Vallot publishes the following notification. " Les savants de touts nationalite 
sont admis ri sejourner et d travailler \ I'Observatoire. lis doivent deinander Tautorisa- 
tion au directeur (M. J. Vallot, 61 avenue d'Antin, a Paris), en indiquant soniniairement 
I'objet de leurs travaux. lis devront eiuniener avec eux, \x leurs frais, un des guidea- 
con)terrateur.s (Alphonse Payot, Michel Savioz, Jules Bossonney) qui se chargera de faire 
la cuisine et le service." 

- Hy the courtesy of M. Eiffel, I am permitted to reproduce the acconipanyinjj: Plan 
of the Summit, which was made for him in 1891. 

•* Thoujjfh there are not at the present time any visible crevasses clo:<e to the siiinniit- 
ridye, a few years aijo it was intersected by a rather considerable one, whicli rendered 
it ditticult to iro from one end to the other. 



CHAMOXIX AND MO XT BLAXC. 



CHAP. XIII. 

138 

:i:;:rel^'rL»fr:,uU Before .nia-aay, c.ouas alu.ost always fonn 
over Italy. 




LA TOORETTS 
IV6I* FEET 



. PLAN OF THE SUMMIT OF MONT BLANC, BY X. IMFELD, 1891. 

The nearest part of the Xo..A.. view -jUraces ^^^^^^^^^ 
Maudit, the Aig. du Midi, DAn.e ^^^D;!^;^^^; f ^^i[,^f^\^y[^ Aig Verte, and basin of 
range of the Brevent, the Buet ^^^f ^^.^ !^^^;^^^^^ 
the Talefre. Farther awav, the Lake of Cxeneva and^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^ ^,^^^^^^ .^^^ 

In the En:<t..: ^'iew the Col and Aig. du ^^^^^\^^^'^^^^^ Ferret, the upper 

all between the Weisshorn and Monte R.>.a part ot ^n ^,^^,,n, -eur, are 

end of the Val.d'Aoste and (on the ^g^ ) fVe^.,\. Blanc de Counnayeur 
amongst the Principal features The N;Ae. .ne ^^^ Tr^atote, 

on the left, the trough of the Itahan G lac de Miage g ^ .^ ^^^ 

part of the Val Veni, the Pr'l""^^ru>s;i^T in the extreme distance, Monte 
distance, the whole of the ^'^^^^^"\;^ \^;' Jl'ile and the Alps of Dauphine on 
S:^. ^^^^^ lir;: ^^^ ^um^l^age in the foreground, Sallanches 



CHAP. XIII. rrrE shadow of moxt blaxc. 139 

in the middle distance, the Jura and a large part of France on the horizon. 
The Sindhn-n section is, perhaps, the most striking one, though at every pomt 
of the compass there is something. 

The Shadow of Mont Blanc projected in the air appears only 
ju'^t after sunrise, and shortly before sunset. I have seen this 
remarkable apparition twice. The first time on Aug. 9, 1893, wlien 
promenadin*-- the summit- rid^re at daybreak, watching the gradual 
development of the view. "Presently, a glow behind the Mischabel- 
horner indicated >vhere the sun was about to rise. At the next turn, 
ran«^es be<mn to take form, and in the direction of Aix-les-Bams 
an "unknown mountain, as high as Mont Blanc itself, made its 
appearance. While returning to the east-north-east the orb of day 
came up with a bound ; rays streamed between the peaks and sepa- 
rated the ridges, and gleam'ing tops broke out like watch-fires around 
the vast circumference. The next turn to the west shewed that the 
unknown mountain was a fraud : it was the shadow of Mont Blanc 
projected in the air. Before the sun had fairly risen the deception 
was not apparent. The huge, grey form, startling by its immensity, 
bore a most striking resemblance to a real mountain. The tones 
deei)ened as it sank, and in forty minutes it died away." Prof. Cli. 
^lartins seems to have l>een the first who saw the shadow at sunset 
(in Aug., 1844), and he declared that the Anrora Borealis alone could 
vie with this magnificent phenomenon. 

The Gallery (or Tunnel) which was driven in 1891 by orders of 
M. Eifiel (see pp. 71-3) was in a good state of preservation m 1893, 
and I could Nvalk from one end to the other without stooping. In 
the following year its dimensions had diminished so much that one 
could not str^d upright at any part, an<l entry had to be effected on 
all fours; and in 1895 no one, I believe, was able to discover tlie 
entrance to it. On July 26, 1894, at 9.45 a.m., the temperature of 
tlie interior of the gallery, 35 feet from its mouth, was 2 -o l^aht., 
or 29° -5 F. below freezing-point. At the same time, the temperature 
of the external air in the shade was 18° F. 

Precautions.— Mont Blanc is particularly liable to rapid changes in 
weather, and to sudden and extreme variations of temperature. In 
a single hour, the best weather often changes to the worst. Many 
persons are unacquainted with this fact, and start for an ascent ^^;ltll- 
out adenuate protection (see page 62). Gloves shoul.l be taken, telt 
boots are excellent for use on the summit, where the temperature of 
the snow a few inches below the surface is permanently twenty degrees 
and upwards below the freezing-point. 



li 



til A I'. Xl\ 



THE BATHS OF ST. GERVAIS. 



Ul 



CHAPTER XIV. 

THE TOUR OF MONT BLAXC. 

THE I5ATHS OF ST. GERVAIS — THE SOVRCKS—TWY. CATASTROPHE- 
VILLAGE OF ST. GERVAIS— ASCENT OF MONT JOLV— ASCENT OF AIG. 
DE mONNASSAV — BIONNAY — CONTAMINES — COL DE MIAGE — THE 
GREATEST TUMBLE ON RECORD — NOTRE DAME DE LA GORGE - 
NANT BOURRANT- GLACIER AND COL DE TRELAT^TE- COL DU 
MONT TONDl — COL DU GLACIER— CHALET X LA BALME — COL DF 
I50NH0MME — COL DES FOURS — MOTETS — CHAPIEUX — COL DE LA 
SEIGNE — LAC DE COMBAL — ASCENT OF AIG. DE TRELAT^TE — 
MORAINES OF THE MIAGE— DOME ROUTE UP MONT BLANC— DOME 
HUT — ASCENTS OF MONT BLANC BY THE GLAC. DU MONT BLANC, 
AND BY THE BROUILLARD GLACIER— MONT BLANC DE COURMAVEUII 
— RRENVA GLACIER— COURMAYEUR— ASCENT OF MONT SAXE— MONT 
e„ETIF — THE CRAMMONT — COL DE CHECOURI — COL DU Gl^.ANT- 
AIGS. BLANCHE AND NOIRE DE PEUTERET— LES DAMES ANGLAISES 
—THE AIG. DU Gl^.ANT— MONT BLANC BY THE COL DU GI^.ANT AND 
AIG. DU MIDI — COL DE ROCHEFORT — COL DES FLAMBEAUX — COL 
DE TOULE— ASCENT OF MONT BLANC BY THE BRENVA GLACIER- 
ASCENT OF THE GRANDES JORASSES — COURMAYEUR TO THE COL 
FERRET — ASCENT OF MONT DOLENT — CHALETS DE FERRET TO 
ORSlfcRES — CHAMPEY — MARTIGNY — THE FORCLAZ — HOW TO GET 
AWAY FROM CHAMONIX. 

A STURDY pedestrian can walk round the Kan^^e of Mont IJlano in 
four days. There is a carria'^e - road for most of the distance, and a 
mule-path the rest of the way. 

1st day.— Chamonix vi6 le Fayet and St. (Nervals to Nant IJourrant. 
2nd day.— Nant Bourrant hy the Cols du Bonhomme and de la 

Seij^me to Courmayeur. 
3rd day.— Courmayeur over the Col Ferret to Orsieres, or Champex. 
4tli day — Orsieres*^ (or Champex) vln the (4reat St. J'.ernard lload, 
the Forc'laz, and the Tete Noire (or the Col de lialme) to 
Chamonix. 
If three days are taken hetween Cliamonix and Courmayeur, the 
first wvM is 'usually passed at (N.ntamines, and the se<Mmd at les 
Chapieux or les Motets. 



Chamonix to the Baths and Village of St. Gervais, Contamines, 
and Nant Bourrant (Cx. T. 75, 76, 77, 80). (Miamonix to le Fayet, 
see i)p. 8S, 112, The entrance to the Baths of St. (Jervais is alxmt 
200 yards from the sto])]>in<;-j»la('e of the dili^'^ences, just where tlie 
Hon Nant Torrent delxmches on the plain of Sallanehes ; and, as it 
has rather the air of an entrance to a private i>ark, peojde are some- 
times timorous ahout entering, although they can do so freely. From 







ENTRANCE TO THE BATHS OF ST. GERVAIS. 



the Jhidge of Bon Nant at le Fayet there are three ways 1>y ^^llicl^ 
one can get to St. (iervais the Village. One through the grounds of 
the Baths, past a and c and hy the zigzag path marked on the Plan ; 
or l>y E, the old road, short and steep (alx^ut 25 min. going u}*, or 
!.'> min. coming down); or hy F F, the new road, which has easy 
gradients, an«l is much longer than the other ways. There are no 
licmses on the (dd road; hut ahout one -third way up F there is 
the Hotel and 1*ensio\ des Panoramas. I recommend the way 
through the gToun<ls of the Baths in preference to the other roads. 

A few hundred feet from the entrance there are, at A, the Baths, in a newly- 
o. list met ed, handsome, and well-arranged building, i The xmnre.^, are at C, near 
the entrance to the Gorge of C'rei>in (marked by an asterisk). They are said 
to have ])een discovered in 1806 by a workman of Servoz, when trout tishing. 

1 " L'Etablissement thermal, oonstruit sur les plans de M. Jory, est une merveille 
d'elej^^iice sobre et de conunoditt^. Impossible de rever rien de plus ]iarfait au point 
de \ ue li.vdrothcrapi(|ue : ta))iiies de bains, salles de douches de toute nature, salles de 
pulverisations, d'inbalatio?is, bains de vapeur du syst^me Berthe si apprecie, massaire 
sa\ant, tout est rcvnii <ians ces Therixies jiour assurer I'emploi (•omi)let des proprietes 
thera]>euti(iues de I'eau minerale, I'observation mathemati(iue des ordonnances medicales, 
le bien-Otre et les aiscs des baigneurs." 



CHAPTEK XTV 



THE TOUH OF MONT BLANC 

THE 15ATHS OF ST. OERVAIS-THE SOURCES-TUK CATASTHOPHE- 
VIl.LAdE OF ST. (JEKVAIS— ASCENT OF MONT JOEY— ASCENT OF AKi. 
1)E lUONNASSAY — r.IONNAY — CONTAMINES — COL DE MTAOE — THE 
OKEATEST TUMBLE ON RECORD — NOTKE DAME DE LA (;OR(;E - 
NANT HOFRRANT — GLACIER AND COL DE TRELATP/FE — COL DF 
MONT TONDF — COL DU OLACIER— CHALET A LA RALME — COL IH' 
RONHOMME — COL DES FOFRS — MOTETS — CHARIEFX — COL DE LA 

SKKINE — LAC DE COMRAI ASCENT OF AK!. DE TRELAT^TE — 

MORAINES OF THE MLVCIE— DOME ROFTE FR MONT RLANC— DOME 
HUT — ASCENTS OF MONT RLANC RY THE OLAC. DF MONT R.I-ANC. 
VND R.Y THE RROFILLARD GLACIER— MONT RLANC DE COFRMAYECR 
— RRENYA GLACIER— COFRMAYEUR-ASCENT OF MONT SAXE— MONT 
(^.,IKTIF — THE CRAMMONT— COL DE CHECOFRI — COL DF (Jh'lANT — 
MCS. RLANCHE AND NOIRE DE REITERET— LES DAMES ANCLAISKS 
—THE Aid. DC GI^.ANT— MONT RLANC RY THE COL DC CEANT AND 
AIG. DC MIDI — COL DE ROCHEFORT — COL DES FLAMREAFX — COL 
DE TOFLE— ASCENT OF MONT RLANC RY THE RRENYA iJLACIER- 
ASCENT OF THE GRANDES JORASSES — COFRMAYEFR TO THE COL 
FERRET — ASCENT OF MONT DOLENT — CHALETS DE FERRET TO 
0RSII^:RES — CHAMREY — MARTIGNY — THE FORCLAZ-HO^V TO GET 
A>VAY FR.OM CHAMONIX. 

\ STURDY i>e.lestrian can walk nmnd the Kan-e (»f Mont lilaiio in 
four .lays. There is a carriajie-road for most of the distance, and a 
niule-i»ath tiie rest of the way. 

1st day.— C'hanionix rio le Fayet and St. (iervais to Nant lionrrant. 
2nd <lay.— Nant Pxmrrant l>y the C(ds du Jionhoninie an<l de la 

Sei^'ne to C'ourniayeur. 
^i-a aaY.— (^'ourniaYeur over the Co\ Ferret to Orsieres, or C'hanipex. 
*4th day —Orsieres (or (Mianipex) jvV/ the (ireat St. JJernard U(»ad, 
the Forelaz, and the Tete Noire (or the CNd de Uahue) l<» 
Chanionix. 
If fhrrr .lays are taken hetween fMianuniix an.l ronrniayenr, the 
first ni-ht is "usually passe.l at ('..ntaniines, and the s.MM)nd at les 
('liai»ieux uv les M.)tets. 



CHAR. xiv. 



TJ/J': BATHS OF ST. GERVAIS. 



Ui 



Chamonix to the Baths and Village of St. Gervais, Contamines, 
and Nant Bourrant (Cx. T. 75, 76, 77, 80). Chamonix to le Fay«t» 
see pp. SS, 112. Tiie entrance to the IJaths of St. (lervais is about 
200 yanls from the st<>ppin^-])la(*e of the .liliuences, just where the 
Hon Nant Torrent .lehouches on the plain of Sallanelies ; and, as it 
has rather the air of an entrance to a i>rivate park, people are some- 
times timorous ahout entering-, althou^ih they can do so freely. From 










^'"''^^'^t:^^^^- 



"^j^^- 



FT f^l--^\J^- 



\-»jr« ' 



! 



i ♦ i ^■■'•*^ - ', -A. . 



I 













^. 



I " If 

i. ■ 



a t* wi i wi>i . 



• 4ar*y 




l.^licSbKr! 













EN 1 KANCE TO THE HATHS OF ST. GERVAIS. 



tlie Ihid;ie of 15on Nant at le Fayet there are tlnee ways hy which 
one can ,i:et to St. (lervais the Viliaj^e. One throu<ih the jiTounds of 
the r.aths, jtast a an.l c and hy the zi«iza;;- i»ath marked on the Plan ; 
or l»y E, tlie old roa.l, short and steep (about 2.1 min. jioin<; uji, or 
].") mill, comiiiu .lowii) ; or hy F F, the new road, wliicli has easy 
j^ra.lients, an.l is mucli Ioniser than the .)ther ways. There are no 
Fiouses on the .d.l r«»ad ; hut ah.mt one-thinl way up F there is 
(lie Hotel and Pension des Panoramas. I recommen.l the way 
thr<»u-ii the jirounds of the IJaths in preference to the other roads. 

A few hundred feet from the entrance there are. at A, the Baths, in a newly- 
constructed, handsome, and well-arrang'ed Ituildin^.i The xo'ovrx are at C, near 
the entrance to the (lorg-e of Frejun (marked by an asterisk). They are said 
to have been discovered in 180(3 by a workman of Servo/, when trout tishing. 

I " L'Etablisseinent thermal, construit sur les plans de M. .lory, est uiie merveille 
d'elej^auce solire et de couuuodite. Inijiossible de rever Hen de plus parfait an iwint 
de vue hydrotherai»i(nK' : cahiites de hains, salles de douches de toute nature, s;dles de 
l)<il\crisati<)ns, d'inhalations, l)ains de vapeur du systeiue Rerthe si apprecie, niassajre 
savant, tout esl reuni dans ces Thernies pour assurer I'eniploi coinplel des propnetes 
therai»euti»|ues de I'eau niinerale, l'ol)scrvation niathemati.iue des ordonnances medicales, 
le bien-etre et les aiscis des baij,^neurs." 



CHMIOMX AXJJ MOyr BLANC. c.iA.-. x.v. 



.,„Urd (Gonthard), the proprietor speedUy turr.od ^th- ^o ac.o,m^^^ 

/„ mm-ce ao«to,d, and yieUls 140,000 litre, per . ^ ^^ ^^^^_^_ 

rf„ To,;:,.< give. 10,000 'f '''*,^%<'i>-'/™j^r o^^'sr^irs the waters of these 
l^i°rJ"Sn\n^-nri«--^airHe properties.^ Whether ho 'U.U. 



spring 




SCALE OF METRES 

500 'OOO 



.. ™. «. =.T„S, B. B.OO. O-O" -- „.^^r,r"."™ -oTJ"" 
D PONT DU DIABLE. E. OLD ROAD TO ST. GERVAIS. 

warranted not to asphyxiate. 

1892, is shown in the view upon p. 144, ^^l^cu i 

1 It is clai,ue<l that they .are beneficial J- J^^^^^^^^T^S^ ^u^ 
1. A/a/arf.V>^ de la i>eau : Eczema, "rticaire V^^'^^^^^l^^^y^igestirex : Dyspepsie. 
prurigo, lichen, herpi-s, acne, coiiperose etc. ' - ^'^«/f ^S constipation, etc.. ; 3. 

gastralgie, entente, ^^.^^orgement du fo.e plctnore ^ ,Va/ad,>. dc r«frru. •• 

J/fl^arf/e^ des voies ^frmain'>^: (^t^^^^}^> m^trUes Uees aux affections de la peau ; 5. 
Catarrhe "terin, engorgement du col m6tm^^^^ larvngite, catarrhe hronchique, 

^{:^r:!Z^:o:L::t:^rMal^n.^^ a-origh. arthritu,.. 



CHAP. XIV. 



A GEE AT CATASTROPHE. 



143 



reproilnee by the courtesy of M. Tairraz, of Chamonix. On the night 
of July 11, 1892, the whole of the central (and oldest) portion of 
these imildings, and the farther ends of the two wings, were erased 
l)y the sudden bursting of a sub-glacial reservoir in the little Glacier de 
Tete Rousse (see p. 112). The Hood first coursed down the Valley of 
Bionnassay, and at its mouth half obliterated the Village of Bionnay. 
Tt then joined the Bon Nant Torrent, and did little further mischief 
until it was compressed l)etween the walls of the (xorge of Crepin ; 
from the lower extremity of which it issued with tremendous violence, 



AiSH ' 



THE SVSrfeME BERTHE. 




>^tr-^</^ 



and in a few minutes battered the Baths to ruin, and swept away 
and drowned the greater part of the visitors. Those who were in 
the buihling on the left escaped ; but, with few excei)tions, all who 
were in the central and in the farthest blocks perished. How many 
were lost is unknown. It is su])posed that at the Baths alone the 
number exceeded one hundred and twenty. The Imildings on the left, 
and those at the near end of the right hand have been restored, but 
there is now an open space where the others stood — not a trace of 
them remains. 

At the back of St. (lervais there is unlimited space for walks over 
the down-like mountains which stretch from the Pav. Bellevue to 
* hatelard on the high road. The best excursions in the contrary 
direction are the walk to Combloux, and the Ascent of Mont Joly. 
For either of them you begin by going over the Devil's Bridge (D on 
the rian). 



14-2 



CllAMOMX AyJJ MOST BLANC. 



ciiAr. XIV. 



Mous. C;ontard (Gonthard), fhe pr.^iotoJ^^ sj^;^>^ ^ 

and founded the Bathm,. estjvV.hsln^^^^^^ P. The ...ov. 

/„ .vo.,r. ^V^^'"''' ^^"l^•!i^^l■^^.iT ^o temp.-; and the .sv,.rcr rZ. M.-ji^nV- 



irio.re (^o.tard, and yields 140 OUU Utres 1- '•:^;,^-^; -",,, ,ie J/.// .up- 
cf. Torr.ut gives 10,000 hires ^ p:^/^J^^' .^^tear. the waters of these 
l.Hes 30.000 htres a day, temp. ^^ '..*;.,;. '|f'.^rties.i Whether he 'takes 
springs have been known to posses ^aluable pn i 




warranted not to asphyxiate. 

1892, is shown in the vievr npcni p. 144, ^^hull I .vni icii 

^ « .;oi fm- thp foUowiii"- conn>laiiits and disorders. 

1 It is cluimod that they art- henefi.aal f«\ P^^/"*'^^^^^^^^^^^ eruptions furoui-uleuses, 

1. MalmCex ,U' la i>ea, : Eczema, "rtu-aue \^:^'^^^J^'^,^l„,f;re.: Dvspepsie, 

l.rurij^'O, lichen, herpts, acne, ^^oiipero.e et . ' - jyj;f Xlominale, constipation, etc, ; 3. 

i^astral-ie, entente, ^"J.^^V^^^^"^^^^'; , J^'^l^^,^ ^ rde la vessie ; 4. Maladies dc rutrm^: 



l! 



CIlAl'. XIV. 



.1 GUEAT CATASTROPHE. 



143 



leitHMhice by the ccmrtesy of M. Tainaz, of Chanioiiix. On the ni^^ht 
of July 11, 1802, the whole of tlie central (and oldest) portion of 
these imildin^^s, and the farther ends of the two win«,^s, were erased 
by the sudden burstinj;- of a sub-j^lacial reservoir in the little Glacier de 
Tete IJousse (see ]». 112). Tlie Hood lirst coursed down the Valley of 
liionnassay, and at its mouth half obliterated the Village of P>ionnay. 
It tlien joined the 15on Nant Torrent, and did little further mischief 
until it was compressed between the walls of the Gorge of Crepin ; 
from the lower extremity of which it issued with tremendous violence, 







THE SYST^ME UEKTHE. 



an<l in a few minutes battered the IJaths to ruin, and swept away 
and drowned the greater jtart of the visitors. Those who were in 
the building on tlie left escaped ; but, with few exce]>tions, all wlio 
were in tlnT central an«l in the farthest blocks j^erislied. How many 
were lost is unknown. It is su])posed that at the IJaths alone the 
number exceeded one hundred an«l twenty. The buildings on the left, 
ami those at the near end of the right hand have been restored, but 
there is now an open space where the others stood — not a trace of 
them remains. 

At the back of St. (Jervais there is unlimited space for walks over 
the ilown-like mountains whicli stretch from the Pav. Pellevue to 
(Miatelard on the high road. The best excursions in the contrary 
direction are the walk to Combloux, and the Ascent of Mont Joly. 
For eitl»er of them you begin by going over tlie Devil's Bridge (D oil 
the Plan). 



144 riUMOXIX AXD MOST liLAXC. l»m: xiv. 

r '-■' '"fn ^'fnl.!*!:^- the'lv' tli -ii' -f tot ro,ae."'Ti„';i fl^^^ St.' oUis 
sloi.es. In the muWIc '^ "><-";!> \°;, m^^.,. jol,. ,,lank chMot o,.onc(l m 

Wooden cross and /«>/«w€ de jiiem on the top. ine mow la luo.^ 



:L ,-• 









?':V"' 



i- 






>■■• 



-'1 :■-•- i\ 






</ ' 



>» 










1 ' i 












^'.'t/''-^'"'''*' 



THE BATHS OF ST. GERVAIS DEFORE THE CATASTROl'HE. 

English have hitherto visited Jlont Joly. 

The i.rincii>al ".«•<•»« that can 1« nm.le f''""' ^Jl' I'^'/^f , <"''^'' 
Mont IManc) I that of tlie Aig. de Bionnassay, 1 )..i-24 eet (Cx T. 
Mont t.iant) IS u.. b exceeded only in elevation 

.v'tZ""^ V;nf(lJ,5l° and\i; ilnde^ .,oia.ses (i.S HOO, This 
Slendid reak, fron. im.e directions looks liner t '- > -\,'; -« 
itself The liist ascent was eHeete.l on .July 28, lSb.> Wy .^'es-rs. 
Edianl North liuxton. F. C. .Jrove, and 1!. Macl.mal.l, with the 
"uiiles J. 1'. Caehat and Michel WiyoU 



\ 




THE GORGE OF CREPIN, ABOVE THE BATHS OF ST. GERVAfS. 



,44 illAMOMX AM> M^^^T liLAXC. i hai'. xiv. 

« XT! ^.jui *■ f /Pv T ?•? 74) i- the loftiest point on the loft bank 

.■ ?^°°M mAuH I. 'l U.^',lT,;. K. ,7Vmt nines. ).nt it. ascent is .Generally 

fr; 1 s e-v^is I \.s i,,«^ over the l>evirs Bri,lK'e. mul .y a n.a.1 as 

"n a/ti "Wla^' s : 0.li.'an.l Ics Crances : after that Ky ,.«, an.l p-ass- 

^^::;:ar"r';,n!f /;:,r';. l;:^ ■:.,. '.he t,,,. -..,0 vie.- is nK,st e^tensn-e; 



I ( 



* 



^y. 




A. L 



i' 



"it .i. 



vVV.iK-*^'' 










.'V?» 



-^im 




s t 








( _. 



'>'•'/ 






jbS^-^ 









^s^'*"- ■« 




.Jit' ' 



THE li 



JATHS OK ST. GERVAIS BEFOKE THE cATASTKOl'HE. 



-;^i:- '-;;e: ^^:^--^tSH^^-?--.^^^^^ ^;:.;ais';^^h 

Knsrlish liave hitherto visited -M"nt .l"l>. 



M 



The in-i,u-i|,al .'v »/ tlial .-an l.e n.a.le "•"" ,^\i '-7 ; '^ ';,'"V 
.M„„t IJlane, is that „f .1,0 Aig. de Btonnassay l.i..^4 '^ Cx "T 
38. courses ext. ; Cr. T. 70 frs.), wlnel' i> exeeede.! "" • " ;'*^'', . ' 
t>v tlio \i". Verle (i:i..->4(l) ami tlio Cia.i.U.s .loiasses (l.iMMl. I n> 
splellua ;ak, irl s,„nc ,li,veti.,„s l,..,Us linev '- ^ ;;"',,;■' ' 
i <elf •I'l.e lirst ascent «as eHeeto.l (.11 .Inly -i^. 1S<>'>; ''> ., "-^^r; 
hMwavl Nurtl, l-.„.t.n,. i'. < '. (^r.,vo, an,l 1!. Mae.lonahl. witl, the 



LltlK 



les J. 1'. Cjidiut Jiiul Miclit'l I'ayot. 



: 



'^^tr 






^ 




y' 




^ 




It 


"i---^ 


/ 




THE GORGE OF CREPIN, ABOVE THE BATHS OF ST. GERVAIS. 



CHAMOXIX AND MOST BLANC. 



CHAP. XIV 



146 

Thev "left the Pa.411on Bellevue at 1 20 -m-- and i^)lU^wc^^^^^^^ ^^J^t^Ten 

^Zaret. was attained at 10, and the sunmnt at 3.1o l^m ^^^j a. n t c 

^^f'^^h" Is'r^^d S' nightfall. The ni^ht was spei^ on -^ -^^J 
a{i:^'the level .of the Col de Miage an<l ^e l-ty r^ ^^ ^^^ ^^ 
noon the following day." Mpnte Jon,nol, vol. u, pp. 13- ^. 
the first ascent is given on the foUlnig 31ap. 

The a^^eent of the Aig. de Bionnassay is rarely made, and it is 
trpriprnllv accounted ditticiilt. ^ . / • 

^To u St Gervais to Bionnay, 3192 feet, takes 50 nun. (no inn; 
wine an l>e had, ,oo,l and cheap). Half .ay ^-t-een t - ^,^> 
places yon pass the village of les Praz. Above lUonnaj the A al 
Vlontjoie narrows, road goo,l, and well-wooded nj; to and a t^e 
beyond Nant Bonrrant. It takes 65 nun. easy gcnng fimn 1 ionna> 
to Contamines, 3839 feet, Hotel du Bon Homme, civil propiietoi, 
prices lower tlian the average. „ ,^ ^ ^ , ., . o i-iu l.pvond 
^ [Col de Miage (Cx. T. 21, Cr. T. 50 frs.). Abont 2 1^/- J;^> 
Bionnay, opposite to St. Nicholas, there is the ^^"^ranee of the al n 
leading to the Vo\ de Miage. Two paths, one on each -^ l^ of tb« 
treain, go to the chalets of Miage. Thenc. to the top ^J]^^^ 
11 076 feet, takes about 4^ hs. The suinnut of the Col lies S.S.NN. 
of the \i.. de Bionnassay, and the ascent to it fro.u the upper 
datean of the French (Hacl <le Miage is made by a rocky rib tha 
has at its side a long and steep ice-slope, upon which theit ha> 
occurred one of the biggest tumbles on record. 

On the nth of Julv, 1801. a large party of tourists was assembled on the 
toi?of the'coi de Miage,-3 .-ith thi object of discovenng whether an accent 
of Mont Blanc could be made from this direction. W hil>t the rL^t %seie 
Ipi 1 g ibr breakfast, one of the party, Mr Birkbeck, went -ide, aii^l the 
others did not at first remark his absence. When it ^■^^•\""ticed,l^^^s track ^^^^ 
followed, and it was found that he had fallen down V^^^^/^^^^ 
and ice and was descried nearly halt a mile awav, at the loot ot the supe 
at the head of the French Glac.Vle Miage. His friends went to his assistance 
a uulkly as possible, but nearly 2i hs. elapsed ^^fore they coidd reach hm 

,rhere he stopped there vas a diferenre of href of '''-'' V^O /../ /The -l<>pe^ 
Lentle where he first lost his footing, and he tried to stop hiniselt ^th luj 
finger, nd nails, but the snow was too hard. -Sometimes he descended eet 
^sometimes head first, then he went sideways, and once or tvnce he had 
the >^en-<ation of shooting through the air." He came to a stop at the edge o 
a large ievasse. When reached, it was found that he -^^J^-^^'"^!^^^ 
by abrasion and friction. -By his passage over the snow, the ;^" ;^;^; ^^ 
moved from the outside of the legs and thighs, the knees, ^^e ^^ hole ot tie 
Wr part (,f the back and part of the ribs, together with some tr«"\t^e no>e 
and forehead. He had not lost much blood, l)ut he presented a most gha.stl> 

1 Cr T 50 frs. is an abbreviation of Couniiayeur Tarif des Courses. 

ilostl .1 1 km.^^^^^ ami P. I'errn. liirkbe. k was a very younj,^ man m chaise of 
Hudson. 



CH. XIV 



ONE OF THE BIGGEST TUMBLES ON nECORT). 



14' 



(I 



speotacle „f l,],K,,ly raw flch." He wa., trans,K,rted to St. Gervai. and re 
l>etter than might have been exi)ccted. ^ x«^uverca 

The descent from the Vo\ to Conrniayeur occupies about 6 hs 
an( leads down the entire length of tiie Italian (ilac. de Mia-e to the 
\ al \ em near tiie Lac de Conibal ; and thence down the uilley by 
a good path, past la Visaille, r,423 feet. The existence of this pa^s 
has been known for about a century, but it is not frequently used 
It IS possible to go on (,ot this way from Courmayeur to Chamonix 
m 19 hs (see Peaks, Passe, ami Glaciers, 2nd .ser. vol. i, i,p. 194- 
-00, an<l l.y employing carriages as far as they could be i se<l it 
might be done in much less time.] 

From Contamines to Notre Dame de la Gorge is about 1 h 
40 nun The carnage - road ends there. Notre Dame to Nant 
Bourrant (Borrant), 4780 feet, takes 35 niin., small inn. Before 
arriMii- there stop a minute to look over the bridge. There is now 
no otiier place where refreshments can be had before diai.ieux or 
es Motets, except the Chalet a la Balme ; and most of the way is 
bare and shadowless. I'pon these accounts it is preferable to start 
from Nant Bourrant rather than from Contamines for the second day. 

i.fSl"* Kourrant is immediately opposite to the end of the Glac de Tre- 
latete. one ot the larger glaciers of Mont Blanc, which is not mT.ch visited 
and is incorrectly c elineated upon all maps, the Pavilion de Trelat^te 
b4M teet. is a small place, often closed. One path leads to it from W 
Bonrrant in about H hs. and another from CoiLmines in ratht nZ )£ 

Tr'h'f? -.1. ^^^^.^,*^^*^^^^^4V'^ '^^^^ "^ *h^ ^hain over the (llac e 
Tre atete either by the Col du Mont Tondu, or by the Col de Tre atete 
1,4., ieet. The latter is an unprofit^ible short cut, which was fir^Xted 
by Messrs. C^ E. and G. S. Mathews on Aug. 28, 1864 Thev stiirted tromo 
chalet near the Col de la Seigne at 5 a.m.^nd occupied I'o hs In ietW 
over to the (llac. de Tre^atSte. The night was passed out of doors thref 
hours above the Pavilion. Much cpiicker passages can be niade bn't on 

uim'/^ffn^^ 'i"^^ ''' ^'^ '^'^ ^" its fovour.^ The^Col du Mont TonduabU 
1^400 feet (Cx T. 25 courses ext.. Cr. T. 25 frs.). crosse^a de^Liion^rtort 
istance to the h. of Mont Tondu, 10,480 feet, and descends over the littL 
(rlac des Lancettes, from which one can either go down to les Motets o? 
c..ast round the slopes to the east to the summit^ of the Col de la Seigne 
Hy his way It takes / to 8 hs. from Contamines to the top of the Cof de 
la Seigne. The Col du Mont Tondu was originallv called cll de Trelatete 

U ^fn-a J /;,.. 1S6.3. Thcn-e is another way from the Trelat6te Glac. to the 
tol de la Seigne by the Col du Glacier, a pass which is seldom used md i! 
somewhat longer than the Col du Ah.ut Tondu. ' ""^ '' 

Nant Bourrant to Courmayeur by the Cols du Bonhomme, des 
tours, and de la Seigne.-From Nant Bourrant to the Chalet a la 
Barme (Barme), oO mm., the path rises moderately. The chalet is 
a poor place, with only the simplest food. After jhassino- it there is 
a steep rise for 30 min., and then for a long distance" the way is 
niarke<l by stakes. The gradients again become more moderate, \an<l 
the path wimls round a sort of cirque (Flan Jovet) at the base of 
Alont londu an.l the Tete d'Enclave [hence there is a short cut to 
Motets over the (\.l d'Knclave]. At the farther si<le there is another 
steep rise, ami at the top of this the Col du Bonhomme be<nns to be 



CHAMONIX AND MONT BLANC. 



ciiAr. XIV. 



CHAP. XIV. ITALIAN ROUTES UP MONT BLANC. 



U9 



148 , „„ ov Keep to the 

. the hest part of an hour a^^a^ ^^^^ ^^^^^^^^ 
.een, stiU, -^f [;,,^ ^ ami avoid paths on the n, t The^^^ 
left, ^:-'^^^"f%\^\" eet V nndulatin^^ for ^onie ^^^'^^ ai.tinctly to 
f •''^^m°i/hi t^fhan another; ^-1 hefore ^ 1-.-^^,^ .^^ ,^,,,t 
hein<: 1^^^^' 'V ' «-^ f^„,. ^ i,ath -oes ott to the leii, <i descent on 

trr To\ r'^oTdeVFourr, SHOl feet -..n-^ A/^.e over t..e 
?,l"eas;ern si,U Win^s you in 1 « • ' » ^j^^;,,, ,«« fee ; and m 

liere is not attract e. Bonhoninie do^Nn ^o ^«^ ^^ ^ 

trians. Goin<. froni the Col I ^^^^^ .^^.^^,,, eon.iaerahle 

4951 feet, adds 2 hfe- to tne j ^^^^ ^^.^^.^, 

*; hoioht The anherges there aie i i ^ ^^^ 

"^ ^ nf the Cols du Bonhomme ^'^^J^lZZ^^''^'^''^'^ 

Though the passage o f^^^^^,,;, ,,„, ?,e .e.», ^^ ,"\^>; ^^ 'near the top is 

enough in fipf^^'^'-^^^'^'For this reason a large Vf^'i^^ll^.'^Ut if it is atall 

i. covered -^thf o.^ For^h ^^^^^ '-^«-,V.^o"BoYrrU ^-'-'^^ 7)....>^o«, 

marked by post^. . Anjon -^ ^ According to i^o^^'^^" ^ ^^.^re was upon it, 

Fn^dln times, a hosp.ce and a he™ eo.uparativelv .InU. At 

hand of tl.e ^al ^em the ^^^ Peuteret lK.t«een tl e t^;« ' >^^j„i„„, 
i." ,*^ !^""?Jo tpreSen.ions of losin, tl.e .v^> ne d be^ ^^^^^^^^^^ 
Calcaire.. Ivo aiP j ^„ easy n^fire. Make t ^^^^^j 

here. The grouna _ (eastern) f'^" °!/''^.:^ ,,e Trelatete, 

tlie valley, and the n nt ^ io„k at tl.e Aig. 

Arrived there, stop f J^^ /' .^^ Miajje j,,e 

^ixt a^ dTTWiUV '?■'•'' rvva^'hvs'a^°en'K.d'ondnly 
[The Aiguui ^^^^ ^.^^.^^^^ ^\} T,.uh the <aiides Mu'hel 

\tT^6rt Mr' Adan..Kenbj^^^ 

^een on tne otuci loth crossed the noiLncn t -i^tAfp 

V2 7S-2 feet, and crossed o^^r to^the^ ., ^ ^^^,,j.^„ ,,,j, of 

Connnayenr 9i hs The J-o^** ^j^., . ^^,a- 

tl,e Western side of Mont Ulan , ^eopraphv of the cha.n : 

T v,a,1 felt gresit interest in ttio gee b i „j^ 

and this spot l^^^i/;7f^> araft of) "my map had recene , 
were, which Itne ui. 



wormwood to me when 1 thought of that great slope which 1 had been 
obhgcd to leave a l)lank, speckled over with unmeaning dots of rock, gathered 
from previous maps — for I had consulted them all without meeting an in- 
telHgible representation of it. From the surface of the Miage Glacier 1 had 
gained nothing, for I could only see the feet of magnificent ice-streams ; but now, 
from the top of the dead wall of rock which had so long closed my view, I 
siiw those tine glaciers from top to bottom, pouring down their streams, nearly as 
large as the Bossons, from Mont Blanc, from the Bosse, and from the Dome. 
'•The head of Mont Blanc is supported on this side by two buttresses, 
between which vast glaciers descend. Of these the most southern takes its 
rise at the foot of the precipices which fall steeply down from the Calotte, 
and its stream, as it joins that of the Miage, is cut in two by an enormous 
roipion of rock. Next, to the left, comes the largest of the buttresses of 
which 1 have spoken, almost forming an aiguille in itself. The next glacier 
descends from a large basin which receives the snows of the summit -ridge 
between the Bosse and the Dt')me, and it is divided from the third and last 
glacier by another buttress, which joins the summit-ridge at a point between 
the Dome and the Aiguille de Bionnassay." ReiUi/. 

We ajj^reed to name ' the niowt southern ' of these glaciers the 
Glacier du Mont Blanc, and ' tlie next one ' the Glacier du Dome.^ 
These names have been generally adopted. ' The third ' ghxcier is 
nameless, but is sometimes called the Italian Glacier de Bionnassay. 
The great buttresses betwixt these magniticent ice -streams have 
supplied a large portion of the enormous masses of debris which are 
disposeil in ridges round about, and are strewn over, the termination 
of the Glacier de Miage in tlie Val Veni. These moraines used to 
be classed amongst the wonders of the >vorld. 

The Dome route up Mont Blanc (Cr. T. 100 frs.), the most fre- 
<iiiently used of the ways up the mountain on the Italian side, leads 
by the Ital. tJlac. de Miage to the base of the rocks (Aig. Grise) on 
the western side of the Glac. du Dome. These rocks are ascended 
to a Cabane (Cabane du Dome, or Dome hut), about 10,900 feet, 
whicli has been erected by the Turin section of tlie Italian Alpine 
Club. On the following morning the ascent is continued by the 
Glac. du Dome to its head, and the ridge is struck that leads from 
the Dome du Goilter to the Aig. de Bionnassay, about mid -way 
l>etween the two peaks. The arete of this ridge (very narrow)*^ is 
followed nearly to the summit of the Dome (which is passed a little 
to the right) and completed hi the usual way by the ridge of the 
liosses. Time, Courmayeur to Dome hut about 7 hs. ; hut to summit 
7 to 8 hs., or more under unfavourable conditions. This route is 
marked on the fob ling Map. 

The route up Mont Blanc by the Glacier du Mont Blanc is more direct, 
but less frciiuently followed, than the Dome route. Mr. T. S. Kennedy, a 
rapid walker, who first went this way in 1872, took 4^ hs. from Courmayeur 
to his bivouac on the rocks between the Glacs. du Dome and du Mont Blanc, 
about 1 h. above the Glac. de Miage, and lOi hs. thence to the summit. Two 
rabaiu's have lieen erected upon the rocks on the W. side of the Glac. du Mont 

1 The two "-laciers were so named upon Ueilly's Map (18(55), and on the Mont Blanc 
Map to Scmnildes^(\h~\). In Mieulef s Map (iSG'i) no names were ^aven to these glaciers, 
and they are also uiuianied on the Italian Govt. Map, scale ,0,^500 (1883), and the Ital. 
Govt. Map, scale ^^J.-.^ (corrected to 1894). 

- Count Villanova and J. -J. Maquij^naz perished here in 1890. See p. 60. 



,,„ (7/.I.V('.\7A- -l-vy. MOXT BLANC. c.i.U'. xiv. 

B,,„K. ,.v the Italian A^.i-o ^'WO. one .J-h-u^^^^^^ 

and thc\.ther (called V''i,,*^'''"Vv the GHc'* le BnmiUanl (Bn«lia) and de 

iS^,!"t,:rX^e;Ue„'^r?wo"^^:^^^^ ^^ "W^t .^ ^.-t r^^OO feet; 

















^^- 



r.-?^^ 






3 * 
v-* I' 



' *r^ f (-^z r I War ■" t:^ ^ ' » m 'i 



s 









#;■ 












THE CABANE DU d6ME. 

.nd fron, that .},ot 9 hs. 40 ■";»•, "j;- J^^ Z'^Bl^ic^'de' Snla^JM 

S: thrU',y^X'o? S two ^?:tef i:J:.U.de haU. but in each «.e thoy 

were brief.] ^^^ 

1 The name Mont Blanc de Counnayeur is -iven to \^^/^>*J, ''^,i;;'p.^"TheTe^s a\on- 
Blanc, fonnin,^ a cliff about \ kil. from ^h;^ J""^" ^^^^ .{^J^^^naUon^ of its elevation. 
sidera:ble discrepancy between the reneh ami Italian ^l ^m ^^^^ ^_^^ ^^ 

Hei'-'ht of Mont Blanc according to Mieulet L.,.8l ft. Accoui „ , ^^^,,, 



5o. M. Blanc de Counnayeur do. l^^<><^'-^ " 



do. 



do. 



15,450 „ 



,— do do. 322 ,, 

. ..,. that t;;frr^7tei rt£^s^^^^^^^^^ - 

urmy Map I follow the older authority (Mieulet). 



CHAr. XIV. 



CO U KM AYE U 11. 



151 



AL llie eastern end of the Lac <le (V)inl)al the path to C'ourniayeur 
crosses U) the left hank of tlie valley, and skirts the huge moraines 
of tiie (ilac. (le Miage for ahout 3 kils. It then recrosses to the 
right hank, ami in a few minutes arrives at la Visaille. The 
Kestauijant du Chalet de la Visaille is not ])re[)ossessing in 
ajjpearance, hut is kept hy a civil hostess, who supplies good, plain 
food at honest ju'ices. Char road commences a little lower <lown (in 
shade rest of the way down the Val Veni) and in 50 min. hrings 
y«m to the hridge for the Brenva, ChAlet de PrirruD (cantine), 
and in 25 min. more to the Chapel of Notre Dame de Gudrison, 
oj)posite to which there is another hridge for the Grotto in the 
IJrenva (Jlacier. The views of tlie Aig. de Peuteret and Brenva 
(ilac. whilst descen<ling this |)art of the valley are extremely grand. 
The road soon turns shar[>ly to the right, and in 35 min. more you 
are at Courmayeur. 



Xant Bourrant to Chalet a la Balme .... 

Halnie to Motets l)y the ('ols du Bonhomme and des Fours 
Motets to top of Col de la Heigne ..... 

Col de la Seigne to la Visaille ...... 

La Visaille to Notre Dame de Guerison .... 

Notre Dame de Cuerison to Counnayeur .... 



4 
1 
2 

1 



mm. 

50 

30 

40 

10 

15 

35 



Courmayeur, 4045 feet; Pop. 1201. — Hotel ANciELO ; Hotel du 
Mont Blanc (10 min. N. of Courmayeur); (Jkand Hotel Koval ; 
Hotel de l'Cnion. The Uoyal is the hest hotel in this district, 
and has heen conducted hy its present i>roprietor, M. Bertolini, for 
40 years. This village is fre([uented hy many Italians, who get there 
easily from Milan, Turin, etc., hy rail to Aosta, and thence hy 
diligence. At Pre St. Didier (40 min. on the road to Aosta) there 
are mineral springs and Baths. Numerous excursions can he made. 
See Appendix for ' Tarif des Courses' and List of (Juides. The 
summit of Mont Blanc cannot he seen from the village. The most 
prominent ohject in view is the Aiguille, or Dent, du (^eant, — ^a 
gigantic tooth which all the dentists in the worhl cannot draw, or 
even scale. Of short and easy excursions, the ascents of Mont Saxe, 
Mont Chetif, {ind the Crannnont ; and walks to the Brenva Glacier, 
and up the Val Vcni to the moraines of the Miage are the best. 
They can be made at any hour of the day. 

The Ascent of Mont Saxe (Monts de la Saxe), 7736 feet (Cr. T. 6 frs.), 
can be made a fthort excursion hy following the track shewn on the folding 
Maj), or it may be turned into a longer one by going along the top of the 
mountain to what is called the Tete Bernarda, 8314 feet, descending upon 
Praz Sec, and returning by the road down the Val Ferret. This is one of the 
finest excursions that can be made anywhere. It gives from beginning to end 
a succession of magnificent views of the Italian side of Mont Blanc. The road 
home is good and pleasant. Mont Saxe is an excellent hunting-ground for 
botanists and entomologists. The ascent to the near end of the mountain will 
take 2^ to 2^ hs. Mont Chetif, 7687 feet (Cr. T. 6 frs.), is immediately 
opposite to the Brenva Glacier, and for viewing it and the S.E. side of Mont 
Blanc is in some respects su})erior to Mont Saxe ; but its summit is not ex- 
tensive, and one lias not the same liberty of motion. Time ascending about 
3 hs. The Crammont (Tete de Craminont), 8980 feet (Cr. T. 8 frs.), lies 



KV2 CHAMONIX AND MONT BLANC. chap. xiv. 

J A,,^ c «f \Tnnt Chetif which it overlooks. This 

Little St. Bernard Road for h h., and atterwarcis ^om^ ^ a variation 

riu *^,. r;Q7i fof.t Time Counnaveur to summit, about 4o ns. a \ari.itKm 

Return by the usual way down the \ al \ 6m. 

Of lon-er excursions, the finer ones are, to the •summit of the C ol 
du Geantf the ascent of the Aiguille du (leant; Mont Blanc hy the 




?vV^ 






^■^fc*^ 



i»^-*^' 



THE PAVILLON DU MONT FR^TV. 



Brenva Glacier ; and the 
ascent of the (Irandes Jo- 
rasses. 

The summit of the Col 
du Geant, ll,n30 feet (Cr. 
T. 15 or 20 frs.), is seen 
from Courniayeur ahove 
Mont Frety. So far as the . i ^i 

Hotel (or Pavilion) du Mont Fr^ty, 7129 feet, there .s - --l?i-^ ;^ 
higher np there is a track nearly all the way to the Co f h. 
Pavilion (Cr. T. 6 frs.)K is a regular excursion; '-^4 J'- /"^"""^^ 
ui> U hs <.oing down. The view from this place includes the Aig. 
d uclant The Grandes Jorasses, and Grand Gon.hin, hut all can he 
til t:^e!;l;:r advantage elsewhere^ From the Hotel t. t^Min.mi 
of the Col takes ahout 3 h. 10 n.in., mainly over rocks (eai <uul 
late in the season mingleil with snow), easy t.> climh llieit is a 
Zal at the top of tliese rocks, a few feet helow the ^umnnt on 
the Italian side, which can he seen from Courmayeur and ^ ^om t^e 
Mont Frety Hotel, and forms a good ohject to steer to. It was 
1 This is not a nice place. Bring food from Courmayeur. 



CHAT. XIV. 



THE AIGUILLES I)E PEUTEIiET. 



153 




TABLET IN THE CABANE ON THE COL DU G^ANT. 



erected in 1S7(), and has heeii suh.se<iiiently extended. In Aug. 1888, 
H.M. the (^ueen of Italy slept at the Mont Frety Hotel on the 15th, 
and started at 4 a.m. the next morning for the Col with 27 persons, 
under the leading of Henri Seraphin. Bad weather came on, and they 
were forced to pass the night in the cahanc. On the 17th they 
returned to Courmayeur. The memhers of the Turin section of the 
Italian Ali)ine Cluh have commemorated this occurrence hy placing a 
tahlet in the cabanc. 

"The Col du G^ant," says Mr. LesHe Stephen, "is and must always remain 
one of the first two or three, if not actually the first, in beauty of all Alpine 
passes. The partiality of new discoverers has set up rivals to it at one time 
or another ; but its grandeur and variety are always fresh, and nowhere, in 
my knowledge, Xjo be fairly ecpialled." This applies to the Pass as a whole. 
For the French side see i)p. 119-120. The view on the Italian side is very 
extensive. The i)rincii>al features seen from the adxiiii' are the exceedingly 
jagged ridge between the Glacs. do la Jirenva and de Fresnay, with the Aigs. 
de Peuteret ; and the audacious pinnacle the Aig. du (ieant. 

The Aig. Blanche de Peuteret, lo,478 feet, is one of the princii)al points 
on the ridge descending towards S.E. from the Mont Bhmc de Courmayeur. 
The name is of recent origin, it was first ascended by Sir H. Seymour King, 
with the guides Ambrose Supersax, Aloys Anthamatten(0 and Emile Key, on 
July 31, 1885. (See pp. 58-9 for the death of Prof. Balfour.) The Aig. Noire 
de Peuteret, 12,392 feet (Cr. T. 70 frs.), is a very fine pinnacle lower down 
the same ridge, and from some points is scarcely less imposing than the Aig. 
du Dru. It was formerly known as the Aig. de P^teret. The first ascent was 



l.VJ CHAMUXJX AND MONT BLANC. ciiAi'. xiv. 

1 1,, > ^ -»f M,.iif (Mit'tif which it overlooks. This 

ss1;=rt,;s t-r^i'^i^f :s;||".vS ; 

Iteturn bv the usual way ilowu tho \ al \ 6m. 

(tf lonuor excursions, the finer ones me to tlie snn.mit of tl,e Co 
,U. Ceant: tho ascent of the Aiguille -In Ceaut : >ront l.lunc hj tho 



■"^SiP^' 




^..'^"% 






THE I'AVILLON DU MONT FR^TY, 



Brenva (Uaoier; aiiU the 
ascent of the (Iraiides .lo- 
lasses. 

Tlie summit of the Col 
du Geant, ll.o.SO feet (Cr. 
T. 15 or 20 frs.), i^ «een 
from C'ouiinayeur ahove 
Mont Fretv. So far as the . i »i 

Hotel K.r VaviUon) du Mont Fr^ty, Tl-iJ) tVet, there is ;\ '""»^;i»^^ ' ; 
hi;:l.er up there is a tra<k nearly all the way to the ( o • ft 
Pillion (Cr. T. 6 frs.)'. is a regular excursion: ^i - ;"^ f 
ui. 1' h^ "oinu- aown. The view tron. this i^lace inclu.les the W^- 
u (;^ant, ti.e ilran.les .lorasses, an.l draiwl ( on.hm hnt all ean he 
seen lo .iVater a.lvanta^e elsewhere. From the Hotel to the snn.mi 
of the Col takes ah<mt :^ h. !<» min., mainly (»ver rocks (eail> an« 
late in the season min-le.l with siu^w), easy to climh 1 here is a 
I't.; at the top of these rocks, a few feet helow the summit on 
the Italian side, which can he seen from Conrmayeur and from the 
Mont Frety Hotel, and forms a good ohject to steer to. It Mas 
1 This is nol a nice pUice. Dnny food from Counnaveur. 



CI I AT. XIV. 



THE AIGUILLES I)E VEVTEUET. 



lo3 




TAIU-KT IN IHK CAI'.ANE ON THE COl. UU t.EAN 1. 

erected in ISTii, ami has heen suhsetiuently extended. In Au<.i-. 1S88, 
H.M. the (,Mieen of Italy slei»t at the Mont Frety Hotel on the loth, 
an<l started at 4 a.m. the next morning for the Col with 27 perscms, 
under the leadin-; of Henri Sciajdiin. JJad weather came on. and they 
were force<l to pass the nij;ht in the calnnir. On the 17th they 
returned to Coiirmayeiir. The mend>ers of the Turin section of the 
Italian Ali»ine Cluh have coinmemorated this occurrence hy placing a 
tahlet in the cnbanc. 

'•The Col du (ieaut," says .Mr. Leslie Stephen, "is and must always remain 
one of the first two or three, if not actually the first, in beauty of all Alpine 
passes. The partiality of new discoverers has set up rivals to it at one time 
or another : hut its grandeur and variety are always fresh, and nowhere, in 
my knowledge, to he fairly e<iualled." This applies to the Pass as a whole. 
For the French side see i»p. IVJ-V^i). The view on the Italian side is very 
exten.sive. The principal features .«;een from the nihum' are the exceedingly 
jagged ridge between the (Jlacs. de la IJrenva and do Kresnay, with the Aigs. 
de Peuteret : and the audacious pimiacle the Aig. du (icant. 

The Aig. Blanche de Peuteret, lo.LS feet, is one of the principal points 
on the ridge descending towards S.E. from the Mont Blanc de t'ourmayeur. 
The name is of recent origin. It was first ascended hy Sir II. Seymour King, 
with the guides Ambrose Supcrsax, Aloys Anthamatten(0 and Kmile liey. on 
July ol. lN^r». (See i>p. ^^'^-S^ for the dea'th of Prof. Balfour.) The Aig. Noire 
de "Peuteret, 12,:3i»2 feet (Cr. T. 70 frs.), is a very fine pinnacle lower ilown 
the same ridge, and from si»nie points is .scarcely less imi>o.sing than the Aig. 
du Dru. It was formerly known as tin; Aig. de i*eteret. The first ascent was 



CHAMOMX AND MONT BLANC. 



CHAP. XIV. 

.1 by Lord Wentworth, ^th EnnU. Uey^and J.-R Bie .. V^ Tourna,K^. 
A rat was noticed three yards froin the .umm t 1 1 ^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^ 

of rock as soon as it saw nie. ^^^U^al } U^-^ u ^,. .^^ ^..^^^j, i^^.^.^r 

n,oss with pink and yellow t^;>^vers (^ then 'l^^^T^ovA Wentworth in the 
down 1 found some ranunc.dusejs also "j/^e^^i^^ ^^^^^,^ ,, signor Pop.) 

^J^i::onZ:1ji^^^ LdBlinchelle P^iteret, the scraggy pinnacles have 

^Z^^i:^^^^-^^^ ^%f:^ll^^tTto^ T. 45. courses ext. ; 

The Aiguille (or Dent) du Ge^nt ^3 l.o ^^^r^ '^x J^ ^ -'^ ^^^ ^^^ain of 

Cr. T. 70 trs.). .This pe.xk, one o the mo^t ^tr^king ^^^^^^.^ ^^^. ^^^ ^.^^^ ^^^^ 

Mont Blanc, is situated about ^ "V J" ;f^^^f„;|i; Corradino, Alfonso (17 years 
C;eant. It was first ascended by MM. Ale.^<^ndroLc™^^ , Maquignaz and 
old) and Gaudenzio Sdla with ^he guides J -J • Ma.^^^^ thJ aLnt was 

Daniel Maquignaz of \'^^Tcnirnanche on Jul^ 2^^^^^ ^^ -^ i^^,, 

made, the guides worked tour 'l;«^;^^;^/"!^i^^ party reached the knrer of the 
tr^^ l^el^^irSrrr^:^, ^^ about lOO mares ot rope 

''^l,:Mr of the two rocky^^ ^^Z:^^'^^ ]^^ 

with the guides Alphonse Payot and An^^^ , ^^^,.,^d by the 

20, 1882. Mr. CJrahani said ^tter reaching the ^^ .^^ ^.^^^ ^^.^^^^^^ 

Seilas, -straight in tront cvf ^^^ ^'^^f , ^Ixl nScli l^e most obvious line of 
separated from us by an extremely a^^|;;Vuiici v br ited and we consc-iuently 
dicent was blocked by a huge loose k^> "^^\\^,^;;, "^ 'een o twenty feit, and 
had to let ourselves ^^^'^ ^""l^t^ u2^Lt^^t^^^^^ teeth, this was of 
"^ ^^ ^tr^a^ ^adl;f nir^^d from a foot to a few inches. . . . 

Mr. J. W^ Hartley ascended both of them on Ju > 4 i^ . ^^^^ ^^^.^^ 

^vere much struck by the eenj small ^^t^^r*^"^.^ "^ ^^\f ^e passiige from one 

peaks. We . . . estimated it at //;;:" ^y^.^/^^-^.t part li thf mountain." 

peak to the other we found this y^^^ 4iiite the ^a^/^ M ^^ ^,^^^ ;, i, i,,,- 

The Aig. du Geant is perhaps one ot the ^\^, ]^""; ii,,„ it from the 

possible to' ascend by fair ^'^J-^r^^-'X]^'^^^^^^ ever get 

.ummit of Mont Mallet, Mr. ^esle Stephen tiougn^^^^ ^^^. ^^^^^ ^^^^^ 

up that peak by lair means Ot cour.e, it i> " l/^^.J^^ ^ stooping to some of 
hi within the resources of tbe engineer s art , but ^f ^'^^^.^ ^y^^^.f.d in regard 
those artifices which the mountaineer ^f ^J/^^.;; ^^^^^r^^^^ i venture to say 
to other pursuits by the epithet ' unsiKjrtMnanlike "o om.,^^ 
^th'mniial confidence, will -er climb t^eDent^duG^^^^.^^ ^^^ ^^.^ 
The rahtne on the Col du ^^^ant is u^uall^ mac e tne b i -^^i^,,, 

ascent, which has become ^n es^il^jed excu^n J^ he^U^ ^^^^.^^ 

of Sig. Vittorio Sella, 1 am able to gne ^hc accompany g ^^ ^ .^ ^^^ 
the routes which were taken by ^l^- f^^'^ M^.rs Sella. Where the routes 

out the direction of the Col du Geant. ^ +i,^ 

Mont Blanc use., to be asce.ulea via the Col du Gean and^^^^^ 
Aig. d« Midi l.y \">^^''':^,^^^ :^:'^JZ^\^r^^. It is 

\^:^X a frinrrn/tt i:...:::;^ Mai. t.. ..,.„« at u. 

Zt of the Ai". <lu -Muli i« said to l.e uiunhal ..table. 

There are thf parses in the ^'g/^l^^^^^::^^^^}^^:'^ 



f 




THE AIGUILLE DU GEANT, 

SHEWING THE ROUTES OF MESSRS. SELLA AND MR. GRAHAM. 

BY PERMISSION, FROM A PHOTOGRAPH BY SIGNOR VITTORIO SELLA. 



(7/,Ll/^^A7A' AM) MOST IILAXC. 



lllAP. XIV. 



A rat was uc>tice<l throe yards from the >unn n -»^ ^^^^. H ^^ ^,„^^^ 

of roc-k as soon as it saw inc. ^^' U'^l ^^ ^^^ 'l^ f,ui blossom. Fiftv vanls l.^vcr 
xnoss with pink and yellow tl--;*;^;-^^) ^^^V riovver '' ' I-r.l Wentw'orth in the 
down 1 found some ranuneidu.ej. also ^^^^^^^ ^j^.^^,,^ ,,- si.n.or Popi.) 

Between the"!ugrNc:i^e lind 'Bl^che lie I>e;.terct, the seraggy pinnaeles have 
}t:;;\V:n:ed lt\-apt. Mieulet 'les Dames i^ga^^^^^^^^ ^^,. 

The Aiguille (or Dent) du G^an^' /;;;;" itdkiug torms in the Chain of 
Cr. T. 70 t-rs.). .This peak, one o the ^^^^^ j^^' ^'^^^^^^^ ,,„,„,it ..f the Col du 
Mont Blanc, is situated ahou 1^ " •,^\V't:mdn^ Alfonso (17 years 

tiea.it. It was first aseended by ^1^';.;^^"7'" '''^i. . , 'g ,az, B. Maquignaz ami 
old) ami Claudenzio Sella with ^ J-, f " f^jj (;;VTi^^^^^ Hefore thJ ascent was 
Daiiiel Ma.iuigna.of Y ^r"^7^T^^^g the rock, ami driving in iron 
made, the guides worked tour ^ ;\> ^ "^ /"", ,\\f, ^^,,tv reached the /o.vv of the 
rS Z^t^^fo^-^^^^^i ^- li. ^bout 100 metres of rope 

'^'"^•i.;:,.- of the two rocky t^th ^^::;^^:^^j::^j;::f^^^ 

with the ^^viides Alphonse l\iNot axd Au^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^ ^.^. ,^^^ 

■20, 1S.V2. Mr. (Graham ^^^^^'/^^^^^^^^.^^X^ther tooth, alxnit 20 feet higher, 
Seilas, -straight in tront of ^^v fwkw^r Inotcl 'H^ most ol.vious line of 
separated from us by an extremelN ^^^\^,^;^;^;. "' . ;,,,ted and we conse-iuently 
.iJscent was blocked by a huge -'^ '^ \^ /^^^ J .^/^ « '^^^^ twentv feit, and 

ha<l to lot ourselv^ dov.1 .j^ver ical Kr^ ^^^^,^ j,,,, ,,,, ,,• 

^S ^H^d ^i::::^ ^adllaf narrowed from a foot to a few inches. . . . 

Mr. J. W: Hartley aseended both of them^m^)u> ^^^ ^ ^^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^.^, 
were much struck by ^^^ ':7V/ /^^^^^ /l*\^ X^*^^,^ ^^ ^^.^'^^'he passage from one 

peaks. We . . estimated ^^J^^^^^^^c^^^^^ V-^' ^^ '^'^ n.ountain." 

peak t.. the other we found thi. ^^ar 411 tc tlie t.i^ ^ .,^., ,,.y,^,.], it is im- 

The Aig. du (ieant is perhaps one ot the *^;\ J "';!'' ,^,,,,i„,. it from the 

possible to ascend by fai.; ^^^^-^.J^^t.^ ^^^^^ ^ ^ver get 
iummit of Mont Mallet. Mr. Leslie ^^^I'l .^". ^^^^^^ ^^^ sav what may not 
up that peak by fair means Ot course, t 1. ^ '* ^ X^^J^^,,; i„. u> s..me ..f 
\}o within the resources of the engineer sat , J ^h ut t 1^^^^^^^ .^^ 

:;u;;t;ufal ^ont^lence .^ ever ^innb th^ ,. ,,, 

The >vh,n.,- on the lol du ^^^'''"^ /.",",''''' ';.^,,,i,,„ By the kind pernnssion 

ascent, which has become ^»" ^-^"^ ^^^''^v. thr-u-L^^^^^^^^ illustratioA, shewing 

of Sig. Vittorio Sella, I am able to gne ^he ;^-^^^;i !-^ \\^t. (^,,1,,,,,. A is the 

the routes which were taken by M^\; J?^ ;^ Me-r' Sella. Where the n.utes 

highest point, and B the sunmnt '"oached b. Me>>r cua ^^^, 

<eparate in the .M/r of ^^'^ /';!>''''''''■':. '^^^^!l,\^,Z:,^ b. The left'haml 
tjJahan. ; and his is that -1^;^^ numn . d^.ecth J^m^^ ^^^ ^^^^^^^^ ^^^.^^^ 

route of t/n: »j>pn- jMirf was that toUouca »•} -it 

out the direction of the Col du Geant. 

Mont Blanc use,! to l.e as,.eu,le.l via tlie Col du <^ - and th« 

Aig, du Midi uy ^ •■''>•;--• ;^''!;;/™%:™'t.'\va!l:rsli. u is 

nxx ;: ^^nr t;r :. 'th^ m.h;; m., i.. ..... at t.. 

f^t of tl,e Aiy. .lu Mi.li is said to he un,„l,al..tal,le. 

There ..-o t,.ee ,..^s in the ™™g-'',^>^;';l;';;^:tr;'r^i.e '^^'^ 




-&•, 







''V>> 






Jit-'*"" •*'•"." ',--'/ 



■ J, 











■^. 



=Vf'' 







^f '<';}5i 



hVfc -,.' .1'' Phii^ '>-. 



i 




THE AIGUILLE DU GEANT, 
SHEWING THE ROUTES OF MESSRS. SELLA AND MR. GRAHAM. 

BY PERMISSION, FROM A PHOTOGRAPH BY SIGNOR VITTORIO SELLA. 



15G CHAMONIX AND MONT BLANC. chap. xiv. 

WW tir^t crossed with the guides Michel and Alphonse Payut, on July 10 
^si-- tKvP tnind^' v^^^^^^ Eccles, -no difficulty in the descent over the 

does not remember when this pass ^^J^^^^^^^^^^^ It,^^^^ 
worth countmg as a new pass. 6. Ihe Col cie ^0^|f- "''\^''*' 
beau and la Tour Ronde, descendmg by the Glac. de iouie. 

Tlie Ascent of Mont Blanc by tbe Brenva Glacier is the niost 
direct of all the routes ui> the inountain on the Itf ^;!^ ;;;;^^' '''\^^ 
is seldom taken, on account of its steepness and ^^f| ft>- ^f^ 
track of the tirst ascent by this route is given on the fohling Map. 

On Julv 15, 1S65, "Messrs. G. S. Mathews, A. W. Moore Frank and Horace 
Weaker, with Melchior and Jakob Anderegg left their ^-o^f, ^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^ 
>vmk of the Cxlac de Brenva, 5 hrs. from Courmayeur, at 2.4.J a.m., ana 
Irotng the up"; iclfall of the glacier reached the b^e of a buU-ss^vh^c^^^ 
comes down at right-angles to the main mass of Mont ^^'^^^ J^\ ';-f ;i,^,^7 ^e 
ing the side of this buttress, they got, m 2 hrs on to the ^^^.H^n Iteei) 
1. forming its crest, and followed it for U hrs. until it "^f^g^^ J".^^^^!^ 
sWs of broken nev6, which they ascended for 3 hrs. more Ihen, hearing to 
the right they reached the Corridor at 1.20, the top of Mont Blanc at 3.10 
^nd^lamoun? bv the usual route, at 10.30 p.m. Tot.d actua walking, 1 | 
irs. It SjZposed to call the pass thus made Col de Brenva." Al^nue Journal, 
vol. ii, p. 132. 

The Ascent of the Grandes Jorasses, 13,800, 13,767 feet (Cr. 1. 
70 frs.). Having seen from a photograpli taken near the top of Mont 
lUanc tliat tlie summit of the Grandes Jorasses was accessible on the 
Italian side, I went up Mont 8axe to trace a route over the Imv^r 
part of the mountain; and on June 24, 1865, started froni Cour- 
mayeur at 1.35 a.m., with Michel Croz, Christian Aimer, --^^J^^i 
Kieuev, ami ascended the Val Ferret nearly as far as the ^il «^^^/>* 
Neiron After pa.ssing through forest, succeeded by some ugh >- 
glalted rocks, we made for the middle of the (Glacier des Grandes 
Jorasses; and, traversing an islaiul of rock [roffnou) in ^ts inuist 
ascended the ice for some distance farther, towards the ^.V^., ana 
then turned due N., towards the summit; and mounted sometimes l)> 
crevassed glacier, and sometimes by rocks on its left. The summit 
of the more we.stern of the two highest points was reached at 1 p.m. 
by the arete of a ri<lge de.scending towards (\)urmayeur. NN e re- 
turned to Courmayeur at 8.45 p.m. In descending 

"At tirst we followed the little ridge shewn upon the aecompanyiiig en- 
gravincr, leading from our summit towards the spect;itor, and then t^^^Jj^ VJJ 
lead of the corridor of glacier on its left which in the view is le t Pe^f^^^^^^^^ 
white. The slopes were steep and covered with new-fallen .^' 'J^'^^.f;/^^"^; ^^^^^ 
evil to tread upon. On the ascent we had reviled it, and had "^'^^l^^V;/};;' 
cuse with much caution, knowing full well that ^^e distvu-We of^^^ 
would bring d..wn all that wtxs al>ove. In descending, the bolder spint> 
counselled trusting to luck and a glissade ; the cautious ^".^f ;^^^X Vdvtce f 
ing the slopes and crossing to the rocks on their farther side. Ihe advice ot 

1 Oti the It^alian Govt. Map cotihision has been prmluced here and elsewhere by 
chan^ nj the I'omendature inVonnnon use. The Olac. des Granules Jora^^« f'^ ^ '^"^ 
has disappeared, and the portion of it to tlie West of the rognon is called G. di Plan 
pansiere, and that on the East G. di Pra Sec. 




THE GRANDES JORASSES, FROM Thl llALiAN VAL 



F LRF^LT. 



150 CHAMOXIX AXJJ MONT BLANC. chap. xiv. 

w. Hrt .To^-.ed with the ffuides Michel and Alphuiiso Tuyot, on July 10, 
Tc" "^Kt . ^- n ml - ^^^ Ecclos, -no ditticultv in the descent over the 

n'tc do HocS' anHn 3i hmi^s'lrom the Cofamved at Tourmayeur 1 
;: ;. V .vco n enir this Col as an alternative route to the IV. ^}^:f^ 
•/ Th. Pol des Flambeaux, between the two Flambeaux nearest the (ol du 

docs not remember when th^s pass --^--^^-^^^^^e .ttwee^^^ 
worth countmor as a new pass. ^. Ihe Uol ae louie. c ^ 
beau and la Tour Ronde, descendmg by the Ulac. de louk. 

The Ascent of Mont Blanc by the Brenva Glacier ''- ^ ^^'^ '^''f 
direct of all the routes up the mountain on the Itf an side but t 
is seUloni taken, on account ot its steepness and 'l^"';' l^^^ ^/ ^^ 
track of the tirst ascent l>y this route is given on tlie toUhng Map. 

On lulvr> 186.-. '-Messrs. (1. S. Mathews, A. W. Moore, Frank and Horace 
WakJ ii^ Melchior and Jakob Ancleregg left their V>nx,.mc on ^he k^ 
Lank of theGlac. de Brenva, 5 hrs. from Courmaveur, f .^^•■^;' ;^. 1^-;,S 
crossin- the upper ice-fall of the glacier reached the ba>e ot ; /'^^t^^^ ^ ^j 
cc.mes down at right-angles to the main mass of Mont {^^^^"^ ;^\ '''f -.j^.^^^^.e 
inn- the -ide of this buttress, they got, in 2 hrs., on to the ^er^ ;^'?'^n> i^c 
^teiv^li^ crest, and followed it for U hrs. until it merge( in >tee 
X^jT^SkS:r.<^v(^. which thev ascended for 3 hrs. more Then, bearing to 
he ri^^ht thev reached the Corridor at 1.20, the top of Mont Blanc a -llO 
md Chamouni, bv the usual route, at 10.30 p.m. Total actiuiMNalkiug 1/^ 
iirs. It is proposed to call the pass thus made Col de Brenva." Al^nne Jva, aal, 
vol. ii, p. 132. ^ 

The Ascent of the Grandes Jorasses, i;i,80U, 1:^,707 feet (Cr. 1. 
70 frs.). Having seen from a photo-rapli taken near the top ot Mont 
lilanc that the summit of tlie Cirandes Jorasses was accessilde on the 
Italian side, I went up M<mt Saxe to trace a route over the m ei 
part of the mountain: ami on June 24, 1865, started Ironi (mi- 
Inaveur at 1.3:> a.m., with Michel Croz, Christian Aimer, an. l^ran/ 
Hiener, and ascemled the \A Ferret nearly as far as the m' «V-V, 1^ 
Nciron. After passing through forest succeeded by -'•;''% I;^^;>; 
^daciated rocks, we made for the middle ot the (.lacier des Ciandes 
Jorasses; and, traversing an islaiul of rock {ronuou) m ^ts i.ii.lst, 
ascen<led the ice f.u- some distance farther, towards the .N.\\., .md 
then turned due N., t<.waras the summit ; and mounte<l ^V";"'^''''^;' /-l 
crevassed glacier, and sometimes by rocks on its Ictt. Ihe summit 
of the more western of the two highest points was reached at 1 p.m. 
by the tnrtc of a ridge <lescending towards Courmayeur. N> e le- 
turned to Courmayeur at 8.4.') p.m. In descending 

•• \t first we followed the little ri.l-e shown upon the accompanying en- 
graving. lea<ling from our summit towards the spectator. ^l^:^\^^^J^ 
head of the corridor of glacier on its left, which in the view is f " 1 hrtcct > 
white. Tile slopes were steep and covered with new-fallen snow, tlyur-hke and 
ev it. tread uil.n. On the ascent we ha.l reviled it, and had made our ^ a r- 
ca e wi\h nnu\i caution, knowing full well that the disturbance of its W>e 
would brini,^ down all that was above. In desceu.hng, the bode >l^ t. 
counselled trusting to luck and a glissade : the cauti..us *"^-'^;^'^: , '^^^^^^^^^''/.f 
ing the slopes and crossing to the rocks on their farther side. Ihe advice ot 

1 On the Italian C;ovt. Man confusion has hcen produrt^l here and elsewhere h\ 
,.ha,M J he ;^ uenclatnre inVonuuon use. The (Uac. cles Cran.les ^^^^^^^ '^^ 
ha> .Tisai.i.eared, an<l the portion of it to the West of Hie roijnon is culled C. di Uaii 
pansiere, and that on the East G. di Pra Sec. 



*«, 







THE GRANDES JORASSES, FROM THE ITALIAN VAL FERRET. 



4 



158 CHAMOXIX AND MONT BLANC. CUM-, xiv. 

the latter prevailed, and we had halMraversed the ™"^;,to.K^;>>^*''^„t'»^l 

^lll satisfied that we had nc.t met with more incidents ot a similai de.crip 
tion."i Srnimhles aiiwn;i>>t the A/ps, chap. xvi. 

The (Jrandes Jorasses lias three summits, whicli are marked A, B C 
„po the kunexed dia<,ram. To B, Capt. Mieulet assigns tlie hei.di 
"ioG metres. The other two summits are marked hy hiu, n th ed 
t^.^, hut no heights are ^iven to tJiein It -ems prok^ e th..t 
he rt^-arded hoth hnver than the one that he measured. B NNa> the 

summit we ascended. ..at * t7 ^ f r»f R md 

The point A hes to L.S. h. ot b, an«i 

cannot he seen from the Montaiivert and 

Aler de (ihace. This is tlie true summit 

of the mountain, and is well seen from 

the Italian Val Ferret, near Entreves. 

On the Ital. (iovt. Map A is marked 420.) 

metres, B 410G metres, and C 4O()0 metres. - 

Mieulet drew his frontier line in the 

manner shewn in my diagram, and r.rrlndal the hii^hest point of the 

Guiles' Jorasses. On the Italian Map the frontier line is carried 

throuqh the hijj^hest point. 

Courmayeur to Orsieres (or Champey) by the Col Ferret.-There 
are t™sses called Ferret, which are niarked upon the ^-1; -^ 
Mao N.) 1 and No. 2. No. 1, 8176 feet, is called on the t.il GoU 
^l: ; p:s de Grapillon or Little Ferret, and ^M'- the S.^ r^^^^^^ Swiss 
Map le Chantonet. No. 2, 8320 feet is immed Col de Ferret n k^ 
Ital Mai. ami Col Ferret on the Siegfried Map. lo itach tnt 
^nmU of dther will take about oi hs. fnmi ^j-^-^-^^^^iV";; 
the too of No. 1 one can descen<l either to the hamlet la Folly, oi 
W anTtl'er path to le Clou. From the top of No. 2 the path leads 
1 On AUJ,^ 7, 1^93, a similar incident occiirred on the same si>ot, with m>fortunate 
rpsnlts See Alpine Journal, vol. xvi, \>\^. 5()-2-3. . , , ,, i 

B, and dici not go on ^' ^"";'=';' , .^.-ritorv with two Sw ss and one French guide, 
withstanding niynna^oy^^^ of Counna eur, upon n^v retiirn, with great cordialit,. 



CHAP. XIV. FIRST ASCENT OF MONT DOLE NT. 



159 



A 
A 



past the chrdets of la Peulaz into the Valley of the Dranse, and 
crosses that stream hy a l»rid;::e 1^ kils. (iJiorc the Chalets de Ferret. 
No. 2 is the route to he jneferred, as food can be obtained at the 
Chalets de Ferret, 5o6o feet. Restaurant Fp:rket (5 l)eds) ; Imt on 
the other rcmte food cannot be relied upon between Courmayeur and 
Praz <le Fort. 

A «;ood char road leads from Cimrmayeur to la Vachey, ])assing 
throu<,di the villa<^^es of Neyron and Praz Sec. After (Jruetta the 
May becomes steeper, l)ut the j^Tound is easy, and a way readily 
found over either pass, even if the path should be missed. The nmte 
for each Col passes the chalets of Pre de Bar, 67r)9 feet. 

[At CTructta the Doire is crossed for the Cols Triolet and Talefro. A hut 
(Cabane de Triolet), 8477 feet, has been erected by the Turin Sec. of the Ital. 
Alpine Club on the left bank of the Clac. de Triolet at the foot of Mont 
Koup:e, for the use of })ers()ns crossing: those ]>asses. and excursions are made 
to it from C'ourmayeur (Cr. T. 15 frs., one day; 20 frs., two days). 

The ChA,lets of Pre de Bar (from Courmayeur 4 hs. ascending-, 8^ hs. de- 
Rcendinp:) are used as a starting-point for the Ascent of Mont Dolent, VIJ^'o'o 
feet (Cr. T. 40 frs.), a peak which occupies a commanding j)ositioii at the 
junction of several ridges. This induced Mr. Adams-Reilly and myself to 
ascend it on July 9, 1864, for the purposes of his map. Leaving Pre de Bar 
at 4.1.'> a.m.. we went nearly to the top of Col. F'erret Xo. 1, and thence ni» 
the left bank of the Clac. du Mont Dolent. The upper part of this is a nearly 
level plateau. The her;/M/trintd at the foot of the peak was crossed at 9.20, 
and the summit gained at 11 a.m. The route is marked on the folding Map. 

"This was a miniature ascent. It contained a little of everything. First 
we went up to the Col Ferret Xo. 1, and had a little grind over shaly banks ; 
then there was a little walk over grass ; then a little tramp over a moraine 
(which, strange to say, gave a })leasant path) ; then a little zigzagging over 
the snow-covered glacier of Mont Dolent. Then there was a little liergschrund ; 
then a little wall t)f snow, — which we mounted by the side of a little buttress ; 
and when we struck the ridge descending S.E. from the summit, we found a 
little (ireft' of snow leading to the highest point. The summit itself was little, 
— very small indeed ; it was the loveliest little cone of snow that was ever piled 
up on mountain-top ; so soft, so pure ; it seemed a crime to defile it ; it was 
a miniature Jungfrau, a toy summit, you could cover it with the hand." 
Scroinliha aimnxist thr Alpa, chap. xi. 

"Situated at the junction of three mountain ridges, it rises in a positive 
steeple far above anything in its immediate neighbourhood ; and certain gaps 
in tiie surrounding ridges, which seem contrived for that especial ]mri)ose, ex- 
tend the view in almost every direction. The i^recijiices which descend to the 
Glacier d'Argentiere I can only compare to those of the Jungfrau. and the 
ridges on V>oth sides of that glacier, especially the stee}) rocks of les Droites 
and les Courtes, surmounted ])y the sharp snow-peak of the Aiguille Verte, 
have almost the effect of the Grandes Jorasses. Then, framed, as it were, 
between the massive tower of the Aiguille de Triolet and the more dist<int 
Jorasses, lies, without excei)tion. the most delicately beautiful picture I have 
ever seen — the whole iinissif of Mont Blanc, raising its great head of snow far 
above the tangled series of flying buttresses which uphold the Monts Maudits, 
supported on the left by Mont Peuteret and by the mass of ragged aiguilles 
which overhang the Brenva. This aspect of Mont Blanc is not new, but from 
this point its yx^sr is unrivalled, and it has all the superiority of a picture 
grouped by the hand of a master." Reil/i/.] 

Between Courmaj^eur and the Cols Ferret there are a number of 
interesting; views as one passes successively the (xiacs. de Kochefort, 
des (iiandes Jorasses, Freboiitzie, Triolet and Mont l)(dent, and they 



nun. 
20 
23 
22 

20 
15 
25 

no 



160 CHAMOXIX AND MONT BLAXC. CHAP. Xiv. 

ire enually -ood upon the other side, while descending the Swiss Val 
Ferre? u tin each case one is too n.uch und^rthc pmks to appreeia e 
them A tine view of the Mont Dolent and Tonr Noire can be ob- 
tained by mounting the shapes, for a thousand feet or so on the east 
of the illets of Ferret ; and, Unver down the valley, by diverging 
t^X^^ for a few humlred feet, a<lmirable glin.pses can be 
obtained of the glaciers at this end of the ( hain 

There is a char road (on the whole good, though sometimes nmgh) 
<lown he Swiss Val Ferret, which leads in 2^ lis. from the chalets 
deTeriet to Orsieres through la Folly, Praz de Fort, and Som la Proz. 
The times ascend'mff will be about these. ^^ 

Orsieres to Som la Proz 

Som la Proz to Ville d'lssert 

Ville d'Issert to Praz de Fort 

Praz de Fort to Praillon 

Praillon to I'Amone 

I'Amone to la Folly 

la Folly to Chalets of Ferret 

Chalets de Ferret to Pre de Bar . . • • ^ 
FFrom Praz de Fort there is a path to the Cabane de Saleinoz, 5341 feet, 

others are made from this place, ine ron-aie^, ^"^i--^ -p '-„x- ^^ pin^pT^puse 
10 0-»fi ft • Grande Fourche, 11,867 ft. ; Darrei, ll,bO;) ft. ; Pointe de flanereuse, 

ThTfoot of the dacier of the same name. This is another caha.e which imi 

the Yallee d'Arpette.] 

Orsieres 2920 feet; Pop. 2185; Hotel des Alpes, reasonable 
prices Glides, Bisselx Fmncois, Capt. Joseph, Crettex Maurice, 
Cret^ex Onesin e, Joris Alfred. For the glacier routes to tins place 
from the Valley of Channmix see Chap. XII. Orsieres is on the 
Gr^t St Bernard Road. Courrier several times a clay to Martigny, 
22 kils It is not a sweet place. The (Mbnirs of Orsieres must be 
smelt to be appreciated. 

Orsieres to Chamonix by the Gt. St. Bernard Road and the Col de 
la Forclaz.-There are two ways which may be taken. 1. i>y the Gt. 
St. liernard Road, to Sembrancher, Bovernier, ami 1^.^ 7f^^^\ f^^^; 
is the shortest in time. 2. By Champey, to les A alettes and le 
Brocard This is the most interesting. If the former of these Uso 
rentes is followed, you will have a walk down a very hue road, 
descendinr' <rently all the way to le Brocard. lime A hs. 

CrampVcCha^^ 4807 feet ; Hotel Pension du Lac ; Pension 

DA^EL Cra^^ Kmile Crettez; hotel Pension 

Bi^ELX, is a place which is rapidly rising in public estimatnm. 
H therto not nuich visited by English. The Hotels are upon the 
\ E si<le of the Lake, close to the water, which is exquisitely cleai. 
The Lake is about ^ kil. across (Boating and Bathing , and is 
surrounded by forest coming .lown to the waters edge. Ihe beaiit.v 



(HAP. XIV. 



CHAMPEY. 



Itil 



t 



and quietude of this spot will continue to attract increasing! numl>ers. 
Many of the excursions which are made from the Cabane d'Orny can 
be made more achantageously from Champey. The >illage is 1 to 
2 kils. from the Lake. 

From Champey to les Valettes on the CJt. St. Bernard road there 
is a mule-path, rough in places, which at lirst leads through forest 



MARTIGNY -COMBE 




PLAN OF MARTIGNY, ETC. 

and the village of Champey, then along undulating mountain side, 
and finishes liy a steep descent into the Valley of the Drance. Time 
about 2^ hs. From les Valettes to le Brocar<l, 20 min. Coming in 
the reverse direction, a pedestrian bound for Chami)ey is liable to be 
gulled by a road going to the Gorges of Durnant. This deceitful 
road comes to a sudden termination about | m. from les Valettes at 
a little hotel, and you lind tliat a franc has to be i)aid to go forward, 
or you are compelled to retrace your steps. The real i>ath to Champey 
turns oil" to the left from this road a few minutes after leaving les 
Valettes. See Plan of Martigny, etc. Time, les Valettes to Champey, 

M 



102 CHAMOMX AND MONT BLANC. chai'. xiv. 

2 hs. 40 niin. There is a steep char road from Orsieres to niaiiipey 
(rather more than 2 hs.). From Champey to Or.iere., by cutting the 
road, a i>edestrian can go in less than 40 mm. 

[At le Brocard, 1755 ft., if bound for Martigny, continue along the St Bernard 
TJoarl Martiffnv 1539 ft. ; Grand Hotel du Mont Blanc , H otll e lerc , 
Sc^TEi DE^ll^fE ; Hotel National (all close to one another in Martigny - 
V leo mill from Railway Stn.); Hotel du Grand St. Bernard (a the Kail- 

rkS;!' tXi vol 4731. IVains np the Rhone Valley to Sior, bic^re A .^ 
and Brieg, and in the contrary direction to \ ernayaz, bt. Maurice, Lau>anne, 
Geneva, etc.] 

The traveller bound for Chamonix Avill not go to Martigny, and 
will quit the Gd. St. Bernard road at le Brocard for the road to the 
Col de la Forclaz. In the middle of the day, in summer, this is a 
notoriously warm 3000 feet to ascend; although the road is (as the 
writer quoted upon p. 109 says) ' perfectly well -entertained, and U. 
some extent is in shade. The view lookuuj hark up the Rhone 
Valley is a great sight. At a nuinl)er of places, a j^edestrian can 
save time hy cutting the zigzags. On summit^ of Col de la Forclaz 
4997 feet. Hotel and Pension Descombes ; Hotel-Pension nh la 
Fleg^RE. Thence in a short half-hour one can get to the bottom ot 
the Valley of Trient, and turn either rhiht for the Tete ^oire, or 
(somewhat sooner) left for the Col de Balme, and by either way get 
to Chamonix on foot within 5 lis. See i)p. 108-110. 

The time has come to leave Chamonix— you leave it with regret, 
but '••o you must! and the fiuestion is, How to get awayV If you 
came*' by Annemasse, return Inj Sid can. Start early ; for after the 
31 hs walk to Chatelard via Argentiere and the Col des xMontets, it 
is 31 hs or so more, through Finhant (Fins Hants), Triquent, and 
Salvan to Vernayaz in the Rhone Valley (Cx. T., 49-52), where you 
will take train,— and there is much to be seen. One kil. alter 
Chatelard 3C81 ft., the road commences to rise steeply, and speedily 
<rets hi-h above the level of the Tete Noire Road, which is on the 
Sther sfde of the stream, here called the Eau Noire. This joins the 
torrent from the Trient Glac. just below the Tete Noire Hotel, near 
'the Mysterious Bridge.' After rising to 4387 feet, it descends on 
Finhaut, 4088 ft. ; pop. 401 ; shops, post and tel. ; Hotel de 
FiNHVUT- Hotel - Pension du Mont Blanc; Hotel - Pension 
Bevu - S^JOL H ; Hotel - Pension Bel - Oiseau ; Hotel - Pension 
DU Perron; Chalet Suisse Pension; A la Croix F<^:derale, 
Restvurvnt and Pension. Just before arriving at Finhaut there 
is a tine" view of the Glac. du Trient, Pension du Glacier du 
Trient. From Finhaut to Tri(iuent the road descends (at one part 
steep /i"za<--s, where a pedestrian can gain considerably on a carriage). 
Triquent, :«r)3 feet ; Pension de la Dent du Midi ; Pension du 
Mont Rose (pension from 3 fr. oO). Gn the N. side of this village 
there are the Gorges of the Triege, a small stream which falls into 
the Trient. Admission 1 fr. Ten min. beyond this you come to 
Medetta, 3389 ft. ; Pension de la Creusa ; and a little farther on 
at Marecotte there is the Pension de l'Esperance. The road now 



CHAP. xiy. 



HOMEWARD BOUND. 



163 



■ 



descends on Salvan, 3035 ft. ; pop. 1829 ; Grand Hotel de Salvan • 
Pension de lX'nion; Hotel-Pension de Salvan and des Gorges 
DE TRii^:GE; Hotel Bellevue ; Restaurant des Alpes. This 
beautiful neighbourhood has attracted increasing numbers of visitors 
in recent years (mainly French and Swiss), and is developing- more 
rapidly than any other in the Mont Blanc distri-t. Between Chatelard 
—Salvan the road is open to improvement, and the traveller will 
sometimes consider it prudent to descend from his carriage, and walk 
even if he sJKmld not be invited to do so by his voiturier. But froni 
Salvan to Vernayaz it is unexceptionable. In a quarter of an hour 
it commences a steep descent into the Valley of the Rhone, ami 
l»ecomes one of the most delightful roads to be found anywhere •— 
winding to and fro amongst rocks, shaded by Walnuts and (Miestnn'ts, 
Beech, Birch and Firs, crossing and re-crossing sparkling brooks.' 
Read Javelle's Lcf/rnde.s in Sourcnirs (run Aljiinisfe under the Chestnuts, 
and then saunter down the 49 zigzags to Vernayaz, 1509 ft. (40 min' 
fi-om Salvan); turn to the right, at the high-road, for the Gorges of 
Trient; and, rei)osing in the cool shade of the cliffs, learn (from lus Tm- 
prrs^iions de Voj/af/r) why Dumas went fishing for trout at midni-dit 
with the lad who was bullied by his mistress, and how he supped upon 
the fjt'ftcck of Bear at Martigny. Lunch or dine at the (^RANI) HoTEl 
des Gor(;es du Trient (good hotel, 2 min. from the Gorges ami 10 min. 
trom the R. Stat. ; omnibus), and then take train at Vernayaz -Salvan, 
Hotel de la Gare (against the Station); and watch t/ic Lake glitter- 
ing in afternoon light as you pass the massive towers of Chillon, and 
flit along the vine-clad slopes of sunny Vaud ; catch glimpses of the 
snow-clad ])eaks through distant vistas in the mountains of Faucigny, 
—never-forgotten, undying souvenirs of le (Jrand Mont Blanc. ^ ^' 



APPE^^DIX. 



: " SOCIETE DKS VOITUUES DE 



TAKIF' OF THV 



«^ vomavaz bv the Tete Noire. 
To Martigny or Vemayaz oy uu 

For four person:^ with t^vo horses . 

For three persons %vith two horses . 

For two persons with two horses . 

For one person with two horses . 

Extra, for Vemayaz • • • 
Extra, " si Von couche en route ^ • 

Extra, •' chaque sejour a Martign> 

To Vemayaz via Salvan.- 

For one or two person, with one horse . ■ • 

To Fins Hauts.-' 

For one or two person, with one horse . • 

To Trient. 

For four persons with two horse. • • 
For three persons with two horses • 

For one or two persons with two horse.. • 

To the Tete Noire. 

For four persons with two horses . ■ 

For three persons with two horses • ■ 

For one or two persons with two horse,. • 

To Barberine or Chatelard. 

For three or four i^rsons w,th two hordes 
For one or two persons with two horse.. • 

TO the cascade de Ber-*^^ ^^^.„ ,„,,,, . 

For three or lour pei.^^"-^ 
i v fwo v^er'^ons with two horses . 

For one or two persuu^ 

^° "'^''trTee, four, or tive persons .ith two horses 
For one o; two persons with one horse . ■ 



TTV •' 



CHAMO^nX 





Going iUKl 


Goinj;;. 


returning- 


Francs. 


Francs. 


65 


110 


.')5 


90 




^r" 


45 


/.> 


45 


70 




... 


15 


... 


20 





45 



ao 



(0 



40 



45 
40 
35 


50 
45 
40 


40 
35 
30 


45 
40 
35 


30 
•25 


35 
30 


20 


... 


15 


• • • 


14 
10 


16 
12 



phrases niay be interpreted, 
suitable for invalids. 









Tarif of the SocUtd des Voitures de Chamonix — continued. 165 

To Argentiere. 

For five persons with two horses ... 

For four persons with two horses . 

For three persons with one horse . 

F'or one or two persons with one or two horses 

Waiting at Argentiere return from the Tete Noire. 
For tive persons with two horses 
For fonr persons with two horses 
For three persons with one horse . 
For one or two persons with one horse . 

To the Village of le Tour. 

For four or five persons with two horses . 

For one. two. or three persons with two horses 

To Chosalets (Chauzalet), and waiting return from Lognan.^ 

For four or tive persons with two horses . 
For one. two, or three persons with one horse 

To les Tines, the Arveyron, or les Bossons. 

For four or tive persons with two horses . 
For one, two, or three persons with one horse 

To the foot of the Flegere. 

For four or five persons with two horses . 
For one, two, or three persons with one horse 

To les Houches. 

For four or five persons with two horses . 
For one, two, or three persons with one horse 

To Servoz. 

For four or five per.sons with two horses . 
For one. two, or three persons with one horse 

To St. Gervais les Bains. 

For four or five persons with two horses . 
For one, two, or three persons with one horse 

To the Village of St. Gervais. 

For four or five persons with two horses . 
For one, two, or three persons with one horse 

To Contamines. 

For two horses - 

To Sallanches. 

For four or five persons with two horses . 
For one, two, or three persons with one horse 



Going. 


Going and 
returning. 


Francs. 


Francs. 


12 


14 


10 


12 


8 


10 


/ 


9 


20 




18 


. . . 


12 




10 


... 


17 


19 


15 


17 


1.^ 




12 


20 


8 


12 


8 


10 


6 


8 


8 




6 


... 


10 


12 


8 


10 


15 


17 


10 


12 


22 


30 


16 


20 


25 


34 


18 


20 



35 

25 

18 



45 

34 

24 



1 The lengtli of the stoppage should be arranged beforehand. 

•-• The ' tarif does not state what number of per.sons will be conveye«l at these rates. 



The CHAMONIX ' Tahif des Courses 



' 1 



Frs. 
6 
5 



1 To the Glacier des Bossons. either returning the same way or 

by the Cascade, du Dard and des IMernis . • • 
2. To the Cascades du Dard and des Pelenns . • • • 
'\ To the Source of the Arveyron • • / . ' , ' ,^' 
I Extra I uny of these exe.usion. added to another ,n the course 

of the same day 

'. To the Montanvert, returning the same way . • • ' 

6. t: the MouUnvert and vUit to the Mer de Glace, retnnun, 

the same way 

7. To the Croix de Flegere, returning the san.c way . • • 

« To Planpraz, returning hy'tho Croix de Flegere, or Hce-rer.. . 
I 1 1 ^^'"/^^^^ ^e ri.g.re. and descending hy 

lo To''t'rM"nta;UX aerVtho Mer de Glace to the Chapeau, 
and to the Croix de Flegere, or ,•.«■«-.« ;^ , • 

13 Excursion No. 12, including the Ascent of the Brevent . • 
U \scent of the Aiguille de la Roria. ■ -- la Flegere . • • 
1-,. Ascent of the Aiguille de la Gliere, d... _ • ^ 

Itf To the Montanvert o,- the Flegere and to the Glacier 
Bossons, or tlie Cascades, m one da\ . ■ • 

17. To the Plan des Aiguilles . • ■. ^ ' ..' «' _t-nvert 

S To the Plan des Aiguilles, returning e.ther .-nX the Montanvert 

or l.v la Pierre a I'Echelle . • • .... p,-„deg 

19. To the" Pierre a VEchelle .and the Montanvert t>y the Plan 

Aiguilles, or iice-rersa . - • ' 

20. To the Pierre Pointue ••••'' 

21. To the Pierre a I'Echelle • • • • '^^...'^:^^., to the 

22. Visit xo the Glacier des Bossons jomed to excursion to ^ 

Pierre Pointue, extra . • • ' , * „„ 

23 To the Jardin, returning, if wished, by th'^ Chapeau . • 
2I The lame, sleeping the night before at the Montanvert . • 

->', To the foot of the siracs of the Col du Geant . • • 

26'. To the 'Moulin- of the Mer de Glace -r to the Tacul . • 
The same, descen,Ung ,«l the Chapeau ^ • ^^^^^^^^ 

27. To the Montanvert and acros- the Mer oe i^ia , 

roturnin" the same way or not ■ • ■ 

28. To the Plan des Aiguilles and Pierre Pointue, or »«-«,«, . 



Cts. 



4 
6 

7 

/ 

9 
10 

12 

12 
16 
20 
15 

10 
9 

10 

12 
8 
9 

3 

14 
16 
12 

9 
12 

9 
10 



\n. to he una..s.o„a that t>,e ..ces .nent.nea are for each Guide ta.e,,, that is to say 
"-TS^tuluhers attached to the excursions correspond with t,>e „u,„t,erin« u. the 
List. 



The Chamonix Tarif des Courses — continued. 

Frs. 

29. To the Montanvert, and to the Flegere or Planpraz, or rice-versa 10 

30. To the Chapeau, and to the Flegere or Planpraz, or vice-versa 10 

31. To the village of Argentiere, and vi.^^it to the Glacier, and to 

Trelechamp 6 

32. To the Mer de Glace of the Glacier d'Argentiere ... 8 

33. To the bottom of the Glacier d'Argentiere, in one day . . 12 

34. The same, in two days 18 

35. To the Col de Balme and back 8 

36. The same, returning by the Tete Noire, or cice-versa, in one day 10 

37. The same, in two days 12 

38. The same, descending on Barberine, and visit to the Cascades 

of Barberine and Berard, in one day 10 

39. The same, in two days ........ 12 

40. A.scent of the Buet, '•'u\ la Pierre a Berard, in one day . . 15 

41. The same, with clioice of return by Villy and the Brevent . 20 

42. Ascent of the Buet, descending on Sixt, in one day . . 15 

43. TIic same, in two days ........ 20 

44. Return of Guide to Chamonix, extra 8 

45. Ascent of the Buet, descending to Martig^ny, return of Guide 

inchided (two or three days) 26 

46. Each additional day 6 

47. To Martigny, either by the Col de Balme or by the Tete 

Noire, return of Guide included ...... 12 

48. The same, and visit to the Cascade of Berard or of Barberine, 

each extra .......... 1 

49. To Vemayaz '■!<% Fins Hants and Sal van, return of Guide 

included ........... 12 

50. The same, going on to Martigny 14 

51. The same in two days, it arriving at Martigny <>r Vemayaz 

l)efore mid-dav, return of (xuide included .... 15 

52. The same, if arriving at Vemayaz or Martigny after mid-day . 18 

53. To the Cascade of Berard, or that of Barberine ... 6 

54. Visit to the two Cascades 7 

55. To the Tete Noire, ciA les Montets, and back .... 8 

56. The same, in two days 12 

60. By the Col de Balme, descending on the Tete Noire, to go to 

Vemayaz, fid Fins Hants and Salvan .... 16 

61. The same, in two days, arriving before mid-day at Vemayaz . 18 

62. The same, in two days, arriving after mid-day . . . .23 

63. To Sixt. r!<% the Brevent and the Col d'Anteme, or that of 

Lechaud, return of Guide included ..... 18 

64. The same, sleeping at Planpraz, Villy, or Bel Achat . . 22 

65. The same, viA Servoz 18 

m. The same. rUWe Derochoir or Platey, return of Guide included, 

in one day .......... 18 

67. The same, sleeping at Servoz or at Chede .... 20 

68. To Sixt by the Col de Tenneverges, sleeping at Barberine, 

return of Guide included ....... 25 

70. To the Pavilion de Bellevue, the Col de Voza, or Prarion . 8 



167 

cts. 



168 



71. 



72. 



The Chamonir Tarif des Courses— continued. 

The same, returning by St. Gervais and Servoz. or by the Col 

de la Forclaz, in one day • • • • 
Thp '^ame. in two davs . • • • " * . 

Isceni of Mont Joli. ..! St. Gervais ..,■ Contam.nes. .n two 

days, return of Guide included . • • • " 
The same, in three days . • • • • ' ,' ox 

de la Seigne, in two days 
The same, in three days ..•••'•' 
Return of Guide, extra . • • ' ". ' 
From Courmayeur by the Col Ferret t. . Martigny • • 
Return of Guide from Martigny to Chamonix • • 
To Contamines by the Col du Tricot . • • • • 
To Vemayaz. nd the Tete Noire, including return, m one da> 

The same, in two days 

To the Chapeau • " „' , " 

The same, uniting visit to the Croix de Flegere . • • 

Ascent of the Brevent, rid Bel Achat . • • • • 

To Lognan, from Argentiere 

The'^ame up to the edge of the Glacier . . • • • 
The same, including crossing the Glacier, or to within s.ght ot 

the bottom of the Glacier 

, The same excursion, if made from Chamonix, extra . . • 

. To Sixt, '-id Bel Achat . • -^ 

To the top of the Montagne de la Cote . ' [ ^ / 
' T fZ rol de Balme bv the Montanvert and the Mer de 
• ^Glace or r^'t?e^^gere, in one day, returning to Chan.onix 
same evening .••••''' 
101 The same, in two days .••••• 

1:L t: Z ^:;rn •rSaciers aes Bossons an. de Tac;„naz 
109. To the Col d'Anterne and back 



73. 

74. 
75. 



76. 
77. 

78. 

79. 

80. 

82. 

83. 

84. 

85. 

89. 

93. 

94. 

95. 

96, 
97 
99 

100 



Frs. Cts 

10 
12 

15 

18 

20 
24 
16 
10 

6 
15 
14 
18 

6 
10 
10 

7 

8 

10 
3 

18 
15 

13 
15 
6 
12 
13 



li 



Courses Extraordinaires." 



1 The Ascent of Mont Blanc, either ,;,l the Grands Mulets -r ^^ 
bv the Aiguille du Gouter • • ' " ! ^ , 

2. If one Kf^ut u,.n thi. accent get farther than the Grands _^^ 

Mulcts, in one day ' .^q 

3. The same, in two days .^ 

4 If one gets onlv to the Grand Plateau ^q 

^- do do. Dome du Gouter . • • -.^'^ 

r> If one gets only t.. the top .. ' the Corridor/ or the top ot the _^ 

Bosses du Dromadaire . ' ^. \ \ +i.^ Mnr 

«-"rU^ai^XArtri?V^-(>«.e^^--- .. 
('est exigiole') .•••** 



The Chamonix Tarif des Courses— continued. 

If the Ascent of Mont Blanc occupies more than three days, 

each Guide must be paid extra, per day .... 

Ascent of the Aiguille du Gouter r!d the Pavilion de Bellevue 

Ascent of the Aiguille du Gouter rid the Grands Mulets 

To the Grand Plateau, or the Ascent of the Dome du Gouter, 

either rid the Grands Mulets or rid the Cabane de 1' Aiguille 

du Gouter, including stoppage (' avec sejour ') at one or other 

of these places, or cice-reri^i ^ 

La meme sans st^jour2 

To Courmayeur rid the Grands Mulets, the Aiguille du Midi 

and the Col du Geant- 

To Courmayeur by the Col du Geant, or to Orsieres by the 

Cols du Chardonnet, du Triolet, for each Col 3 . 
To the Col du Geant and back to Chamonix . 
To the Col du Chardonnet and back to Chamonix . 
The same, returning by the Col du Tour rid the Fenetre de 

Saleinoz (Salene), or cice-cersa 

To the Col de Triolet and back to Chamonix . 

To Orsieres bv the Col d' Argentiere, and to the Allee Blanche 

by the Col de Miage, each excursion . . . • 
To the Col d' Argentiere and back to Chamonix 
To the Col de Miage and back to Chamonix . 

To the Col Pierre Joseph and back 

To Orsieres by the Col Pierre Joseph ^ .... 
By the Col du Tour to the Val Ferret . . . • 
By the Col du Mont Tondu to les Motets 
By the Col de Trelatete to Courmayeur .... 
By the Col de la Brenva t.. Courmayeur .... 
To the Col des Grands Montets and back to Chamonix by th 

Glacier du Nant Blanc 

The same excursion, in two days 

The same excursion, returning by the Glacier d' Argentiere 
A diminution of 10 francs will be made uiwn each ' grand Col ' 
to tourists who, after having made excursions to one or more 
of the above-named 'grands Cols,' wish to retam their (xuide 
for a journey ...•••••• 

.32. The Ascent (jf the Aiguille Verte 

.33. The Ascent of the Aiguilles Rouges 

.34. The Ascent of the Aiguille d' Argentiere .... 

35. The Ascent of the Aiguille du Chardonnet 

.36. The Ascent of the Aiguille du Midi 

37. The Ascent of the Aiguille du Tour 

38. The Ascent of the Aiguille de Bionnassay 

39. The Ascent of the Grandes Jorasses .... 

40. The Ascent of the Tour Ronde 



/. 

8. 

9. 

10. 



11. 

13. 

14. 

1.5. 
16. 
17. 

18. 
19. 

20. 
21. 
22. 
23. 
24. 
25. 
26. 
27. 
28. 

29. 
30. 
31. 



10 
30 
40 



50 
40 

70 

50 
40 
30 

40 
40 

60 
30 
40 
40 
40 
40 
30 
60 
80 

20 
25 

30 



169 

cts. 



100 
20 
65 
65 
60 
50 
70 
80 
65 



Enquiry should be made respecting the meaning of 'avec s.-jnur.' 
This require.s explanation. . rx •• 

The Col de Triolet (not d'l Triolet) leads to Courmayeur, and not to Orsieres. 
The Col Pierre Joseph does not lead to Orsieres. 



II 



ne Chamonix Tarif des Course^-cmitimed. 



Frs. Cts. 



e the 



170 

• . ir. fbp Chain of Mont Blanc abov 
''' ^^ll^^^S^^Son ;r d^:': ^l v..aation), per day 
40 Bv the col des Hirondelles to Courmayeur • • 
ij ^'scent of the Aiguille de Blaitiere . • 
44' \.eent of the Aiguilles des Channoz 
45' Ascent of the Aiguille du Geant ■ 
46 \scent of the Aiguille du Home 

TaIUF des rORTEURS. 

' tT.o firif is the same as for Guides. 

1. Tothe Jardin . • • ; * ! ' . . .1*2 
do sleeping at the Montanvert • ^^ 

I '-'T "'' '^^^ ^^ ^^-^ ' ^''''' '' " ™' '' 



10 

60 

80 
80 

100 
35 
35 

130 
90 
30 



Courses Extraordixaires. 



1. 
2. 

3. 

4. 
5. 

6. 
7. 

8. 

9. 
10. 
11. 
12, 
13 



14. 

15. 
10. 
17. 



The weight of the load of each^rter "l- ;r;'he"/si'ent 

■;;;^^\^^^^'^^'^^- "^™ "■" """' 

Plateau. ... 

To the Grands Mulets, in one day . • • _ 

1 A,^ in two davs . • • * 

To the summit of Mont Blanc • • de Voza 

To the Cabane of the Aiguille du Gouter. .uit^ ^ 

The same, in two days • ' ,;, ^^ chamonix • 
To the top of the Col du Geant and back to unaou ^ 

Ascent of the Aiguille Verte _ ' _ * ^,,,.i^ded . 
Over the Col du Geant u . Courmayeur. return ^ 

Over the Col du Tour • • ,,*,.;, chamonix • 

To the top of the Col f-^-J^ ''^Z^l Guide, is 50 
For the other 'grands Col>,^^^en u ^ _ . 

francs and upwards, each 1 orter . • ^,^^^^^, 

. Or, when the taritf for Guides is less than oO tranc , 

Exceptions. 

The Col du Mont Tondu • • • ' . 

The Col des Grands »^«^^f \ '^.j^^.^ ^^ Mont Blanc above the 
For all Glacier excursions in the Ltiain o ^ ^ ^ ^ 

limit of vegetation, per day . 



12 
15 

30 

35 

50 

15 

20 

20 

50 

30 

25 

15 

30 
25 

20 
15 

8 



a 



The Chamonix Tarif des Courses— continued. 



Tarif des Mulets. 

The ' Tarif des Guides ' is applicable to Mules in the case of all 
ordinary excursions, with the exception of the followmg ones. 

1. To the Montanvert, descending to the Valley and remounting 

to the Chapeau, or c 'ice-versa 

2. Excursion t(^ the Jardin, the Mule remaining all day at the 

Montanvert 

3 If it stops for the night at the Montanvert .... 
4*. Excursion to the Buet, in one day, the Mule stopping at la 

Pierre a Berard ••••;•''■ 
5 The same excursion, if two days are occupied . . ' • 
6. On the ascent of Mont Blanc. if the Mule stops at the Chalet 

de la Para 

7 On the same, if it goes to the Pierre Pointue .... 

8 To the Pierre Pointue, the Mule awaiting the return of excur- 

sionists who go to the Grands Mulets 

9. To the Brevent, the Mule descending to the Valley, and 

remomiting to Planpraz, or rlce-nrsa 

10. The same, with the addition of the Flegere . . . • 



171 



Frs. Cts. 



9 

9 
12 

10 
12 

6 

8 

10 

12 
14 



The COUKMAYEI-E ' Takif pes Courses.' ' 



Gui<le. 
Francs. 



Porter. 
Francs. 



rhi the Col du 



Geant, | 



Brenva, descending to 



o da\ 



do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 



Chamonix 



(I 



The Ascent of Mont Blanc 

descending to Chamonix 
The same, ^ the Col de la _ _ 

Chamonix ^ • • • ' ^^^^.^^ ^^ ^^i e. 
'^^'^ ttfDame k'^Golt^S the Bosses du Dromadaire. 

descending to Chamonix 
\^cent of Mont Maudit 
do. of the Grandes Jorasses, ni tw 
of the Petites Jorasses • 
of the Aiguille de Rochefort 
of the Aiguille de Leschaux 
of the Aiguille de I'Eboulement 
of the Aiguille de Talefre 
of the Aiguille de Triolet 
of Mont Dolent 
of Mont Gruetta 
of the Aiguille du Geant . 
of the Aiguilles Marbrees 
of the Aig. du Midi, descendmg to 
of the Tour Ronde • 
of the Aiguille Noire de Peuteret 
of the Aiguille Blanche de Peuteret 
of the Aiguille Grise 
of Mont du Brouillard 
of the Tete Carree . 
of the Aiguille de Bionnassay, 
de Miage ■ • • 
The same, descending to ChamoniX 
\.cent of the Aiguille de Trelatete 
do. of the Aiguille du Glacier 
do. of Mont Tondu 
do. of Mont Saxe . 
do. of Mont Chetif . 
do. of the Crammont 
do. of Mont Favre . 



Must be the subject of 
special arrangement. 



do. 



do. 



the 



Glacier 



1 Enquiry should be made in all cases .-bethor th 
'ournmx.ur of Guides and Porters. 



100 


60 


70 


40 


70 


40 


40 


25 


.'.0 


30 


.-.0 


30 


.-.0 


30 


.-)0 


30 


■}0 


30 


40 


25 


20 


12 


70 


50 • 


20 


15 


70 


40 


40 


20 


70 


50 


( Must be 


the subject of 


(^ special 


an-angenient. 


:3.^> 


20 


3f» 


25 


40 


25 


70 


40 


80 


45 


50 


30 


40 


25 


25 


18 


6 


6 


6 


6 


8 


6 


20 


15 






i 



Tarlf price includes the return to 



The Courmayeur Tcirif des Courses— continue J. 



By the Col du Geant to Chamonix, in one day 

The same, in two days 

By the Col de Miage to Chamonix 
do. Col de la Brenva to Chamonix 

Col de la Tour Ronde t(^ Chamonix 

Col de r Aiguille du Midi do. 

Col des Jorasses do. 

Col des Hirondelles do. 

Col de Pierre Joseph do. 

Col de Talefre ^^*- 

Col de Triolet ^"• 

Col de Trelatete toContamines . 

Col du Mont Tondu do. 
Col de la Seigne t. > Motets 
Col de la Seigne, Chapieux. and Col du Bonhomme 

to Chamonix, in three days^ . . • • 
Col de la Seigne t.. Contamines, in one dayi 
a<,. do. in two days ^ 

Col Ferret to Orsieres 

Col du Petit Ferret to Orsieres 



do. 
do. 

do. 
do. 

do. 
do. 
do. 

do. 

do. 
do. 
do. 



do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 



To the Col Ferret, returning to Courmayeur, one day 



do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 



Col de la Seigne do. do. 

Lac de Combal do. do. 

Cantine de la Visaille, returning to Courmayeur 
Pavilion Mont Frety, returning to Courmayeur 
Cabane on the Col du Geant, returning 
Courmayeur, in one day . • • • 

The same, in two days 

To the Cabane des Grandes Jorasses, returning 

Courmayeur, in one day 

The same, in two days 

To the Cabane de Triolet, returning to Courmayeur, 

one day 

The same, in two days 

To the Cabane du Dome, returning to Courmayeur, 

one day 

The same, in two days 



in 



m 



Guide. 
Francs. 

40 

50 

50 

80 

50 

50 

60 

50 

50 
50 
45 
50 
25 
12 

30 

16 

20 

16 

16 

8 

8 

6 

5 

6 

15 
20 

15 

20 

15 
20 

20 
25 



173 

Porter. 
Francs. 
25 
30 
30 
50 
30 
30 
40 
30 
30 
30 
30 
30 
18 
12 

30 
16 
20 
16 
16 

8 

8 

6 

5 

6 

10 
15 

10 
15 

10 
15 

15 

20 



1 The Ton/ is the same either via Chapieux or via the Col des F 



ours. 



Mountains and Heights in and around the 
liANGE OF Mont Blanc. 



Name. 



Height 

in 
Metres. 



Aignillette, V 

Aiguillette. 1' 
Argentiere, Aiguille d' 

Arpette, Clochers d' . 

Beranger, Aiguille de . 

Berard, Aiguille de 
Bionnassay, Aiguille de 

Blaitiere, Aiguille de . 
Blanc, Mont . 



2317 

2156 
3901 

2822 

3431 

2612 
4061 

3533 
4810 



Height 

in 
Feet. 



Position of Sunnnit. 



7602 

7074 
12,799 

9259 

11,257 

8570 
13,324 

11,591 



15,781 



4810 



On the range of the Brevent ; W. 

of Chamonix. 
N. by W. of the Village of le Tour. 
Between the Glacs. d' Argentiere and 
de Saleinoz ; E.N.E. of Chamonix. 
N. side of Vallee d'Arpette ; W. of 

Lac de Champex. 
Head of Glacier de la Frasse. On 
Mieulet's map it is called la 
Berangere. 
Between Mont Buet and the 

Aiguilles Rouges. 
Head of the two Glaciers de Miage ; 
nearly due W. of the summit ot 
Mont Blanc. 
E.S.E. of Chamonix ; nearly due S. 

of the Montanvert. 
The observations made in 1844 by 
MM. Martins and Bravais to de- 
termine the height of Mont Blanc 
were calculated by M. Delcros, 
and the result ( 4810 metres ) was 
published in the Au/iuaire Meftoro- 
loaiqne de la France, 1851, vol. in, 
p. 215. The same observations 
were also calculated by Prof. E. 
Planttimour, Director of the Ob- 
servatory at Geneva, with a 
slightly different result (4811'/ 
metres'). See the Tnhles Mttioro- 
lomml and P/o/.^ical, pubhshed 
by the Smithsonian Institution, 
Washington. , . , , 

M. Martins states m his book 
SplUherg au Sahara, Paris, 1866, 
that the mea7i of the trigono- 
metrical measures of Mont Blanc 
taken do ten to his time was 4809 'b 
metres. 
15 781 This is the elevation assigned to 
Mont Blanc upon Sheet xxii ot the 
Carte Dufour, published in 1861. 



Mountains and Heights in and aroiiTid liange of Mont Blanc. 175 



Name. 



Blanc, Mont . 



Bochard, Aiguille a 
Brevent, le . 

Brouillard, Mont du 



Buet, Mont . 

Catogne 

Capucin, le { Mont 

Mau(lit) 

Capucin, le ( Pic du 
Tacul ) 

Chardonnet, Aiguille du 
Charmoz, Aiguilles des 
Chatelet, Aiguille du . 

Chatelet, le . 

Chetif, Mont 

Cote, Montague de la . 



Height 

in 
Metres. 



4810 

4810 
4811 

4807 



2672 
2525 



2542 



2343 



Height 

in 
Feet. 



15,781 

15,781 

15,785 

15,771 



8767 

8284 



Position of Summit. 



3109 10.200 



2600 


8530 


3831 


12,568 


3043 


9984 


3823 


12,543 


3442 


11,293 


2324 


7625 



8340 



7687 



88 ? ; 8491 ? 



The same elevation is assigned to 
Mont Blanc upc^n the map by 
Capt. Mieulet, published at Paris 
in 1865. 

The same elevation is adopted on 
the Official Map of France, scale 
g- j3 1(^(^, revised in 1888. 

Mons. X. Imfeld, upon the plan of 
the summit of Alont Blanc executed 
by him in 1891 for Mons. G. Eiffel, 
gives 4811 metres as the elevation. 

Upon Sheet 27 of the Carta d'ltalia, 
scale 5^5-o oTT' corrected to 1894, the 
height assigned to Mont Blanc is , 
4807 metres. 

X.E. of the Montanvert. 

W.N.W. of Chamonix ; between the 
Valley of Chamonix, and the 
Valley of the Dioza. 

This name is api>lied by Capt. 
Mieulet to the ridjie on the W. of 
the Glacier du Brouillard (Val 
Veni ). 

X. by W. of Chamonix ; N.W. by 
W. of the Village of Argentiere. 
Commonly called the Buet. 

N. by W. of Lac de Champex 
( Champey ). 

E. by N. of Mont Maudit ; near the 
head of the Glacier du Geant. 

E. of Pic du Tacul. 

E. of Lognan ; N. W. i W. of the 

Aiguille d' Argentiere.' 

E. S. E. of Chamonix ; S. of the 
Montanvert. 

Between the Glaciers du Fresnay 
k du Brouillard ; N. of the lower 
end of the Italian Glacier de Miage. 

S. side of the Combe d'Orny ; 
W.S.W. of Lac de Champex. 

W.N.W. of Courmayeur ; S. side of 
Val Veni. 

The buttress or ridge dividing the 
Glacier des Bossons from the 
Glacier do Taconnaz. On the 
Official Map of France, scale 
i;to o oo? *^^ ^P of this ridge has 
been christened Mont Corbeau ! 



1 



76 .l/«.(.™ ,..<' »»'"« » ««< •'"•' '•■""■" "' *"""' *''""■■■ 



; 



Name. 



Courmayeur, Mont 
Blanc de 



Courtes, les . 



Crammont, Tete de 
' Dames Anglaises, les 

Darrei, le 
Darrey, le 



I Dolent, Mont 



Droites, les . 

Dm, Aiguille du . 

Eboulement, Aiguille 
del' 

Ecandies, Pointe des . 

Enclave, Tete d' . 
Eveque, Ai^iHe de 1' • 

Faus, Montague des 




11,605 
3881? 12J33? 



3830 12,566 



4030 13/222 



3815 

3608 

2886 
2001 



12,516 
11,838 



Position of Siunmit. 

S S E of the summit of Mont BUmc ; 
at the head of the Cilaciers du 
BrouiUard and du Fresnay. 

The height -i' '^i^^^^X O rU 
C'apt. :^Iieulet. On the Uirt<x 
d'UaUa, scale ^^^, the height i. 
said to be 4709 metres (lo,4oO leet), 
and this is i.robably nearer the 
truth. 
Part of the ridge between the 
Glaciers d'Argentiere and dc 
TalMre; S. of the Aigmhe du 
Chardonnet. 
Due S. of the Col du Cieant ; W ot 
Pre St. Didier. Commonly callta 
the Crammont. 
Between the Aig. de Peuteret and 
the Aig. Blanche de Peuteret. 
Hnnaclfs on the ridge between 
the Glaciers de la Brenva and du 
Fresnay. 
E. of Glacier d'Argentiere ; S. side 

of Glacier de Saleinoz. 
On the ridge between the Glacier 
d'lrgentifre and the Glaciers of 
Saleinoz and I^xneuvaz ; >^etween 
the Aig. d'Argentiere and le lour 
Noir. 
At the junction of the ridges 
separating the (naciers du Mont 
Dolent, d'Argentiere, and de 
Laneuvaz. 
Northern side of the Glacier de 
Tarefre; E.iS. of the AiguiUe 
Verte. 
Eastern side of the Mer de Glace ; 

E. of the Montanvert. 
Between the Glaciers de Leschaux 
and de Triolet ; S. of Aiguille de 
Talefre. 
At the head of the Vallee d; Arpette : 
eastern side of Glac.dulrient. 

■m.T IIT 



9469 
9518 



3260 10,696 
3146 10,322 



N.E. of Col des Fours ; N.W. by 

^ \V. of les Motets. 

Northern side of the Italian Val 

Ferret; E.S.E. of the Grandes 

Jorasses. 
The buttress or ridge on the W ot 

the Glacier de Taconnaz ; S. ot the 
1 Village of les Bossons. 



Mountains and Heights in and around Bange of Mont Blanc. 177 



Name. 



Far, Montagne de 

Flambeaux, les 
Floria, Aiguille de la 
Fourche, Grande . 

Fours, Pointe des 
Freuge, Mont 

Geant, Aiguille du 

Glacier, Aiguille du 

Gouter, Aiguille du 
Gouter, Dome du . 
Grapillon 



Grepon, Aiguille de 
Gruetta, Mont 

Joli, Mont . 

Jorasses, Grandes 

Jorasses, Petites 

Jours, Montagne des 

Jovet, Mont . 
Leschaux, Aiguille de . 
Luis, Grande 



Height 



ni 



Metres. 



1692 



3685 
2527 
4206 
3682 
2929 

2472 
3780 



Height 

in 
Feet. 



Position of Summit. 



5551 



3566 ? 


11,700? 


2958 ? 


9705? 


3617 


11,867 


2719 


8921 


2114 


6936 


4010 


13,156 


3834 


12,579 


3845 


12,615 


4331 


14,210 



12,090 



8291 
13,800 
12,080 

9610 

8110 
12,402 



The name given to the Southern 
end of the range of the Brevent ; 
overlooking Servoz. 

W. of Col du Geant ; head of Glacier 
de Toule. 

N. of Chamonix ; Northern end of 
the range df the Brevent. 

Head of the Glaciers du Tour, de 
Saleinoz, and du Trient ; E.N.E. 
of Aiguille du Chardonnet. 

S. of Col des Fours. 

In the Val Montjoie ; S.W. by S. 
of Contamines. 

N.E. of Col du G^ant ; N. by W. of 
Courmayeur. 

N. of Col de la Seigne ; head of 
Glacier d'Estelette. Sometimes 
called Aiguille des Glaciers. 

S.W. of the Grands Mulcts ; N.W. 
of summit of Mont Blanc. 

S. of Village of les Bossons ; N.W. 
of summit of Mont Blanc. 

This name is applied by Capt. 
Mieulet to a peak on the ridge 
dividing the Italian Glacier du 
Mont Dolent (Pr^ du Bar) from 
the Swiss (ilacier du Mont Dolent ; 
and it is given on the Carta d'ltalia 
to the Mont Dolent. I have not 
heard it used on the spot. 

S. of the Montanvert. 
S. side of Glacier de Triolet ; N.W. 
of chillets of Gruetta. 

Western side of Val Montjoie ; W. 
of Village of Contamines. 

Head of Glacier de Leschaux ; S.E. 
by S. of the Montanvert. 

N.E. of Grandes Jorasses ; S.E. of 
Montanvert. 

A buttress of the Aiguille du Go^iter. 
descending towards the Village of 
les Houches. 

S. of Village of Contamines ; E.N.E. 
of Chalet a la Balme. 

Between the Glaciers de Leschaux 
and de Triolet. 

Between the Aiguille d'Argentiere 
and le Darrei. 



N 



178 Mountains and Heights in and around Bange of Mont Blanc. 



Name. 



Mallet, Mont 

Marbrees, Aiguilles 
Maudit, Mont 

Miage, Dome de . 
Midi, Aiguille du . 
Moine, Aiguille du 
Mulets, Grands . 



Height 

in 
Metres. 



Noire, Aiguille la . 

Omy, Pointe d' . 

Peuteret, Aiguille 
Blanche de 

Peuteret, Aiguille de . 



3988 

351-4 
4471 

3688 
3843 
3418 
3050 



Height 

ill 
Feet. 



13,084 

11,529 
14,669 

12,100 
12,608 
11,214 
10.007 



Position of Sumiuit. 



3427 
3278 
4108 



37/ 1 



11,244 
10,755 
13,478 

12.392 



Pissoir, le . . • 

Plan, Aiguille du . 

Planereuse, Pointe de . 
Plines, Pointe de . 
Portalet 

Pourrie, Aiguille . 

Prarion. 

Rochefort, Aiguille de 



3349 

3673 

3156 
3065 
3350 

2599 

1969 

4003 



10,988 

12,051 

10,355 
10,056 
10,991 

8527 

6460 

13,133 



Head of the Glacier du Mont 
Mallet, and of the Glacier des 
Periades. 
N.E. of Col du Geant. 
Head of the Glacier de la Brenva ; 
N. by E. of the summit of Mont 
Blanc. 
Head of Glacier de Trelatete ; N. W. 

of Aiguille de Tr^atete. 
S.S.E. of Chamonix ; on the Eastern 

side of the Glacier des Bossons. 
E. side of the Mer de Glace ; W. of 

the Jardin. 
S. by W. of Ghamonix ; between 
the' Glaciers des Bossons and de 
Taconnaz. This height appears 
to be that of the Cabane, not of 
the top of the rocks. 
Eastern side of Glacier du G^ant ; 

N. by E. of Col du Geant. 
Head of Glacier d'Orny ; S.W. by 

W. of Lac de Champex. 
S.E. of the summit of Mont Blanc ; 
between the Glaciers de la Brenva 
and (lu Fresnay. 
S.E. of the Aiguille Blanche de 
Peuteret; between the Glaciers 
de la Brenva and du Fresnay. 
On the Carta d'ltalia Peteret 
is used, and this was the spelling 
commonly employed \mtil the 
publication of Capt. Mieulet's 
map. 
W. side of Glacier du Trient ; N. of 

the Aiguille du Tour. 
S.E. of Chamonix ; S. by W. of the 

Montanvert. 
Southern side of Glacier de Saleinoz. 
Northern side of Glacier de Saleinoz. 
Southern side of Glacier d'Orny; 

S.W. of Lac de Champex. 
N. by W. of Chamonix ; on the 

range of the Br^vent. 
About midway between the Villages 

of St. Gervais and les Houches. 
At the head of the Glacier de 
Rochefort ; nearly d\ie N. of 
Courmaveur. 



Mountains and Heights in and around Bange of Mont Blane. 179 



Name. 



Ronde, la Tour 

Ronde, Pointe 
Rouges, Aiguilles 

Rouge, Mont 



Rouge, Mont 
Rousselette, Mont 



Sarsadorege, Aiguille 
de 

Saussure, Aiguille de . 



Saxe, Mont 

Scie, Aiguille de la 



• • 



Seigne, Montague de la 



Sue, Mont 



Tacul, Mont Blanc du . 
Tacul, Pic du 

Talefre, Aiguille de . 
Tete Carree . 



Tete Noire 
Tour des Courtes 
Tondu, Mont 



ft • 



■ • 



Height 

in 
Metres. 



3775 

2655 

2966 

3257 

2942 
2391 



3845 



3694 
3137 

2608 

4249 
3438 

3745 
3770 

1768 

3692 

3196 



Height 

in 
Feet. 



12.385 

8711 
9731 

10,686 

9652 
7845 



9288 
12,615 

7736 
12,120 

10,392 

8557 

,13,941 
11,280 

12,287 
12,369 

5801 

12.113 

10,486 



Position of Siunmit. 



Head of Glacier du Geant; N.W. 
of Courmayeur. 

S.E. of Col de la Forclaz. 

X. of Chamonix ; W. of Village of 
Argentiere. 

Between the Italian Glacier du 
Mont Dolent ( Pre du Bar) and the 
Glacier de Triolet. 

S.S.E. of Aiguille de Peuteret 
(Peteret). 

Western side of Val Montjcne : S.W. 
by S. of the Village of Contamines. 
Sometimes called Aiguille de 
Roselette. 

S.E. of the Aiguille de Trelatete ; a 
buttress oi that mountain. 

S.E. of the Grands Mulets ; on the 
Eastern side of the upper Glacier 
des Bossons. 

S. side of the Itjilian Val Ferret ; 
N. N.E. of Courmayeur. 

Head of Glacier de I'AUee Blanche ; 
about midway between the Aig. de 
Trelatete and Aig. du Glacier. 

S. side of the Col de la Seigne ; 
between the Val du Glacier and 
the AlMe Blanche. 

W. of the Lac de Combal. A 
buttress of the Aiguille de Tre- 
latete. 

N.E. by N. of Mont Maudit ; S. of 
the Aig. du Midi. 

Between the Glaciers du Geant 
and de Leschaux ; S. of the 
Aiguille du Moine. 

Head of the Glaciers de Triolet and 
de Talefre. 

At the head of the Glacier de 
Trelatete ; between the Aiguille 
de Trelatete and the Col de Miage. 

N.E. by E. of the Village of St. 
Gervais ; between St. Gervais and 
Servoz. 

Part of the ridge between the 
Glaciers d 'Argentiere and de 
Talefre ; W. of Mont Dolent. 

N.W. of les Motets; S.S.E. of 
Village of Contamines. 



180 Mountains and IkighH in and ammd Bange of Mont Blanr. 



Name, 



Tour, Aiguille du 

Tour Noir, le 
Trelaporte, Aiguille de 
Trelatete, Aiguille de . 



Height 

in 
Metres. 



3531 




Position of Sunnnit. 



Tricot, Mont 
Triolet, Aiguille de 

Trux, Mont . 
Verte, Aiguille • 

Vierge, la ■ 
Vorassay, Mont . 



2295 



3879 12,727 



222 10,571 



7530 



Between the Glaciers c^^i Tour^wl 
du Trient ; S.E. of the Col de 
Balme. 
Head of the Glacier de Laneuyaz ; 
S.E. of the Aiguille d'Argentiere. 
W. of le Couvercle ; S.S.E. of the 
Montanvert. 

\t the head of the Glaciers de 
Trelatete and de VAllee Blanche ; 
W '^ide of the Italian Glacier de 
Miage. The Aig. de Trelatete is 
;ometimes called le Petit Mont 
Blanc. 
Between the French Glacier de 
Miage, and the Glacier de Bion- 
nassay. 
At the head of the Glaciers de 
Triolet and d'Argentiere ; \V .^.NV • 
of Mont Dolent. 
E. by N. of the Village of Con- 

tamines. 
Between the Glaciers de Talefre and 
d'Argentiere ; E. of the Montan- 
vert. 
Head of the Glacier du Geant : 

N.N.W. of the Col du Geant. 
E.S.E. of the Village of Bionnay. 



Passes in and around the Kange of MOXT BLANC. 



Name of Pass. 



Allee Blanche, Col de 1' 

Argentiere, Col d' 
Arpette, Col d' 

Arpette, Fenetre d' 

Balme, Col de 

j Beranger, Col de . 

Blanc, Col du Mont 
Bonhomme, Col du 
Brenva, Col de la . 

Brevent, Col du . 
Breya, Col de la . 

Chardonnet, Col du 

Dolent, Col . 

Dome, Col du 
Ecandies, Col des 



Enclave, Col d' 
Ferret, Col de 
Ferret, Petit 

Flambeaux, Col des . 

Forclaz, Col de la (Swiss) 

Forclaz, Col de la 

( French ) 
Fourche, Col de la 
Fours, Col des 
Geant, Col du 



TIei<;ht 

in 
Metres. 



• 3520 

3520 
3040 

2683 

2202 
? 

4810 
2483 
4301 t 

:2461 

'2479 

3346 

3543 

4331 
2743 

2686 
2536 
2492 



Height 

in 
Feet. 



1556 

? 
2710 
3362 



(11,549 

11,549 
9974 

8803 

7225 

15,781 
8146 
14,111^ 

8074 
8133 

10,978 

11,624 

14,210 
9000 

8812 
8320 
8176 

? 

4997 
5105 

2 

8891 
11,030 



Position of Summit. 



Between the Aigs. de Trelatete and 

the Aig. de la Scie. This is a vari- 
ation on the Col de Trelatete. 
Between le Tour Noir and Mont 

Dolent. 
E. of the Pointe d'Orny ; between 

the Combe d'Orny and the Vallee 

d'Arpette. 
N. of Pointe des Ecandies ; between 

the Vallee d'Arpette and the Trient 

Glacier. 
Between the Villages of le Tour and 

Trient. 
Between the Dome de Miage and the 

Aig. de Berang-er. 
Over the top of Mont Blanc. 
S.W. of the Pointe des Fours. 
Between the summit of Mont Blanc 

and Mont Maudit. 
N. of the Brevent. 
Between the Vallee d'Arpette and 

the Combe d'Orny. 
Between the Aig.' du Chardonnet 

and the Aig. d'Argentiere. 
Between the Aig. de Triolet and 

Mont Dolent. 
Over the top of the Dome du Godter. 
Between the Pointe d'Orny and the 

Pointe des Ecandies ; between 

Champey and the Trient Glacier. 
Between the Tete d'Eiiclave and 

Mont Tondu. 
Between the Swiss 

Valleys of Ferret. 
Between the Swiss 

Valleys of Ferret. 

called le Chantonet on the Sieg 

fried Map. 
Between the two Flambeaux which 

are nearest to the Col du Geant. 
N. W. of the Pointe Ronde ; between 

Trient and Martigny. 
Between the Valley of the Arve and 

St. Gervais ; S. by W. of Servoz. 
N. of the Grande Fourche. 
N. of the Pointe des Fours. 
Between les Flambeaux and les 

Aigs. Marbrees. On the Italian 

Map the height 3347 metres is 

assigned to this Pass. 



and Italian 

and Italian 
This pass is 



182 



Passes in whI anmnd the lUi„.je of Mmt Bhme. 




Position of Suininit. 



Glacier, Col du . 

Grands, Col des . 
Hirondelles, Col des . 

Infrancliissable, Col dit 

Jorasses, Col des 

Grandes 
Leschaux, Col de . 

Luis, Col de la Grande 

Miage, Col de 
Montets, Col des . • 
Monte ts, C ol des Grands 

Neuva, Col de la . 

Omy, Col d' . 

Pierre Joseph, Col de . 

Planereuse, Col de 
Rochefort, Col de 

Saleinoz, Fenetre de . 

Seigne, Col de la . 
Talefre, Col de 

Tete Noire . 

Tondu, Col du Mont . 

Toule, Col de 

Tour, Col du 

Tour Noire, Col de la . 

Tour, Fenetre du . 

Tour Ronde, Col de la 
I Trelatete, Col de . 

' Tricot, Col de 

Triolet, Col de 

Voza, Col de . 



1 
3478 

3377 



1 
11,'411 

11,080 

1 



3438 11.280 




3476 11,404 



3790 12,435 

3498 0^,477; 



2133 

i 

1675 



6998 

•I 

5496 



S.W. of the Aig. du Glacier (Aig. 

des Glaciers ). 
Head of the Glacier des Grands. 
Between the Grandes Jorasses and 

the Petites Jorasses. 
X. of the Tete Carree ; at the head 

of Glac. de Trelatete. 
W.S.W. of the Grandes Jorasses. 

Between the Aigs. de I'Eboulement 
and Leschaux, at the foot ot the 

latter. , , /, i 

Between le Darrei and the Grande 

Luis. , ^. 

S S W. of the Aig. de Bionnassjn . 
N. of the Village of Argentiere. ^ 
E. of Aig. du Bochard (Aig. a 

Bochard). i *i, . 

Between the Tour Noir and the 

Grande Luis. ,^ \ 

S of Pointed'Orny; between Combe 

d'Ornv and Glac. du Trient. 
Over the top of the Aig. de 1 Llwule- 

inent. 
S W of Pointe de Planereuse. 
Between the Aigs. Marbrees, and the 

Aiff. du Geant, nearer the latter. 
X.ET of the Grande Fourche ; head 
^ of Glac. du Trient. 
Head of Val de I'AUee Blanche. 
Head of the Glaciers de laletre and 

de Triolet. 
S. of Finhaut. 
X.E. of Mont Tondu. 
Between les Flambeaux and la lour 

Ronde. , „, i fv>.. 

Between the Aig. du Tour and the 

Grande Fourche. 
Between le Tour Xoir and the Aig. 

d'Arsrentiere. , 

Between Aig. du Ghardonnet and 

the CTrande Fourche. 
Over the top of la Tour Ronde. 
Head of Glac. de I'AUee Blanche, 

close to Aig. de Trelatete. 
Between Mont \ orassay and Mont 

H^^eld'of Cilac. de Triolet ; W.S.W. 

of Aig. de Triolet. ., ^^ , 
Between the Villages ot les Houche. 

and Bionnassay. 









1 



List of Guides of CHAMONIX. 

{Corrected to May 4, 1896.) 



Name. 



Son of 



Tairhaz Zacharie . 
SiMOND Benoit {Mokt-Iioc/t) . 
FOLLIGUET Michel ( la Frasse ) 
PayOT Michel ( les Pedes ) 
Cachat Fr.-Xavier ( Cote da Mont) 
Cachat Edouard { Praz ) 
Paccard Auguste 
Devouassoux Auguste {Sonfjena:) 
CUPELIN Edouard [les Pelerins) 
Devouassoux Alfred ( le Mollard ) 
ToURXiEH Jean {les Bois) 
Balm AT Adolphe ( Grantjes ) . 
TaiRRAZ Alexandre {les Bois) 
MUGNIEU Pierre-Clement {le Tour 
DUCROZ Michel- Ambroise {Praz) 
Charlet Jean-Esteril {les Frassera 
Charlet Benoni {Argentiere) 
Bellin Julien {<jira.'<sonnets) . 
Payot Frederic {les Mossons) 
Devouassoux Pierre- Jos. {Argent 
TisSAY Pierre-Adolphe . 
SiMOND Pierre-Sidoine . 
TissAY Jean-Pierre 
Desailloud Joseph 
Burnet Joseph 
Fontaine Alexandre 
Frasse RAND Joseph 
Devouassoux Henri 
Devouassoux Ambroise 
Ravanel Ambroise 
TisSAY Joseph {le Tour) 
Desailloud Edouard . 
Charlet Joseph . 
SiMOND Joseph 
SiMOND Ambroise {Larandier) 



nd) 



en^ ) 



Jean 
J. -Mich. 



Michel 
Meril 
Meril 



Born. 



Became 
Guide. 



Feb. 10, 1838 
Jan. 26, 1837 
Jan. 9, 1840 
Jan. 17, 1840 
Aug. 28, 1838 
Jan. 17, 1841 
July 5, 1840 
Jan. 9, 1836 
Sept. 21, 1840 
Nov. 3, 1840 
June 24, 1842 
May 5, 1842 
Sept. 26, 1838 
Jan. 31, 1842 
Nov. 4, 1840 
Feb. 18, 1840 
Feb. 12, 1838 
Feb. 27, 1840 
Jan. 8, 1838 
I Feb. 14, 1842 
i Feb. 6, 1843 
July 13, 1841 
Aug. 9, 1842 
Mar. 20, 1843 
Aug. 10, 1841 
June 1, 1841 
Mar. 7, 1843 
Ap. 12, 1844 
May 12, 1840 
Aug. 21, 1844 
Nov. 21, 1844 
June 29, 1844 
Sept. 30, 1843 
Dec. 1, 1841 
Aug. 19, 1843 



1862 
1863 
do. 
do. 
do. 
1864 

do. 

do. 
1865 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 
1866 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 
1867 

do. 
1868 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 



184 



Guides of Chamonix- 



— continued. 



Guides of Chamonix — contiumd. 



185 




Cachat Joseph {/'•^<''0 
SiyiO^D Jean {I es Tines) 

FOLLIGUET Florentin 
Paccard Alexandre 
COUTTET Michel-Antoine 
CouTTET Joseph ('St>/</y«?>«?--) . 
BalmaT Joseph-Marie (?e.. Ptlerins) 
CoUTTET Joseph (('V<^rf) 
BossoNNEY Henri . • • • 
CuPELiN Aiiguste . • • • 
Semblanet Francois 
Devouassoux Denis 
PozETTO Charles . • ',,,.'. 
SIMOND Auguste, dit Pernod (/..(>/<'.'/) 
Garny Franc^ois-Napoleon . 
RavaNEL Joseph-Elie . 

Ravanel Edouard 

iimo^D ^liche\{ Art/entiere) . 

Devouassoux Francois- Joseph . 
Bellin Marc • • • 

SiMOND Frangois ( La eancher ) 
FOLLIGUET Frederic . • • 
C ACHAT Francois ( Vers h ^ant) . 
B A LM AT Ambroise ( les Pelerin s ) . 
FOLLIGUET Adolphe . • • 
Bellin Alexandre ( hs Mossons ) • 
Payot Alphonse {les Mossons) 
CouTTET J . -Pierre ( les Pedes ) 
Simon D Gaspard . • • • 
Bellin Henri • • • ' 

SiMOND Joseph-Edouard ( R"'-' ) • 

RavaNEL Jean . • • ' 
Ducuoz Jean (C/u'.'-Of/eO 

Lechat ^larc . • • • * 

Devouassoux Benoit . 

Balm AT Francois . . • • 

Devouassoux Albert . 

COMTE Alfred • • 

Carrier Jean-Fran(,-ois . 
Claret-Tournieh Alexandre 
Payot Alfred . • • 

CaCHAT Joseph ( Vers le Xant) 
CouTTET Delphin . • • • 
TOURNIER Edonard {les Moudles) . 
CoUTTET Joseph- Anatole 



Pierre 
Mathieu 



Julien 

• a • 

Anil)roise 



Victor 



Ambroise 



Pierre 



Jean-Fran(; 



Mar. 23, 

Nov. 8, 
Feb. 14, 
Nov. 15, 
Angr. 12, 
Mar. 31, 
June 28, 
Dec. 26, 
Dec. 2, 
July 25, 
May 27, 
Dec. 17, 
Mar. 25, 
Jan. 21, 
Aug. 3, 
Feb. 24, 
Sept. 29, 
Feb. 18, 
May 14, 
I Sept. 2, 
I Oct. 26, 
June 16, 
Feb. 12, 
Nov. 23, 
Dec. 28, 
Oct. 26, 
Jan. 21, 
Oct. 28, 
May 19, 
Aug. 16, 
Sept. 15, 
Mav 18, 
Mar. 6, 
July 31, 
Feb. 21, 
Feb. 28, 
I Aug. 23, 
Jan. 27, 
July 24, 
Jan. 14, 
Ap. 28, 
Mar. 17, 
Jan. 18, 
Dec. 13, 
Dec. 13, 



1846 

1844 

1842 

1842 

1844 

1846 

1844 

1846 

1843 

1842 

1846 

1845 

1837 

1843 

1844 

1845. 

1846 

1844 

1843 

1845 

1847 

1847 

1848 

1841 

1843 

1843 

1847 

1845 

1847 

1847 

1843 

1847 

1842 

1845 , 

1849' 

1847 1 

1844 

1849 

1844 

1841 

1844 

1845 

1849 

1843 



1847 



1868 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
1870 
do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

1871 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do, 
1872 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do 
do. 



I 



Name. 



Ravanel Fran^ois-Xavier 
Devouassoux Benjamin 
SiMOND Josejih { les Mosso»s) . 
SiMOND Hubert 
Payot Jean-Pierre 
Payot Michel {(f'ranfjes) 
Duc'ROZ Joseph {CJuinzalet) . 
Lechat Joseph 
Folliguet Camille 
Devouassoux Josepli . 
Favret Joseph 
DucROZ Emile 
SiMOND Gustave 
DucROZ Fran^ois-Anselme 
Chahlet Albert {Mont Roc) . 
Cachat Henri 
Cachat Florentin . 
Mess AT Alexandre . 
Payot Alphonse 
Balmat Michel {l''s Jiarotx) , 
Payot Prosper (J/(>/A(~) 
Mugnier Francois . 
Bossonney Ambroise 
SiMOND Michel-Alfred , 
Couttet Joseph 
CoMTE Pierre-Charles 
SiMOND Seraphin . 
Couttet Jean-Edo\iard . 
Couttet Fran(,'ois-Cherubiu . 
Duchey Auguste {les Mossons) 
Bossonney Francois 
Favret Alfred {(f'runt/es) 
SiMOND Michel (/?/«e^) 
Payot Jean-Ed ouard {les Bois) 
SiMOND Emile ( Ore)/ ) 
Ravanel Luc ( (f'rassonets) 
Devouassoux Pierre-F. {Anjentlei 
Mugnier Jean-Pierre {le Tour) 
Mugnier Lubin {le Tour) 
Couttet Alfred ( les Pedes ) . 
Ducroz Gustave {le Tonr) 
Couttet Gustave ( Lncandter) 
TOURNIER Joseph ( Frasse ) . 
Payot Joseph ( les Bossons ) , 
Desailloud Benoit 



■e) 



Son of 



J. -Marie 



Jean 



Jean 

Jean 

Xavier 



Julien 



Joseph 



Born. 



Feb. 

Jan. 

July 

May 

Sept, 

Oct. 

Aug. 

July 

Sept. 

May 

Mar. 

Jan. 

Jan. 

Oct. 

Sept. 

June 

Dec. 

Nov. 

Mar. 

July 

Aug. 

Aug. 

July 

Jan. 

Ap. 

Sept. 

Feb. 

Sept. 

June 

Oct. 

Feb. 

Sept. 

June 

Ap. 

June 

Nov. 

June 

Sept. 

July 

Nov. 

Jan. 

Dec. 

Nov. 

Sept. 



23, 1845 
15, 1843 ; 
7, 1849 
3, 1849 ^ 

26, 1847 ! 
22, 1837 i 

10, 1849 I 
31, 1845 I 
20, 1845 
20, 1846 

5, 1844 
12, 1847 

11, 1851 

27, 1851 

7, 1850 

8, 1850 
7, 1850 



Became 
Guide. 



1872 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 

do. 
1873 
1874 

do. 

do. 

do. 
1875 

do. 

do. 

do. 



28, 1852 i 

12, 1847 

20, 1850 
14, 1853 \ 

7, 1852 
7, 1852 I 

29, 1851 J 

28, 1853 

29, 1853 

13, 1852 
27, 1852 '] 

27, 18.54 I 

25, 1854 I 

7, 1846 ' 
6, 1846 

28, 1847 : 

6. 1854 
10, 1855 

8, 1853 
10, 1844 

26, 1852 

21, 1855 
1, 18.51 

28, 1856 

1, 1855 

2, 18.53 

7, 1852 



1876 
do. 
do. 
1877 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
1878 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
1879 
do. 
do. 
do. 
1880 



Guides of Chamonix—omtinuecl 




Balm AT Jean-Pierre 

Charlet Alphonse ( /e.^ Mouilhs) 

BossoNNEY Francois [Lieret) . 

Charlet Joseph {Praz-Cond>dt) 

Carrier Jean-Michel . 

Cachat Edouard . 

Charlet Henri 

Couttet Eug^no . 

DUCROZ Jean-Michel 

Couttet Ambroise ( fes Pelerin.< ) 

Bossonney Constantin ( /^.5 Bois) 

Claret-Tournier Alphonse . 

Devouassoux Jean-Felicien . 

Carrier Henri 
Claret-Tourmer Jean-Joseph 

Simon D Tobie 

Couttet Joseph 

Farini Joseph ( /'-.x Monille.^) . 

SCHULEH Fritz 

Garny Jean-Baptiste . • 

Devouassoux Francois-Olivier 

Payot Joseph-Henri 

Couttet Alphonse {Montquarf ) 

Farini Aristide 

Payot Joseph- Aristide . 

Couttet Joseph-Edouard 

Savioz Michel-Eugene . 

SiMOND Julien-Philibert 

Devouassoux Jean-Pierre • 

Couttet Aristide . 

Bellin James-Victor-Marie . 

Claret Victor-Edouard . 

Couttet Joseph 

Cachat Aristide . 

Cachat Armand 

Claret-Tournier Joan 

Sermet Alexandre 

TissAY Clement . 

Couttet Frangois-Hercnle 

ClaRET-Tournier Alfred 

Claret-Tournier Joseph . 

Claret-Tournier Edouard . 

Favret Ambroise . 

Desailloud Michel 

Ravanel Nestor . 



Michel 



Edouard 

Emile 

Jean-Marie 

Edouard 

Pierre 



Michel 



Oct. 

Nov. 

Jan. 

Dec. 

May 

July 

Nov. 

July 

July 

May 

Ap. 

Ap. 

Aug. 

Ap. 

July 

Jan. 
May 
Mar. 
Sept. 
Sept. 
Feb. 
May 
Ap. 
Dec. 
1 Mar. 
Dec. 
Ap. 
Aug, 
Aug 
Aug 



Victor 



Ferdinand 



Joseph 

Edouard 

Ferdinand 



Jan. 

Mar. 

June 

Mar. 

Nov. 

May 

Jan. 

Feb. 

Mar. 

Feb. 

Aug. 

Dec. 

Aug. 

Jan. 
I Jan. 



8, 1843 

1, 1849 

3, 1857 
22, 1855 
31, 1845 

8, 1854 
28, 1856 
17, 1858 

19, 1856 
8, 1858 
3, 1855 

25, 1859 

10, 1856 

10, 1859 

24, 1856 
31, 1857 
15, 1859 
22, 1855 

18, 1856 
22, 18.56 

25, 1860 

19, 1860 
5, 1859 

29, 1859 
28, 1852 
12, 1859 

20, 1860 

26, 1857 

22, 1855 

1, 1857 
7, 1861 

17, 1861 

23, 1859 

2, 1855 
25. 1860 



30, 1859 
22, 1860 

9, 1855 
16^ 1862 

3, 1862 
10, 1862 
17, 1862 
25, 1858 
13, 1860 

2, 1860 



1880 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
1881 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
1882 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
1883 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
1884 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
1885 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 



Guides of Clmmoiiix — continued. 



187 



Name. 


Sou of 


Born. 


Became 
Guide. 


Burnet Jean-Joseph .... 




Aug. 16, 1860 


1885 


Desailloud Aiiguste 








Nov. 22 


1860 


1886 


Devouassoux Joseph- Albert 






• ■ • 


May 26 


1860 


do. 


Claret Jean-Joseph 






Jacq.-Jos. 


Jan. 30 


,1860 


do. 


Devouassoux Jean- Michel 






> > • 


June 21 


1863 


do. 


Devouassoux Joseph . 






. . . 


June 28 


1863 


do. 


Paccard Edouard 






Joseph 


Ap. 19 


1861 


do. 


Claret-Tournier Joseph-H. 






Alexandre 


Sept. 3 


, 1863 


do. 


Tissay' Jean- Alphonse . 






• . . 


June 18 


, 1863 


do. 


DucRoz Francois-Benjamin 






• < • 


Nov. 29 


, 1859 


do. 


DucROZ Pierre-Marie 






■ . ■ 


Dec. 26 


, 1859 


do. 


Claret-Tournier Ambroise 






Edouard 


Sept. 23 


, 1862 


do. 


Desailloud Joseph 






• ■ • 


Mar. 17 


, 1863 


do. 


Bellin Octave 






. . . 


Oct. 23 


, 1862 


do. 


Frasserand Francois . 








Mar. 4 


, 1861 


do. 


Tairraz Clement . 








Ap. 9 


, 1861 


do. 


ScHULER Henri 






... 


June 4 


, 1861 


1887 


Comte Alfred 






... 


Oct. 1 


, 1863 


do. 


Desailloud Jean . 






■ ■ • 


Dec. 23 


, 18.59 


do. 


Couttet Armand . 






• ■ ■ 


Sept. 12 


1863 


do. 


Balmat Jean . 








Aug. 24 


. 1863 


do. 


Balmat Augusto . 






Frederic 


Oct. 3 


1858 


do. 


Comte Francois 






• • ■ 


June 1 


1858 


do. 


Claret-Tournier Joseph 






Joseph 


May 7 


1864 


do. 


Bellin Alphonse . 








May 18 


1855 


do. 


Balmat Joseph 






• * • 


Feb. 3 


1862 


do. 


MUGNIEK Alphonse 








Jan. 14, 


1851 


do. 


Balmat Alexandre 






... 


Dec. 6 


1856 


do. 


MUGNIER Michel . 








Feb. 5 


1863 


do. 


SiMOND Camille 








Dec. 25 


1863 


do. 


Devouassoux Pierre 








Mar. 27 


1864 


do. 


Claret-Tournier Charles 






Edouard 


Dec. 27 


1865 


1888 


Bossonney Alphonse 








Dec. 14 


1861 


do. 


Claret Edouard . 






Jac(i.-Ed. 


May 25 


, 1865 


do. 


Comte Louis . 








Sept. 25 


1861 


do. 


Favret, Lambert . 








Mar. 7 


1864 


do. 


Couttet Jean- Marie 








Feb. 6 


1865 


do. 


C'arrier Edouard . 








Sept. 15 


1862 


do. 


Cachat Aristide . 






Jean 


May 9 


1865 


do. 


Tronchet Francois 






, , 


Mar. 18 


1863 


do. 


Tairraz Alfred 






... 


Sept. 15, 


1860 


do. 


Charlet Jean 






... 


Feb. 14 


1864 


do. 


SiMOND Joseph-A(loli>he 






Alexandre 


Jan. 24 


1863 


1889 


Bossonney Jules . 








Mar. 12, 


1866 


do. 


SiMOND Jules . 






Leon 


Aug. 1 


1863 


do. 



Guides of Chanwnix — continued. 



189 



188 



Guides of Chamonix — continued. 




CouTTET Francois-Henri 

SiMOND Jules 

Breton Emile . • • • 
COVTTET '^wMen {La rancher) . 

^ISIO^D J \\\efi {I >->< Tines) 
SiMOND Alexandre {hi< Tines) 
SiMOND Edoiiard {les Bo is) . 
CoUTTET Franyois {Larancher) 
Desailloud Joseph {les Farrants) 
CoMTE Ambroise {(es Fairants) 
Lech AT Joseph-Marc (/es Pelerins) 
Lechat Francois ( Jes Pelerins) 
Devouassoux Michel-A. {la Jom) 
Charlet Edouard-Luc {la Joux) . 
Devouassoux Jul.-Mer. {Ar!^/entiere) 
Ddcroz Joseph-Alphonse {le Tour) 
TISSAY Jules- Albert ( le Tour ) 
DUCROZ Ant.-Mod. {le Tour) 
Carrier Jean-Pierre {Argentiere) . 
TissAY Michel-Louis ... 

Couttet Alfred {les Mossons) 

DucROZ Henri 

Payot Jean-Francois ( Praz d'en has ) . 

Couttet A. ( Somjena: ) • • 

SiMOND Joseph-Aristide ( Tissonrs) 

Favret Michel-Alphonse ( les RehaU ) . 

Balmat Joseph-Alexandre { les Bois ) . 

SiMOND Joseph (Z(tm?w7<er) . • •, 

Sisio-SD M.-E. {Mont Rocft) . 

Devouassoux Jean- Albert ( (irassonets) . 

DucROZ Jean-Michel (/f ToJ?/-) 

SiMOND Joseph (/e ro!0') 

MUGNIER Lubin-Euchariste ( le Tour ) . 

SiMOND Pierre-Edouard {le Tour) . 
SiMOND Jules-Adolphe(/e ro»>-) • 
Devouassoux Joseph-Eloi ( (r'rassonets) . 
Ravan EL Gilbert- Alphonse ( Mo uroc ) . 
Ravanel Jules ( 3/0 ('/w) 
Devouassoux Jules-Francois(Jr//«<f<V^-e) 

Ravanel Joseph-Louis (/w //es) . 
DucROZ Francois (/« /o !'.'•) . 
C ACHAT Rosset- Joseph {les Tines) . 
Balmat Pierre-Francois ( Sa uhera nt) 
Couttet Auguste ( /e,s Pet/es) 

G6RINE Jean 



Edouard 

Michel 
Edouard 
Joseph 
Alexandre 
Francois 
J.-B. 
Mich. -Aug. 
Auguste 
Auguste 
Mich.-Mer. 
Auguste 
Florentin 
Joach. 
Gaspard 
Zacharic 
Ferdinand 
Jacipies 
Victor 
Jeremie 
Jean-A. 
Julien 
Fr. -Joseph 
Michel-Aug. 
Michel-Amb, 
I Mar.-Xav. 
Ben. 
Julien 
Zacharie 
Remain 
Julien 
Jean 
Jean 
Jean 
Ambroise 
Ambroise 
Jeremie 
Pierre 
Benoni 
Tanislas 

Jean 
Francois 
Auguste 



Mar. 

Oct. 

July 

June 

Mar. 

Nov. 

Aug. 

June 

Sept. 

Nov. 

Mar. 

Nov. 

Feb. 

Nov. 

July 

Jan. 

Jan. 

Feb. 

Feb. 

June 
1 June 
[ June 

i Ap. 
i Mar. 
Aug. 
Mar. 
Aug. 
Aug. 
Oct. 
Oct. 
Dec. 
Oct. 
Jan. 
Aug. 
Oct. 
Aug. 

Dec. 
June 

Mar. 

Feb. 

July 

Nov. 

June 

Jan. 

Jan. 



8, 1864 
28, 1865 

1, 1866 
21, 1863 
10, 1865 
2:3, 1866 

7, 1867 ; 

23, 1867 
7, 1863 
7, 1866 

2, 1866 

24, 1867 
24, 1862 
23, 1866 

5, 1867 
4, 1864 

4, 1867 

5, 1865 

20, 1867 

21, 1866 

2, 1866 

13, 1866 

3, 1866 
8, 1866 

17, 1859 

8, 1867 

27, 1868 

21, 1865 

2, 1865 

14, 1865 ; 
2, 1866 
4. 1868 
6, 1862 

21, 1867 

12, 1869 

22, 1867 
31. 1869 

13, 1867 
30, 1865 

9, 1869 

13, 1869 

16, 1866 

25, 1866 

9, 1869 

1, 1866 



1889 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
1890 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
1891 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
1892 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
do. 
! do. 



I 



Name. 


Son of 


Born. 


Became 
Guide. 


Payot Dolphin- Antilde {les Bossons) 


Michel 


Aug. 28, 1867 


1892 


SiMOND Edouard (iVrt^ f/Vw />rts) . 


Michel 


Dec. 26, 1867 


do. 


FoT Jean {le Mont) . . . . 


Simond 


Dec. 16, 1867 


do. 


SiMOND Jean-Auguste {Mowjuart) 


Francois 


Feb. 21, 1869 


do. 


Couttet Alfred (»SoH^ma2:) . 


Julien 


Dec. 4, 1868 


do. 


Devouassoux Pierre-Elie {Monqvart) . 


Julien 


Feb. 20, 1854 


1894 


SiMOND Henri 


Joseph 


July 31, 1868 


do. 


Bossonney Joseph ( /es y-'ec/e.s) 


Zacharie 


Sept. 12, 1868 


do. 


Desailloud Clement ( le Praz Conduit). 


Philippe 


Sept. 27, 1868 


do. 


SiMOND Alphonse (Z(n-««cAe/-) 


Tobie 


Mar. 24, 1870 


do. 


Devouassoux Joseph-Maxime ( la Joux) 


Meril 


Ap. 10, 1870 


do. 


Devouassoux Pierre-Gilbert {Argentiere) 


Florentin 


Jan. 24, 1870 


do. 


Devouassoux Paul ( Urassonets ) . 


Julien 


Mar. 22, 1869 


do. 


Balmat Joseph ( /e J/o«0 


Adolphe 


Sept. 18, 1868 


do. 


Balmat Jean-Edouard (/e i>/o/</) . 


Adolphe 


Sept. 23, 1870 


do. 


Payot Clement ( (//-((^^^res) 


' Michel 


Sept. 29, 1869 


do. 


DucHOZ Edouard ( Vers le Xant) . 


Jeremie 


Aug. 6, 1870 


do. 


Balmat Alexandre ( les Pedes ) 


Henri 


July 6, 1867 


do. 


Ravanel Jean ( Pra: ) . 


i Pierre 


Oct. 9, 1870 


do. 


Tairraz Gustave (Pm^) 


Michel 


Ap. 14, 1866 


do. 


Tairraz Alexandre ( Pra: ) . 


Tobie 


Mar. 17, 1872 


1895 


Cachat Joseph-Francois (A7f>(^) . 


Jean 


Feb. 2, 1867 


do. 


Charlet Joseph (/e J/o//«/y/) 


Auguste 


. . . 1867 


do. 


Breton Jean-Adolphe ( les Mouilles) 


Joseph 


Mar. 9, 1869 


do. 


Devouassoux Jean ( r/sso<o-s) 


• ■ . 


Jan. 16, 1867 


do. 


Cachat Paul ( iV((;tO . . . . 


Jean 


Mar. 3, 1869 


do. 


Cachat CMment (iV««0 


Ferdinand 


Mar. 13, 1870 


do. 


SiMOND Jules-Francois (/e^ ^ois) . 


Alexandre 


Nov. 12, 1870 


do. 


Balmat Alphonse ( Praz d'eii has) . 


1 Venance 


Feb. 7, 1869 


do. 


Couttet Francois- Joseph {les Pelerins). 


! Sidoine 


Sept. 6, 1870 


do. 


Claret Aristide- Joseph ( Oaudenay) 


Joseph 


Feb. 27, 1867 


do. 


SiMOND Francois {Larancher) 


Jean 


Feb. 23, 1869 


do. 


Burnet Felix (Z«m;it7(e/) 


• • • 


Ap. 1, 1865 


do. 


Charlet Paul (/es r/y^es) 


Joseph 


June 27J 1872 


do. 


DucROZ Armand (/e To^/) . 


Pierre 


Jan. 28, 1870 


do. 


Ravanel Pierre- Joseph (/es //es) . 


Francois 


Feb. 16, 1870 


do. 


Devouassoux Joseph ( A rgentiere ) 


Jeremie 


Feb. 15, 1870 


do. 


Ravanel Jean-Michel ( /es //es) 


Pierre 


Feb. 6, 1871 


do. 


Bellin Frederic ( /es //e*') 


Pierre 


Dec. 18, 1871 


do. 


Ravanel Erneste (/es //e^^) . 


Francois 


Sept. 27, 1872 


do. 


Devouassoux Alhert {Argentiere) 


Josue 


Sept. 4, 1872 


do. 


Charlet Hubert {les Frasserand) . 


Michel 


Feb. 23, 1868 


do. 


Devouassoux Pierre-Arm. {Argentiere) 


Josu€ 


Oct. 14, 1870 


do. 



List of Guides and Porters at COURMAYEUR. 

{Corrected to Mmj 4, 1S96.) 



Or IDES. 



Berthod Alexis. 
Bertholier Laurent. 
Croux Fabien. 
C'roux Joseph. 
Croux Lkaurent. 
Fenoillet Alexis. 
Gadin Joseph. 
MUSSILLOND Louis. 
Ollier C^sar. 
Petigax Joseph. 



Porters. 



Bertholier Julien, 
Brocherel Alexis. 
Brocherel Joseph. 
Brunet Maurice. 
Croux Ferdinand. 
Fenoillet Daniel. 
Fleur Laurent. 
Frassy Julien. 
Glarey Alexis. 
Glare Y Samuel. 
LaXIER Maurice. 
Melica Ferdinand. 
Meyseiller Laurent. 
Mochet Alexis. 



Proment Alexis. 

Proment David. 

Promext Julien. 

Prom EXT Laurent (the elder). 

Promext Laurent (the younger) 

PucHOZ Alexis. 

Revel Laurent. 

Revel Pierre. 

Rey Joseph-Marie. 

Truchet Laurent. 



Mochet Laurent (Damien). 

Mochet Laurent (Eleazord). 

Ollier F^ix. 

Ottoz Daniel. 

Ottoz Louis. 

Ottoz Laurent. 

Petigax Louis. 

QUAIZIER Simon. 

Revel Jean. 

Revel Napoleon. 

Revel Pantaleon. 

Rey Cyprien.. 

Rey Emile. 



Brocherel Joseph-Raphael, 



Gl'IDE-CHEF (la GUIDA-CAPO). 



Conversion of Metres into English Feet. 



Mktres, 


Feet. 


1 


= 3-28 


2 


6-56 


3 


9-84 


4 


13-12 


5 


16-40 


6 


19-69 




22-97 


8 


26-25 


9 


29-53 


10 


32-81 


11 


36-09 


12 


39-37 


13 


42-65 


14 


45-93 


15 


49-21 


16 


52-49 


17 


55-78 


18 


59-06 


19 


62-34 


20 


65-62 


21 


68-90 


22 


72-18 


23 


75-46 


24 


78-74 


25 


82-02 


26 


85-30 


27 


88-58 


28 


91-87 


29 


95-15 


30 


98-43 


31 


101-71 


32 


104-99 


33 


108-27 


34 


111-55 


35 


114-83 


36 


118-11 


37 


121-39 


38 


124-67 


39 


127-96 


40 


131-24 


41 


1-34-52 


42 


137-80 


43 


141-08 


44 


144-36 


45 


147-64 


46 


150-92 


47 


154-20 


48 


157-48 


49 


160-76 



Mi;TREs. 



Feet. 



50 
51 
52 
53 
54 
55 
56 
57 
58 
59 

60 
61 
62 
63 
64 
65 

67 

68 
69 

70 
71 
72 
73 
74 
75 
76 
77 
78 
79 

80 
81 
82 
83 
84 
85 
86 
87 
88 
89 

90 
91 
92 
93 
94 
95 
96 
97 
98 
99 



164-04 
167-33 
170-61 
173-89 
177-17 
180-45 
183-73 
187-01 
190-29 
193-57 

196-85 
200-13 
203-42 
206-70 
209-98 
213-26 
216-54 
219-82 
223-10 
226-38 

229-66 
232-94 
236-22 
239-51 
242-79 
246-07 
249-35 
252-63 
255-91 
259-19 

262-47 
265-75 
269-03 
272-31 
275-60 
278-88 
282-16 
285-44 
288-72 
292-00 

295-28 
298-56 
301-84 
305-12 
308-40 
311-69 
314-97 
318-25 
321-53 
324-81 



METRES. 



Feet. 



100 
200 
300 
400 
500 
600 
700 
800 
900 

1000 
1100 
1200 
1300 
1400 
1500 
1600 
1700 
1800 
1900 

2000 
2100 
2200 
2300 
2400 
2500 
2600 
2700 
2800 
2900 

3000 
3100 
3200 
3300 
3400 
3500 
3600 
3700 
3800 
3900 

4000 
4100 
4200 
4300 
4400 
4500 
4600 
4700 
4800 
4900 



328-09 
656-18 
984-27 
1-312-36 
1640-45 
1968-54 
2296-63 
2624-72 
2952-81 

-3280-90 
3608-99 
3937-08 
4265-17 
4593-26 
4921-35 
5249-44 
5577-53 
5905-62 
62-33-71 

6561-80 
6889-89 
7217-98 
7546-07 
7874-16 
8202-25 
85-30-34 
8858-43 
9186-52 
9514-61 

9842-70 
10.170-79 
10,498-88 
10,826-97 
11,155-06 
11,483-15 
11,811-24 
12,139-33 
12,467-42 
12,795-51 

13,123-60 
13,451-69 
1-3,779-78 
14,107-87 
14,435-96 
14,764-05 
15,092-14 
15,420-23 
l.'),748-.32 
16,076-41 



One Metre = 3-2808992 English Feet {Annuaire desLonf/ifxdes. Paris). 



Conversion of English Feet into Metres. 



Feet. 



1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 

10 
20 
30 
40 
50 
60 
70 
80 
90 



Metres. 



1000 
1100 
1200 
1300 
1400 
1500 
1600 
1700 
1800 
1900 

2000 
2100 
2200 
2300 
2400 
2500 
2600 
2700 
2800 
2900 

3000 
3100 
3200 



0-30 
0-61 
0-91 
1-22 
1-52 
1-82 
2-13 
2-43 
2-74 

3-04 
6-09 
9-14 
12-19 
15-24 
18-29 
21-34 
24-38 
27-43 



100 


30-48 


200 


60-96 


300 


91-44 


400 


121-91 


500 


152-40 


600 


182-88 


700 


213-36 


800 


243-84 


900 


274-31 



304-79 
335-27 
365-76 
396-23 
426-71 
457-19 
487-67 
518-15 
548-63 
579-11 

609-59 
640-07 
670-55 
701-03 
731-51 
761-99 
792-47 
822-94 
853-42 
883-90 

914-38 
944-86 
975-34 



Feet. 



Metres. 



3300 -- 

3400 

3500 

3600 

3700 

3800 

3900 

4000 
4100 
4200 
4300 
4400 
4500 
4600 
4700 
4800 
4900 

5000 
5100 
5200 
5300 
5400 
5500 
5600 
5700 
5800 
5900 

6000 
6100 
6200 
6300 
6400 
6500 
6600 
6700 
6800 
6900 

7000 
7100 
7200 
7300 
7400 
7500 
7600 
7700 
7800 
7900 

8000 
8100 
8200 



1005-82 
1036-30 
1066-78 
1097-26 
1127-74 
1158-22 
1188-70 

1219-18 
1249-66 
1280-14 
1310-62 
1341-10 
1371-58 
1402-05 
1432-53 
1463-01 
1493-49 



Feet. 



Metres. 



8300 
8400 
8500 
8600 
8700 
8800 
8900 

9000 
9100 
9200 
9300 
9400 
9500 
9600 
9700 
9800 
9900 



1.523-97 


10,000 


1554-45 


10,100 


1584-93 


10,200 


1615-41 


10,300 


1645-89 


10,400 


1676-37 


10,500 


1706-85 


10,600 


1737-33 


10,700 


1767-81 


10,800 


1798-29 


10,900 


1828-77 


11,000 


1859-25 


11,100 


1889-73 


11,200 


1920-21 


11,300 


1950-68 


11,400 


1981-16 


11,500 


2011-64 


11,600 


2042-12 


11,700 


2072-60 


11,800 


2103-08 


11,900 


2133-56 


12,000 


2164-04 


12,100 


2194-52 


12,200 


2225-00 


12,300 


2255-48 


12,400 


2285-96 


12,500 


2316-44 


12,600 


2346-92 


12,700 


2377-40 


12,800 


2407-88 


12,900 


2438-36 


13,000 


2468-84 


14,000 


2499-31 


15,000 



2529-79 
2560-27 
2590-75 
2621-23 
2651-71 
2682-19 
2712-67 

2743-15 
2773-63 
2804-11 
2834-59 
2865-07 
2895-55 
2926-03 
2956-51 
2986-99 
3017-47 

3047-94 
3078-42 
3108-90 
3139-38 
3169-86 
3200-34 
3230-82 
3261-30 
3291-78 
3322-26 

3352-74 
3383-22 
3413-70 
3444-18 
3474-66 
3505-14 
3.535-62 
3566-10 
3596-57 
3627-05 

3657-53 
3688-01 
3718-49 
3748-97 
3779-45 
3809-93 
3840-41 
3870-89 
3901-37 
3931-85 

3962-33 
4267-12 
4571-92 



One English Foot = 3-0479449 decimetres {Aiumaire de^ Longitudes, Paris). 



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